Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3625

Search results for: mechanical friction

3625 Identification of Dynamic Friction Model for High-Precision Motion Control

Authors: Martin Goubej, Tomas Popule, Alois Krejci

Abstract:

This paper deals with experimental identification of mechanical systems with nonlinear friction characteristics. Dynamic LuGre friction model is adopted and a systematic approach to parameter identification of both linear and nonlinear subsystems is given. The identification procedure consists of three subsequent experiments which deal with the individual parts of plant dynamics. The proposed method is experimentally verified on an industrial-grade robotic manipulator. Model fidelity is compared with the results achieved with a static friction model.

Keywords: mechanical friction, LuGre model, friction identification, motion control

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
3624 Tribological Investigation of Piston Ring Liner Assembly

Authors: Bharatkumar Sutaria, Tejaskumar Chaudhari

Abstract:

An engine performance can be increased by minimizing losses. There are various losses observed in the engines. i.e. thermal loss, heat loss and mechanical losses. Mechanical losses are in the tune of 15 to 20 % of the overall losses. Piston ring assembly contributes the highest friction in the mechanical frictional losses. The variation of piston speed in stroke length the friction force development is not uniform. In present work, comparison has been made between theoretical and experimental friction force under different operating conditions. The experiments are performed using variable operating parameters such as load, speed, temperature and lubricants. It is found that reducing trend of friction force and friction coefficient is in good nature with mixed lubrication regime of the Stribeck curve. Overall outcome from the laboratory test performance of segmented piston ring assembly using multi-grade oil offers reasonably good results at room and elevated temperatures.

Keywords: friction force, friction coefficient, piston rings, Stribeck curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
3623 Friction Estimation and Compensation for Steering Angle Control for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Marcus Walter, Norbert Nitzsche, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller

Abstract:

This contribution presents a friction estimator for industrial purposes which identifies Coulomb friction in a steering system. The estimator only needs a few, usually known, steering system parameters. Friction occurs on almost every mechanical system and has a negative influence on high-precision position control. This is demonstrated on a steering angle controller for highly automated driving. In this steering system the friction induces limit cycles which cause oscillating vehicle movement when the vehicle follows a given reference trajectory. When compensating the friction with the introduced estimator, limit cycles can be suppressed. This is demonstrated by measurements in a series vehicle.

Keywords: friction estimation, friction compensation, steering system, lateral vehicle guidance

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
3622 Effects of Ingredients Proportions on the Friction Performance of a Brake Pad Material

Authors: Rukiye Ertan

Abstract:

In this study, a brake friction material composition was investigated experimentally related to the effects of the friction modifiers and abrasive proportions on the tribological properties. The investigation was based on a simple experimental formulation, consisting of seven friction materials with different proportions of abrasives (ZrSiO4 and Fe2O3) and friction modifiers (cashew dust). The friction materials were evaluated using a Chase friction tester. The tribological properties, such as the wear resistance and friction stability, depending on the test temperature and the number of braking were obtained related to the friction material ingredient proportions. The results showed that the tribological properties of the brake pad were greatly affected by the abrasive and then cashew dust proportion.

Keywords: brake pad, friction, wear, abrasives

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
3621 Study of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys on Normal Friction Stir Welding and Underwater Friction Stir Welding for Structural Applications

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Laxmi Mohan Kumar Chintada, Devadas Deepu, Pravin Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is the new-fangled and cutting-edge technique in welding applications; it is widely used in the fields of transportation, aerospace, defense, etc. For thriving significant welding joints and properties of friction stir welded components, it is essential to carry out this advanced process in a prescribed systematic procedure. At this moment, Underwater Friction Stir Welding (UFSW) Process is the field of interest to do research work. In the continuous assessment, the study of UFSW process is to comprehend problems occurred in the past and the structure through which the mechanical properties of the welded joints can be value-added and contributes to conclude results an acceptable and resourceful joint. A meticulous criticism is given on how to modify the experimental setup from NFSW to UFSW. It can discern the influence of tool materials, feeds, spindle angle, load, rotational speeds and mechanical properties. By expending the DEFORM-3D simulation software, the achieved outcomes are validated.

