Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1302

Search results for: degradation

1302 A GIS Based Composite Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping of Tarkwa Mining Area

Authors: Bernard Kumi-Boateng, Kofi Bonsu


The clearing of vegetation in the Tarkwa Mining Area (TMA) for the purposes of mining, lumbering and development of settlement for the increasing population has caused a large scale denudation of the forest cover and erosion of the top soil thereby degrading the agriculture land. It is, therefore, essential to know the current status of land degradation in TMA so as to facilitate land conservation policy-making. The types of degradation, the extents of the degradations and their various degrees were combined to develop a composite land degradation index to assess the current status of land degradation in TMA using GIS based techniques. The assessment revealed that the most significant types of degradation in TMA were open pit and quarry mining; urbanisation and other construction projects; and surface scraping during land clearing. It was found that 21.62 % of the total area of TMA (353.07 km2) had high degradation index rating. It is recommended that decision makers use this assessment as a reference point for future initiatives that will be taken in order to develop land conservation policy.

Keywords: degradation, GIS, land, mining

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1301 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Eka Sari


Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.

Keywords: water hyacinth, cellulose, hemicelulose, degradation, pretreatment, fungus

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1300 Sono- and Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigocarmine in Water Using ZnO

Authors: V. Veena, Suguna Yesodharan, E. P. Yesodharan


Two Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) i.e., sono- and photo-catalysis mediated by semiconductor oxide catalyst, ZnO has been found effective for the removal of trace amounts of the toxic dye pollutant Indigocarmine (IC) from water. The effect of various reaction parameters such as concentration of the dye, catalyst dosage, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen etc. as well as the addition of oxidisers and presence of salts in water on the rate of degradation has been evaluated and optimised. The degradation follows variable kinetics depending on the concentration of the substrate, the order of reaction varying from 1 to 0 with increase in concentration. The reaction proceeds through a number of intermediates and many of them have been identified using GCMS technique. The intermediates do not affect the rate of degradation significantly. The influence of anions such as chloride, sulphate, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate etc. on the degradation of IC is not consistent and does not follow any predictable pattern. Phosphates and fluorides inhibit the degradation while chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate enhance. Adsorption studies of the dye in the absence as well as presence of these anions show that there may not be any direct correlation between the adsorption of the dye on the catalyst and the degradation. Oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and persulphate enhance the degradation though the combined effect and it is less than the cumulative effect of individual components. COD measurements show that the degradation proceeds to complete mineralisation. The results will be presented and probable mechanism for the degradation will be discussed.

Keywords: AOP, COD, indigocarmine, photocatalysis, sonocatalysis

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1299 An Alteration of the Boltzmann Superposition Principle to Account for Environmental Degradation in Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Authors: Etienne K. Ngoy


This analysis suggests that the comprehensive degradation caused by any environmental factor on fiber reinforced plastics under mechanical stress can be measured as a change in viscoelastic properties of the material. The change in viscoelastic characteristics is experimentally determined as a time-dependent function expressing the amplification of the stress relaxation. The variation of this experimental function provides a measure of the environmental degradation rate. Where real service environment conditions can be reliably simulated in the laboratory, it is possible to generate master curves that include environmental degradation effect and hence predict the durability of the fiber reinforced plastics under environmental degradation.

Keywords: environmental effects, fiber reinforced plastics durability, prediction, stress effect

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1298 Efficacy of TiO₂ in the Removal of an Acid Dye by Photo Catalytic Degradation

Authors: Laila Mahtout, Kerami Ahmed, Rabhi Souhila


The objective of this work is to reduce the impact on the environment of an acid dye (Black Eriochrome T) using catalytic photo-degradation in the presence of the semiconductor powder (TiO₂) previously characterized. A series of tests have been carried out in order to demonstrate the influence of certain parameters on the degree of dye degradation by titanium dioxide in the presence of UV rays, such as contact time, the powder mass and the pH of the solution. X-ray diffraction analysis of the powder showed that the anatase structure is predominant and the rutile phase is presented by peaks of low intensity. The various chemical groups which characterize the presence of the bands corresponding to the anatase and rutile form and other chemical functions have been detected by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The photo degradation of the NET by TiO₂ is very interesting because it gives encouraging results. The study of photo-degradation at different concentrations of the dye showed that the lower concentrations give better removal rates. The degree of degradation of the dye increases with increasing pH; it reaches the maximum value at pH = 9. The ideal mass of TiO₂ which gives the high removal rate is 1.2 g/l. Thermal treatment of TiO₂ with the addition of CuO with contents of 5%, 10%, and 15% respectively gives better results of degradation of the NET dye. The high percentage of elimination is observed at a CuO content of 15%.

Keywords: acid dye, ultraviolet rays, degradation, photocatalyse

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1297 Visible-Light Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Molecules over ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 Composite

Authors: Sudarat Issarapanacheewin, Katcharin Wetchakun, Sukon Phanichphant, Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon, Natda Wetchakun


The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm) were studied in this research. The structural and photophysical properties of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite on the photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. The as-prepared ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite photocatalyst exhibits wide absorption in the visible-light region and display superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities in degradation of MB and RhB. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to electron-hole separation with the appropriate band potential and the physicochemical properties of ZnWO4 and Bi2WO6. The main active species for the degradation of organic dyes were investigated to explain the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of aqueous MB and RhB dyes and charge transfer of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite was proposed.

Keywords: composite, dyes, photocatalytic activity, ZnWO4-Bi2WO6

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1296 Degradation of Poly -β- Hydroxybutyrate by Trichoderma asperellum

Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi


Replacement of petro-based plastics by a biodegradable plastic are vastly growing process. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable biopolymer, synthesized by some bacterial genera. The objective of the current study is to explore the ability of some fungi to biodegrade PHB. The degradation of (PHB) was detected in Petri dish by the formation of a clear zone around the fungal colonies due to the production of depolymerase enzyme which has an interesting role in the PHB degradation process. Among 10 tested fungi, the most active PHB biodegraded fungi were identified as Trichoderma asperellum using morphological and molecular characters. The highest PHB degradation was at 25°C, pH 7.5 after 7 days of incubation for the tested fungi. Finally, the depolymerase enzyme was isolated, purified using column chromatography and characterized. In conclusion, PHB can be biodegraded in solid and liquid medium using depolymerase enzyme from T. asperellum.

Keywords: degradation, depolymerase enzyme, PHB, Trichoderma asperellum

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1295 Rail Degradation Modelling Using ARMAX: A Case Study Applied to Melbourne Tram System

Authors: M. Karimpour, N. Elkhoury, L. Hitihamillage, S. Moridpour, R. Hesami


There is a necessity among rail transportation authorities for a superior understanding of the rail track degradation overtime and the factors influencing rail degradation. They need an accurate technique to identify the time when rail tracks fail or need maintenance. In turn, this will help to increase the level of safety and comfort of the passengers and the vehicles as well as improve the cost effectiveness of maintenance activities. An accurate model can play a key role in prediction of the long-term behaviour of railroad tracks. An accurate model can decrease the cost of maintenance. In this research, the rail track degradation is predicted using an autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX). An ARMAX has been implemented on Melbourne tram data to estimate the values for the tram track degradation. Gauge values and rail usage in Million Gross Tone (MGT) are the main parameters used in the model. The developed model can accurately predict the future status of the tram tracks.

Keywords: ARMAX, dynamic systems, MGT, prediction, rail degradation

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1294 Photo-Thermal Degradation Analysis of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar Module Eva Encapsulation

Authors: Gilbert O. Osayemwenre, Meyer L. Edson


Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation degradation affects the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module. Hotspot formation causes the EVA encapsulation to undergo photothermal deterioration and molecular breakdown by UV radiation. This leads to diffusion of chemical particles into other layers. During outdoor deployment, the EVA encapsulation in the affect region loses its adhesive strength, when this happen the affected region layer undergoes rapid delamination. The presence of photo-thermal degradation is detrimental to PV modules as it causes both optical and thermal degradation. Also, it enables the encapsulant to be more susceptible to chemicals substance and moisture. Our findings show a high concentration of Sodium, Phosphorus and Aluminium which originate from the glass substrate, cell emitter and back contact respectively.