Keywords: Underwater Friction Stir Welding(UFSW), Al alloys, mechanical properties, Normal Friction Stir Welding(NFSW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
3620 Effect of Rotation Speed on Microstructure and Microhardness of AA7039 Rods Joined by Friction Welding

Authors: H. Karakoc, A. Uzun, G. Kırmızı, H. Çinici, R. Çitak

Abstract:

The main objective of this investigation was to apply friction welding for joining of AA7039 rods produced by powder metallurgy. Friction welding joints were carried out using a rotational friction welding machine. Friction welds were obtained under different rotational speeds between (2700 and 2900 rpm). The friction pressure of 10 MPa and friction time of 30 s was kept constant. The cross sections of joints were observed by optical microscopy. The microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Vickers micro hardness measurement of the interface was evaluated using a micro hardness testing machine. Finally the results obtained were compared and discussed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, powder metallurgy, friction welding, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
3619 Effect of Friction Pressure on the Properties of Friction Welded Aluminum–Ceramic Dissimilar Joints

Authors: Fares Khalfallah, Zakaria Boumerzoug, Selvarajan Rajakumar, Elhadj Raouache

Abstract:

The ceramic-aluminum bond is strongly present in industrial tools, due to the need to combine the properties of metals, such as ductility, thermal and electrical conductivity, with ceramic properties like high hardness, corrosion and wear resistance. In recent years, some joining techniques have been developed to achieve a good bonding between these materials such as brazing, diffusion bonding, ultrasonic joining and friction welding. In this work, AA1100 aluminum alloy rods were welded with Alumina 99.9 wt% ceramic rods, by friction welding. The effect of friction pressure on mechanical and structural properties of welded joints was studied. The welding was performed by direct friction welding machine. The welding samples were rotated at a constant rotational speed of 900 rpm, friction time of 4 sec, forging strength of 18 MPa, and forging time of 3 sec. Three different friction pressures were applied to 20, 34 and 45 MPa. The three-point bending test and Vickers microhardness measurements were used to evaluate the strength of the joints and investigate the mechanical properties of the welding area. The microstructure of joints was examined by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that bending strength increased, and then decreased after reaching a maximum value, with increasing friction pressure. The SEM observation shows that the increase in friction pressure led to the appearance of cracks in the microstructure of the interface area, which is decreasing the bending strength of joints.

Keywords: welding of ceramic to aluminum, friction welding, alumina, AA1100 aluminum alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
3618 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding (FSW), microstructure, Properties.

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
3617 Optimization in Friction Stir Processing Method with Emphasis on Optimized Process Parameters Laboratory Research

Authors: Atabak Rahimzadeh Ilkhch

Abstract:

Friction stir processing (FSP) has promised for application of thermo-mechanical processing techniques where aims to change the micro structural and mechanical properties of materials in order to obtain high performance and reducing the production time and cost. There are lots of studies focused on the microstructure of friction stir welded aluminum alloys. The main focus of this research is on the grain size obtained in the weld zone. Moreover in second part focused on temperature distribution effect over the entire weld zone and its effects on the microstructure. Also, there is a need to have more efforts on investigating to obtain the optimal value of effective parameters such as rotational speed on microstructure and to use the optimum tool designing method. the final results of this study will be present the variation of structural and mechanical properties of materials in the base of applying Friction stir processing and effect of (FSP) processing and tensile testing on surface quality. in the hand, this research addresses the FSP f AA-7020 aluminum and variation f ration of rotation and translational speeds.

Keywords: friction stir processing, AA-7020, thermo-mechanical, microstructure, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
3616 Modelling of Atomic Force Microscopic Nano Robot's Friction Force on Rough Surfaces

Authors: M. Kharazmi, M. Zakeri, M. Packirisamy, J. Faraji

Abstract:

Micro/Nanorobotics or manipulation of nanoparticles by Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) is one of the most important solutions for controlling the movement of atoms, particles and micro/nano metrics components and assembling of them to design micro/nano-meter tools. Accurate modelling of manipulation requires identification of forces and mechanical knowledge in the Nanoscale which are different from macro world. Due to the importance of the adhesion forces and the interaction of surfaces at the nanoscale several friction models were presented. In this research, friction and normal forces that are applied on the AFM by using of the dynamic bending-torsion model of AFM are obtained based on Hurtado-Kim friction model (HK), Johnson-Kendall-Robert contact model (JKR) and Greenwood-Williamson roughness model (GW). Finally, the effect of standard deviation of asperities height on the normal load, friction force and friction coefficient are studied.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, contact model, friction coefficient, Greenwood-Williamson model

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
3615 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo

Abstract:

This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: friction, worm gear, column electric power steering system, simulink, bearing, EPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
3614 Determination of the Friction Coefficient of AL5754 Alloy by Ring Compression Test: Experimental and Numerical Survey

Authors: P. M. Keshtiban, M. Zadshakoyan

Abstract:

One of the important factors that alter different process and geometrical parameters on metal forming processes is friction between contacting surfaces. Some important factors that effected directly by friction are: stress, strain, required load, wear of surfaces and then geometrical parameters. In order to control friction effects permanent lubrication is necessary. In this article, the friction coefficient is elicited by the most effective method, ring compression tests. The tests were done by both finite element method and practical tests. Different friction curves that extracted by finite element simulations and has good conformity with published results, used for obtaining final friction coefficient. In this study Mos2 is used as the lubricant and Al5754 alloy used as the specimens material.

Keywords: experiment, FEM, friction coefficient, ring compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
3613 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško

Abstract:

The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
3612 Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings

Authors: James Moran, Anusarn Permsuwan

Abstract:

This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.

Keywords: Coulomb friction, dynamic friction, non-lubricated bearings, frictional oscillations

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
3611 Friction Stir Welding of Al-Mg-Mn Aluminum Alloy Plates: A Review

Authors: K. Subbaiah, C. V. Jayakumar

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process. Friction stir welding process eliminates the defects found in fusion welding processes. It is environmentally friend process. 5000 and 6000 series aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation industries. The Al-Mg-Mn (5000) and Al-Mg-Si (6000) alloys are preferably offer best combination of use in Marine construction. The medium strength and high corrosion resistant 5000 series alloys are the aluminum alloys, which are found maximum utility in the world. In this review, the tool pin profile, process parameters such as hardness, yield strength and tensile strength, and microstructural evolution of friction stir welding of Al-Mg-Mn alloys (5000 Series) have been discussed.

Keywords: Al-Mg-Mn alloys, friction stir welding, tool pin profile, microstructure and mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3610 Simulation of Kinetic Friction in L-Bending of Sheet Metals

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert, Timotius Pasang

Abstract:

This paper aims at experimental and numerical investigation of springback behavior of sheet metals during L-bending process with emphasis on Stribeck-type friction modeling. The coefficient of friction in Stribeck curve depends on sliding velocity and contact pressure. The springback behavior of mild steel and aluminum alloy 6022-T4 sheets was studied experimentally and using numerical simulations with ABAQUS software with two types of friction model: Coulomb friction and Stribeck friction. The influence of forming speed on springback behavior was studied experimentally and numerically. The results showed that Stribeck-type friction model has better results in predicting springback in sheet metal forming. The FE prediction error for mild steel and 6022-T4 AA is 23.8%, 25.5% respectively, using Coulomb friction model and 11%, 13% respectively, using Stribeck friction model. These results show that Stribeck model is suitable for simulation of sheet metal forming especially at higher forming speed.

Keywords: friction, L-bending, springback, Stribeck curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
3609 Friction Stir Welding Process as a Solid State Joining -A Review

Authors: Mohd Anees Siddiqui, S. A. H. Jafri, Shahnawaz Alam

Abstract:

Through this paper an attempt is made to review a special welding technology of friction stir welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining. Friction stir welding is used for joining of two plates which are applied compressive force by using fixtures over the work table. This is a non consumable type welding technique in which a rotating tool of cylindrical shape is used. Process parameters such as tool geometry, joint design and process speed are discussed in the paper. Comparative study of Friction stir welding with other welding techniques such as MIG, TIG & GMAW is also done. Some light is put on several major applications of friction stir welding in different industries. Quality and environmental aspects of friction stir welding is also discussed.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), process parameters, tool, solid state joining processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
3608 Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Parameters on Macrostructure and Weld Strength in Friction Stir Welded of High Density Polyethylene Sheets