Keywords: ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), encapsulation, photo-thermal degradation, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning probe microscope (SPM)

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1293 Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Oxide and Cu-Doped Cobalt Oxide as Photocatalyst for Model Dye Degradation

Authors: Vrinda P. S. Borker


Major water pollutants are dyes from effluents of industries. Different methods have been tried to degrade or treat the effluent before it is left to the environment. In order to understand the degradation process and later apply it to effluents, solar degradation study of methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR), the model dyes was carried out in the presence of photo-catalysts, the oxides of cobalt oxide Co₃O₄, and copper doped cobalt oxides (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and (Co₀.₉₅Cu₀.₀₅)₃O₄. They were prepared from oxalate complex and hydrazinated oxalate complex of cobalt as well as mix metals, copper, and cobalt. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR. Complexes were decomposed to form oxides and were characterized by XRD. They were found to be monophasic. Solar degradation of MR and MB was carried out in presence of these oxides in acidic and basic medium. Degradation was faster in alkaline medium in the presence of Co₃O₄ obtained from hydrazinated oxalate. Doping of nanomaterial oxides modifies their characteristics. Doped cobalt oxides are found to photo-decolourise MR in alkaline media efficiently. In the absence of photocatalyst, solar degradation of alkaline MR does not occur. In acidic medium, MR is minimally decolorized even in the presence of photocatalysts. The industrial textile effluent contains chemicals like NaCl and Na₂CO₃ along with the unabsorbed dye. It is reported that these two chemicals hamper the degradation of dye. The chemicals like K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ are reported to enhance degradation. The solar degradation study of MB in presence of photocatalyst (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and these four chemicals reveals that presence of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ enhances degradation. It proves that H₂O₂ generates hydroxyl ions required for degradation of dye and the sulphate anion radical being strong oxidant attacks dye molecules leading to its fragmentation rapidly. Thus addition of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ during solar degradation in presence of (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ helps to break the organic moiety efficiently.

Keywords: cobalt oxides, Cu-doped cobalt oxides, H₂O₂ in dye degradation, photo-catalyst, solar dye degradation

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1292 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez


In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation

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1291 SEC-MALLS Study of Hyaluronic Acid and BSA Thermal Degradation in Powder and in Solution

Authors: Vasile Simulescu, Jakub Mondek, Miloslav Pekař


Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. The importance of hyaluronic acid increased in the last decades. It has many applications in medicine and cosmetics. Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA) is a protein derived from cows, which has many biochemical applications. The aim of our research work was to compare the thermal degradation of hyaluronic acid and BSA in powder and in solution, by determining changes in molar mass and conformation, by using SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography -multi angle laser light scattering). The aim of our research work was to observe the degradation in powder and in solution of different molar mass hyaluronic acid samples, at different temperatures for certain periods. The degradation of the analyzed samples was mainly observed by modifications in molar mass.

Keywords: thermal degradation, hyaluronic acid, BSA, SEC-MALLS

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1290 Forced Degradation Study of Rifaximin Formulated Tablets to Determine Stability Indicating Nature of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method

Authors: Abid Fida Masih


Forced degradation study of Rifaximin was conducted to determine the stability indicating potential of HPLC testing method for detection of Rifaximin in formulated tablets to be employed for quality control and stability testing. The questioned method applied with mobile phase methanol: water (70:30), 5µm, 250 x 4.6mm, C18 column, wavelength 293nm and flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Forced degradation study was performed under oxidative, acidic, basic, thermal and photolytic conditions. The applied method successfully determined the degradation products after acidic and basic degradation without interfering with Rifaximin detection. Therefore, the method was said to be stability indicating and can be applied for quality control and stability testing of Rifaxmin tablets during its shelf life.

Keywords: forced degradation, high-performance liquid chromatography, method validation, rifaximin, stability indicating method

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1289 Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalyst under UV/Solar Light: Effect of Different Parameters and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Farida Kaouah, Chahida Oussalah, Wassila Hachi, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari


A catalyst of ZnO nanoparticles was used in the photocatalytic process of treatment for potential use towards bisphenol A (BPA) degradation in an aqueous solution. To achieve this study, the effect of parameters such as the catalyst dose, initial concentration of BPA and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of BPA was studied. The results reveal that the maximum degradation (more than 93%) of BPA occurred with ZnO catalyst in 120 min of stirring at natural pH (7.1) under solar light irradiation. It was found that chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction takes place at a faster rate under solar light as compared to that of UV light. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed a Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalysis has in the removal of bisphenol A from wastewater.