Authors: Mustafa Kemal Bilici, Memduh Kurtulmuş, İlyas Kartal, Ahmet İrfan Yükler

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process that has gained acceptable progress in recent years. This method which was first used for welding of aluminum and its alloys is now employed for welding of other materials such as polymers and composites. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of butt joints produced by friction stir welding (FSW) in high density polyethylene sheets of 4 mm thickness. The effects of critical welding parameters and tool design have affected on mechanical properties, weld surface and macrostructure of friction stir welded polyethylene. Experiments were performed at tool rotational speeds of 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 r/min and traverse speeds of 30, 45 and 60 mm/min, tool diameters (d) of 4, 5, 6 mm and tool shoulder diameters (D) 20, 25, 30 mm. A strength value of 80 % of the base material was achieved at the isolated optimum welding condition. According to the tool design, the welding parameters and the mechanical properties changed to a great extent. The highest tensile strength was achieved at low feed rates, high tool rotation speeds and shoulder diameters/pin diameters ratio.

Keywords: friction stir welding, mechanical properties, polyethylene, high density polyethylene, tool design

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
3607 Investigation of Optimized Mechanical Properties on Friction Stir Welded Al6063 Alloy

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Narasa Raju Gosangi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is relatively new, environmentally friendly, versatile, and widely used joining technique for soft materials such as aluminum. FSW has got a lot of attention as a solid-state joining method which avoids many common problems of fusion welding and provides an improved way of producing aluminum joints in a faster way. FSW can be used for various aerospace, defense, automotive and transportation applications. It is necessary to understand the friction stir welded joints and its characteristics to use this new joining technique in critical applications. This study investigated the mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminum 6063 alloys. FSW is carried out based on the design of experiments using L16 mixed level array by considering tool rotational speeds, tool feed rate and tool tilt angles as process parameters. The optimization of process parameters is carried by Taguchi based regression analysis and the significance of process parameters is analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that the considered process parameters are high influences the mechanical properties of Al6063.

Keywords: FSW, aluminum alloy, mechanical properties, optimization, Taguchi, ANOVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
3606 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
3605 Wear Map for Cu-Based Friction Materials with Different Contents of Fe Reinforcement

Authors: Haibin Zhou, Pingping Yao, Kunyang Fan

Abstract:

Copper-based sintered friction materials are widely used in the brake system of different applications such as engineering machinery or high-speed train, due to the excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological performance. Considering the diversity of the working conditions of brake system, it is necessary to identify well and understand the tribological performance and wear mechanisms of friction materials for different conditions. Fe has been a preferred reinforcement for copper-based friction materials, due to its ability to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of material. Wear map is well accepted as a useful research method for evaluation of wear performances and wear mechanisms over a wider range of working conditions. Therefore, it is significantly important to construct a wear map which can give out the effects of work condition and Fe reinforcement on tribological performance of Cu-based friction materials. In this study, the copper-based sintered friction materials with the different addition of Fe reinforcement (0-20 vol. %) were studied. The tribological tests were performed against stainless steel in a ring-on-ring braking tester with varying braking energy density (0-5000 J/cm2). The linear wear and friction coefficient were measured. The worn surface, cross section and debris were analyzed to determine the dominant wear mechanisms for different testing conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the wear map and wear mechanism map were established, in terms of braking energy density and the addition of Fe. It was found that with low contents of Fe and low braking energy density, adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of friction materials. Oxidative wear and abrasive wear mainly occurred under moderate braking energy density. In the condition of high braking energy density, with both high and low addition of Fe, delamination appeared as the main wear mechanism.