Keywords: bisphenol A, photocatalytic degradation, sunlight, zinc oxide, Langmuir–Hinshelwood model, chemical oxygen demand

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1288 Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Ahmed Tawfik


In this study, photo-catalytic degradation of phenol by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol, benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2 significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photo-catalytic degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photo-catalytic, titanium dioxide

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1287 The Use of Degradation Measures to Design Reliability Test Plans

Authors: Stephen V. Crowder, Jonathan W. Lane


With short production development times, there is an increased need to demonstrate product reliability relatively quickly with minimal testing. In such cases there may be few if any observed failures. Thus it may be difficult to assess reliability using the traditional reliability test plans that measure only time (or cycles) to failure. For many components, degradation measures will contain important information about performance and reliability. These measures can be used to design a minimal test plan, in terms of number of units placed on test and duration of the test, necessary to demonstrate a reliability goal. In this work we present a case study involving an electronic component subject to degradation. The data, consisting of 42 degradation paths of cycles to failure, are first used to estimate a reliability function. Bootstrapping techniques are then used to perform power studies and develop a minimal reliability test plan for future production of this component.

Keywords: degradation measure, time to failure distribution, bootstrap, computational science

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1286 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung


Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, permeability, degradation, chemical stability

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1285 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav


Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: degradation, nanocomposite, photocatalyst, spectroscopy, XRD

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1284 X-Ray Diffraction Technique as a Means for Degradation Assessment of Welded Joints

Authors: Jaroslav Fiala, Jaroslav Kaiser, Pavel Zlabek, Vaclav Mentl


The X-ray diffraction technique was recognized as a useful tool for the assessment of material degradation degree after a long-time service. In many industrial applications materials are subjected to degradation of mechanical properties as a result of real service conditions. The assessment of the remnant lifetime of components and structures is commonly based on correlated procedures including numerous destructive, non-destructive and mathematical techniques that should guarantee reasonable precise assessment of the current damage extent of materials in question and the remnant lifetime assessment. This paper summarizes results of an experimental programme concentrated on mechanical properties degradation of welded components. Steel an Al-alloy test specimens of base metal, containing welds and simple weldments were fatigue loaded at room temperature to obtain Woehler S-N curve. X-ray diffraction technique was applied to assess the degradation degree of material as a result of cyclic loading.

Keywords: fatigue loading, material degradation, steels, AL-alloys, X-ray diffraction

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1283 Comparative Catalytic Activity of Some Ferrites for Phenol Degradation in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Bayan Alqassem, Israa A. Othman, Mohammed Abu Haija, Fawzi Banat


The treatment of wastewater from highly toxic pollutants is one of the most challenging issues for humanity. In this study, the advanced oxidation process (AOP) was employed to study the catalytic degradation of phenol using different ferrite catalysts which are CoFe₂O₄, CrFe₂O₄, CuFe₂O₄, MgFe₂O₄, MnFe₂O₄, NiFe₂O₄ and ZnFe₂O₄. The ferrite catalysts were prepared via sol-gel and co-precipitation methods. Different ferrite composites were also prepared either by varying the metal ratios or incorporating chemically reduced graphene oxide in the ferrite cluster. The effect of phosphoric acid treatment on the copper ferrite activity. All of the prepared catalysts were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ferrites catalytic activities were tested towards phenol degradation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental results showed that ferrites prepared through sol-gel route were more active than those of the co-precipitation method towards phenol degradation. In both cases, CuFe₂O₄ exhibited the highest degradation of phenol compared to the other ferrites. The photocatalytic properties of the ferrites were also investigated.

Keywords: ferrite catalyst, ferrite composites, phenol degradation, photocatalysis

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1282 A Study of Classification Models to Predict Drill-Bit Breakage Using Degradation Signals

Authors: Bharatendra Rai


Cutting tools are widely used in manufacturing processes and drilling is the most commonly used machining process. Although drill-bits used in drilling may not be expensive, their breakage can cause damage to expensive work piece being drilled and at the same time has major impact on productivity. Predicting drill-bit breakage, therefore, is important in reducing cost and improving productivity. This study uses twenty features extracted from two degradation signals viz., thrust force and torque. The methodology used involves developing and comparing decision tree, random forest, and multinomial logistic regression models for classifying and predicting drill-bit breakage using degradation signals.

Keywords: degradation signal, drill-bit breakage, random forest, multinomial logistic regression

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1281 Soil Degradation Processes in Marginal Uplands of Samar Island, Philippines

Authors: Dernie Taganna Olguera


Marginal uplands are fragile ecosystems in the tropics that need to be evaluated for sustainable utilization and land degradation mitigation. Thus, this study evaluated the dominant soil degradation processes in selected marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines; evaluated the important factors influencing soil degradation in the selected sites and identified the indicators of soil degradation in marginal uplands of the tropical landscape of Samar Island, Philippines. Two (2) sites were selected (Sta. Rita, Samar and Salcedo, Eastern, Samar) representing the western and eastern sides of Samar Island respectively. These marginal uplands represent different agro-climatic zones suitable for the study. Soil erosion is the major soil degradation process in the marginal uplands studied. It resulted in not only considerable soil losses but nutrient losses as well. Soil erosion varied with vegetation cover and site. It was much higher in the sweetpotato, cassava, and gabi crops than under natural vegetation. In addition, soil erosion was higher in Salcedo than in Sta. Rita, which is related to climatic and soil characteristics. Bulk density, porosity, aggregate stability, soil pH, organic matter, and carbon dioxide evolution are good indicators of soil degradation. The dominance of Saccharum spontaneum Linn., Imperata cylindrica Linn, Melastoma malabathricum Linn. and Psidium guajava Linn indicated degraded soil condition. Farmer’s practices particularly clean culture and organic fertilizer application influenced the degree of soil degradation in the marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines.

Keywords: soil degradation, soil erosion, marginal uplands, Samar island, Philippines

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1280 The Delaying Influence of Degradation on the Divestment of Gas Turbines for Associated Gas Utilisation: Part 1

Authors: Mafel Obhuo, Dodeye I. Igbong, Duabari S. Aziaka, Pericles Pilidis


An important feature of the exploitation of associated gas as fuel for gas turbine engines is a declining supply. So when exploiting this resource, the divestment of prime movers is very important as the fuel supply diminishes with time. This paper explores the influence of engine degradation on the timing of divestments. Hypothetical but realistic gas turbine engines were modelled with Turbomatch, the Cranfield University gas turbine performance simulation tool. The results were deployed in three degradation scenarios within the TERA (Techno-economic and environmental risk analysis) framework to develop economic models. An optimisation with Genetic Algorithms was carried out to maximize the economic benefit. The results show that degradation will have a significant impact. It will delay the divestment of power plants, while they are running less efficiently. Over a 20 year investment, a decrease of $0.11bn, $0.26bn and $0.45bn (billion US dollars) were observed for the three degradation scenarios as against the clean case.

Keywords: economic return, flared associated gas, net present value, optimization

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1279 Assessment of DNA Degradation Using Comet Assay: A Versatile Technique for Forensic Application

Authors: Ritesh K. Shukla


Degradation of biological samples in terms of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) are the major challenges in the forensic investigation which misleads the result interpretation. Currently, there are no precise methods available to circumvent this problem. Therefore, at the preliminary level, some methods are urgently needed to solve this issue. In this order, Comet assay is one of the most versatile, rapid and sensitive molecular biology technique to assess the DNA degradation. This technique helps to assess DNA degradation even at very low amount of sample. Moreover, the expedient part of this method does not require any additional process of DNA extraction and isolation during DNA degradation assessment. Samples directly embedded on agarose pre-coated microscopic slide and electrophoresis perform on the same slide after lysis step. After electrophoresis microscopic slide stained by DNA binding dye and observed under fluorescent microscope equipped with Komet software. With the help of this technique extent of DNA degradation can be assessed which can help to screen the sample before DNA fingerprinting, whether it is appropriate for DNA analysis or not. This technique not only helps to assess degradation of DNA but many other challenges in forensic investigation such as time since deposition estimation of biological fluids, repair of genetic material from degraded biological sample and early time since death estimation could also be resolved. With the help of this study, an attempt was made to explore the application of well-known molecular biology technique that is Comet assay in the field of forensic science. This assay will open avenue in the field of forensic research and development.

Keywords: comet assay, DNA degradation, forensic, molecular biology

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1278 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi


Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

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1277 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Pure and Ag-Doped SnO₂ Nanoparticles as Catalyst

Authors: M. S. Abd El-Sadek, Mahmoud A. Omar, Gharib M. Taha


Photodegradation of methylene blue in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles under solar light irradiation are known to be an effective photocatalytic process. In this study, pure and silver (Ag) doped tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles were prepared at calcination temperature (800ºC) by a modified sol-gel method and studied for their photocatalytic activity with methylene blue as a test contaminant. The characterization of undoped and doped SnO₂ photocatalyst was studied by X-rays diffraction patterns (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The catalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous media was studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer to monitor the degradation process by measuring its absorption spectra. The main absorption peak of methylene blue is observed at λ= 664 nm. The change in the percent of silver in the catalyst affects the photoactivity of SnO₂ on the degradation of methylene blue. The photoactivity of pure SnO₂ was found to be a maximum at dose 0.2 gm of the catalyst with 100 ml of 5 ppm methylene blue in the water. Within 210 min of photodegradation (under sunlight) after leaving the reaction for 90 minutes in the dark to avoid the effect of adsorption, the pure SnO₂ at calcination temperature 800ºC exhibited the best photocatalytic degradation with removal percentage of 93.66% on methylene blue degradation under solar light.