Keywords: Cu-based friction materials, Fe reinforcement, wear map, wear mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3604 The Joint Properties for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Tubes

Authors: Ahbdelfattah M. Khourshid, T. Elabeidi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique, is widely being used for joining Al alloys for aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. FSW were carried out using a vertical milling machine on Al 5083 alloy pipe. These pipe sections are relatively small in diameter, 5mm, and relatively thin walled, 2mm. In this study, 5083 aluminum alloy pipe were welded as similar alloy joints using (FSW) process in order to investigate mechanical and microstructural properties .rotation speed 1400 r.p.m and weld speed 10,40,70 mm/min. In order to investigate the effect of welding speeds on mechanical properties, metallographic and mechanical tests were carried out on the welded areas. Vickers hardness profile and tensile tests of the joints as a metallurgical investigation, Optic Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for base and weld zones.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), Al alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
3603 Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Khalil Aghapouramin

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructural properties of dissimilar and similar aluminum alloys welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The specimens investigated by applying different welding speed and rotary speed. Typically, mechanical properties of the joints performed through tensile test fatigue test and microhardness (HV) at room temperature. Fatigue test investigated by using electromechanical testing machine under constant loading control with similar since wave loading. The Maximum stress versus minimum got the range between 0.1 to 0.3 in the research. Based upon welding parameters by optical observation and scanning electron microscopy microstructural properties fulfilled with a cross section of welds, in addition, SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces

Keywords: friction stir welding, fatigue and tensile test, Al alloys, microstructural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3602 Study of Drawing Characteristics due to Friction between the Materials by FEM

Authors: Won Jin Ryu, Mok Tan Ahn, Hyeok Choi, Joon Hong Park, Sung Min Kim, Jong Bae Park

Abstract:

Pipes for offshore plants require specifications that satisfy both high strength and high corrosion resistance. Therefore, currently, clad pipes are used in offshore plants. Clad pipes can be made using either overlay welding or clad plates. The present study was intended to figure out the effects of friction between two materials, which is a factor that affects two materials, were figured out using FEM to make clad pipes through heterogenous material drawing instead of the two methods mentioned above. Therefore, FEM has conducted while all other variables that the variable friction was fixed. The experimental results showed increases in pullout force along with increases in the friction in the boundary layer.

Keywords: clad pipe, FEM, friction, pullout force

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
3601 Microstructure and Mechanical Evaluation of PMMA/Al₂O₃ Nanocomposite Fabricated via Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Reham K. El Sawah, N. S. M. El-Tayeb

Abstract:

This study aims to produce a polymer matrix composite reinforced with Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in order to enhance the mechanical properties of PMMA. The composite was fabricated via Friction stir processing to ensure homogenous dispersion of Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in the polymer, and the processing was submerged to prevent the sputtering of nanoparticles. The surface quality, microstructure, impact energy and hardness of the prepared samples were investigated. Good surface quality and dispersion of nanoparticles were attained through employing sufficient processing conditions. The experimental results indicated that as the percentage of nanoparticles increased, the impact energy and hardness increased, reaching 2 kJ/m2 and 14.7 HV at a nanoparticle concentration of 25%, which means that the toughness and the hardness of the polymer-ceramic produced composite is higher than unprocessed PMMA by 66% and 33% respectively.

Keywords: friction stir processing, polymer matrix nanocomposite, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
3600 Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints Using Factorial Design

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Ankur Gill, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

In the present work an effort has been made to study the influence of the welding parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding of aluminum. Three process parameters tool rotation speed, welding speed, and shoulder diameter were selected for the study. Two level factorial design of eight runs was selected for conducting the experiments. The mathematical model was developed from the data obtained. The significance of coefficients and adequacy of developed models were tested by ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test respectively. The effects of process parameters on mechanical properties have been represented in the form of graphs for better understanding.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminium alloy, mathematical model, welding speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3599 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
3598 A Review on the Studies on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Welded by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Sukhdeep Singh Gill, Gurbhinder Singh Brar

Abstract:

In recent years, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted the main attention of the concerned researcher especially in case of joining of nonferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium due to its unmatchable properties with respect to other welding techniques. Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process which is most suitable for the welding of nonferrous alloys, especially aluminum and magnesium alloys. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used for structural applications of all types of automobiles due to their superior mechanical properties with their low density. This paper deals with the critical review of the different properties (like tensile strength, microhardness, impact strength, corrosion resistance, and metallurgical investigation on SEM) obtained by the FSW of aluminum and magnesium alloys. After a critical review of the existing published literature on concerned topics, all the properties of welding joins are compared in the tabulated manner to optimize the selection of materials and FSW parameters according to mechanical and tribological properties. Different tool designs used for the FSW process are also thoroughly studied, and the influence of the design of the tool used in FSW on the different properties has also been incorporated in this paper. It has been observed from the existing published literature that FSW is the most effective and practical technique for joining the non ferrous alloys especially aluminum and magnesium alloys, and among the different FSW tools, left hand threaded tri-flute (LHTTF) tool is best for the welding of non ferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium alloys which gives the superior mechanical properties to welding joint.

Keywords: aluminum, friction stir welding, magnesium, structural applications, tool design

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
3597 Friction and Wear, Including Mechanisms, Modeling,Characterization, Measurement and Testing (Bangladesh Case)

Authors: Gor Muradyan

Abstract:

The paper is about friction and wear, including mechanisms, modeling, characterization, measurement and testing case in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a country under development, A lot of people live here, approximately 145 million. The territory of this country is very small. Therefore buildings are very close to each other. As the pipe lines are very old, and people get almost dirty water, there are a lot of ongoing projects under ADB. In those projects the contractors using HDD machines (Horizontal Directional Drilling ) and grundoburst. These machines are working underground. As ground in Bangladesh is very sludge, machine can't work relevant because of big friction in the soil. When drilling works are finished machine is pulling the pipe underground. Very often the pulling of the pipes becomes very complicated because of the friction. Therefore long section of the pipe laying can’t be done because of a big friction. In that case, additional problems rise, as well as additional work must be done. As we mentioned above it is not possible to do big section of the pipe laying because of big friction in the soil, Because of this it is coming out that contractors must do more joints, more pressure test. It is always connected with additional expenditure and losing time. This machine can pull in 75 mm to 500 mm pipes connected with the soil condition. Length is possible till 500m related how much friction it will had on the puller. As less as much it can pull. Another machine grundoburst is not working at this soil condition at all. The machine is working with air compressor. This machine are using for the smaller diameter pipes, 20 mm to 63 mm. Most of the cases these machines are being used for the installing of the house connection pipes, for making service connection. To make a friction less contractors using bigger pulling had then the pipe. It is taking down the friction, But the problem of this machine is that it can't work at sludge. Because of mentioned reasons the friction has a big mining during this kind of works. There are a lot of ways to reduce the friction. In this paper we'll introduce the ways that we have researched during our practice in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, friction and wear, HDD machines, reducing friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3596 Analysis of Friction Stir Welding Process for Joining Aluminum Alloy

Authors: A. M. Khourshid, I. Sabry

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique, is widely being used for joining Al alloys for aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. FSW were carried out using a vertical milling machine on Al 5083 alloy pipe. These pipe sections are relatively small in diameter, 5mm, and relatively thin walled, 2 mm. In this study, 5083 aluminum alloy pipe were welded as similar alloy joints using (FSW) process in order to investigate mechanical and microstructural properties .rotation speed 1400 r.p.m and weld speed 10,40,70 mm/min. In order to investigate the effect of welding speeds on mechanical properties, metallographic and mechanical tests were carried out on the welded areas. Vickers hardness profile and tensile tests of the joints as a metallurgical feasibility of friction stir welding for joining Al 6061 aluminum alloy welding was performed on pipe with different thickness 2, 3 and 4 mm,five rotational speeds (485,710,910,1120 and 1400) rpm and a traverse speed (4, 8 and 10)mm/min was applied. This work focuses on two methods such as artificial neural networks using software (pythia) and response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061 aluminum alloy. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis of the friction stir welding parameters of 6061 pipe. The tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of weld joints were predicted by taking the parameters Tool rotation speed, material thickness and travel speed as a function. A comparison was made between measured and predicted data. Response surface methodology (RSM) also developed and the values obtained for the response Tensile strengths, the percentage of elongation and hardness are compared with measured values. The effect of FSW process parameter on mechanical properties of 6061 aluminum alloy has been analyzed in detail.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), al alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure

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