Keywords: SnO₂ nanoparticles, methylene blue degradation, photocatalysis, silver doped-SnO₂

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1276 Kinetic and Mechanistic Study on the Degradation of Typical Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Water by Using Carbon Nanodots/C₃N₄ Composite and Ultrasonic Irradiation

Authors: Miao Yang


PPCPs (pharmaceutical and personal care products) in water, as an environmental pollutant, becomes an issue of increasing concern. Therefore, the techniques for degradation of PPCPs has been a hotspot in water pollution control field. Since there are several disadvantages for common degradation techniques of PPCPs, such as low degradation efficiency for certain PPCPs (ibuprofen and Carbamazepine) this proposal will adopt a combined technique by using CDs (carbon nanodots)/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation to mitigate or overcome these shortages. There is a significant scientific problem that the mechanism including PPCPs, major reactants, and interfacial active sites is not clear yet in the study of PPCPs degradation. This work aims to solve this problem by using both theoretical and experimental methodologies. Firstly, optimized parameters will be obtained by evaluating the kinetics and oxidation efficiency under different conditions. The competition between H₂O₂ and PPCPs with HO• will be elucidated, after which the degradation mechanism of PPCPs by the synergy of CDs/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation will be proposed. Finally, a sonolysis-adsorption-catalysis coupling mechanism will be established which is the theoretical basis and technical support for developing new efficient degradation techniques for PPCPs in the future.

Keywords: carbon nanodots/C₃N₄, pharmaceutical and personal care products, ultrasonic irradiation, hydroxyl radical, heterogeneous catalysis

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1275 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Fe-Doped Tio2 under Solar Simulated Light

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Tawfik


In the present work, photocatalytic oxidation of phenol by iron (Fe+2) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) was studied. The source of irradiation was solar simulated light under measured UV flux. The effect of light intensity, pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of phenol were investigated. The maximum removal of phenol at optimum conditions was 78%. The optimum pH was 5.3. The most effective degradation occurred when the catalyst dosage was 600 mg/L. increasing the initial concentration of phenol decreased the degradation efficiency due to the deactivation of active sites by additional intermediates. Phenol photocatalytic degradation moderately fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic equation approximated from Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: phenol, photocatalytic, solar, titanium dioxide

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1274 Characterization of Iron Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Its Photocatalytic Degradation Ability for Congo Red Dye

Authors: Vishakha Parihar


This study reports the preparation of iron metal-doped nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide by the sol-gel process and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. Nano-particles were characterized by SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed study confirmed that nanoparticles have grown in high density and have good optical properties. The photocatalytic batch experiment was performed in an aqueous solution where congo red dye was used as a dye pollutant under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays created by using a mercury lamp source. Total degradation efficiency achieved was approximately 85% to 93% in the duration of 100-120 minutes of irradiation under an ultraviolet light source. The decolorization ability of this process was measured by absorbance at a maximum wavelength of 498nm. The results indicated that the iron-doped Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic response to the degradation of dye under the ultraviolet light source within a very short period of time.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nano-particles iron dope, photocatalytic degradation, Congo red dye, sol-gel process

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1273 Synthesis and Study the Effect of HNTs on PVA/Chitosan Composite Material

Authors: Malek Ali


Composites materials of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Chitosan (CS) have been synthesized and characterized successfully. HNTs have been added to composites to enhance the mechanical and degradation properties by hydrogen bonding interactions, compatibility, and chemical crosslink between HNTs and PVA. PVA/CS/HNTs composites prepared with different concentration ratio. SEM micrographs of composites surface showed that more agglomeration with more chitosan ratio. Mechanical and degradation properties were characterized and the result indicates that Mechanical and degradation of 80%PVA/5%Chitosan/15%HNTs higher than the others PVA/CS/HNTs composites.

Keywords: PVA/chitosan, composites, PVA/CS/HNTs, HNTs

Procedia PDF Downloads 181