Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 158

Search results for: nozzle

158 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien


ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
157 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo


This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x=10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra displays the largest eddies generated by the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR.

Keywords: plane jet, Reynolds number, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
156 Molecular Clustering and Velocity Increase in Converging-Diverging Nozzle in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Jeoungsu Na, Jaehawn Lee, Changil Hong, Suhee Kim


A molecular dynamics simulation in a converging-diverging nozzle was performed to study molecular collisions and their influence to average flow velocity according to a variety of vacuum levels. The static pressures and the dynamic pressure exerted by the molecule collision on the selected walls were compared to figure out the intensity variances of the directional flows. With pressure differences constant between the entrance and the exit of the nozzle, the numerical experiment was performed for molecular velocities and directional flows. The result shows that the velocities increased at the nozzle exit as the vacuum level gets higher in that area because less molecular collisions.

Keywords: cavitation, molecular collision, nozzle, vacuum, velocity increase

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
155 Dripping Modes of Newtonian Liquids: The Effect of Nozzle Inclination

Authors: Amaraja Taur, Pankaj Doshi, Hak Koon Yeoh


The dripping modes for a Newtonian liquid of viscosity µ emanating from an inclined nozzle at flow rate Q is investigated experimentally. As the liquid flow rate Q increases, starting with period-1 with satellite drops, the system transitions to period-1 dripping without satellite, then to limit cycle before showing chaotic responses. Phase diagrams shows the changes in the transitions between the different dripping modes for different nozzle inclination angle θ is constructed in the dimensionless (Q, µ) space.

Keywords: dripping, inclined nozzle, phase diagram, satellite

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
154 Nozzle-to-Surface Distances Effect on Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Impinging Jets

Authors: Aspen W. Glaspell, Victoria J. Rouse, Brian K. Friedrich, Kyosung Choo


Heat transfer of two-phase impinging jet on a flat plate surface are experimentally investigated. The effects of the nozzle-to-surface distance and volumetric quality on the Nusselt number are considered. The results show that the normalized stagnation Nusselt number drastically increase with decreasing the nozzle-to-surface distance due to the jet deflection effect. Based on the experimental results, new correlations for the stagnation Nusselt number are developed as a function of the nozzle-to-surface distance.

Keywords: jet impingement, water jet, air assisted, circular jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
153 Aerodynamic Design of Axisymmetric Supersonic Nozzle Used by an Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Mojtahedpoor


In this paper, it has been studied the method of optimal design of the supersonic nozzle. It could make viscous axisymmetric nozzles that the quality of their outlet flow is quite desired. In this method, it is optimized the divergent nozzle, at first. The initial divergent nozzle contour is designed through the method of characteristics and adding a suitable boundary layer to the inviscid contour. After that, it is made a proper grid and then simulated flow by the numerical solution and AUSM+ method by using the operation boundary condition. At the end, solution outputs are investigated and optimized. The numerical method has been validated with experimental results. Also, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the present method, the nozzles compared with the previous studies. The comparisons show that the nozzles obtained through this method are sufficiently better in some conditions, such as the flow uniformity, size of the boundary layer, and obtained an axial length of the nozzle. Designing the convergent nozzle part affects by flow uniformity through changing its axial length and input diameter. The results show that increasing the length of the convergent part improves the output flow uniformity.

Keywords: nozzle, supersonic, optimization, characteristic method, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
152 Comparison of Different Methods of Evaluating Nozzle Junction Stresses under External Loads

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Arun Kumar, Surjit Angra


This paper addresses the junction stress analysis of orthogonally intersecting thin walled cylindrical shell and thin walled cylindrical nozzle subjected to external loading on nozzle. Junction stresses have been calculated theoretically by welding research council (WRC) bulletins 107 and 297 for different nozzle loads. WRC bulletins 107 and 297 have been used by design engineers for calculating nozzle-vessel junction stresses since their publication. They give simple empirical relations and easy in application. Also 3D FEA in which material is elastic has been done in ANSYS software with 8 node solid element model and results of FEA have been compared with WRC results. Stress intensities obtained by WRC 297 are generally slightly higher than obtained by WRC 107. Membrane stresses obtained by FEA are much higher than WRC and membrane plus bending stresses obtained by FEA are lower than WRC.

Keywords: FEA, junction stress, solid element, WRC 107, WRC 297

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
151 Development of Portable Water Jet Cutter Mobile Hand Tool: Analysis of Nozzle Geometries and Materials

Authors: Razali Bin Abidin


This paper presents the development of a portable water jet cutter for soft materials such as meat. Twelve geometries of nozzles were simulated using finite element method. Water pressure was set to 1500 lb/in². Through the simulation, highest average water output speed was 133.04 m/s. The nozzle was fabricated from Al - alloy 5052 with the Factor of Safety~ 3. This indicates that the nozzle made of Al-alloy 5052 is capable of performing the cutting process without any fracture. Preliminary design of mobile water jet hand tool is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: water jet, finite element, Al-alloy 5052, nozzle geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
150 Effect of Submerged Water Jet's Cross Section Shapes on Mixing Length

Authors: Mohsen Solimani Babarsad, Mohammad Rastgoo, Payam Taheri


One of the important applications of hydraulic jets is used for discharge industrial, agricultural and urban wastewater into the rivers or other ambient water to reduce negative effects of pollutant water. Submerged jets due to turbulent condition can mix large amount of dense pollutant water with ambient flow. This study is conducted to investigate the distribution and length of the mixing zone in hydraulic jet's flow field with change in cross section shapes of nozzle. Toward this end, three shapes of cross section (square, circle and rectangular) and three saline densities current with different concentration are considered in a flume with 600 cm as long, 100 cm as high and 150 cm in width. Various discharges were used to evaluate mixing length for a wide range of densimetric Froude numbers, Frd, from 100 to 550 that is defined at the nozzle. Consequently, the circular nozzle, in comparison with other sections, has a densimetric Froude number 11% higher than square nozzle and 26% higher than rectangular nozzle.

Keywords: hydraulic jet, mixing zone, densimetric Froude number, nozzle

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
149 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Various Types of Rocket Engine Nozzles

Authors: Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Bialy, Pawel Karpinski, Radoslaw Maczka


The nozzle is an element of the rocket engine in which the conversion of the potential energy of gases generated during combustion into the kinetic energy of the gas stream takes place. The design parameters of the nozzle have a decisive influence on the ballistic characteristics of the engine. Designing a nozzle assembly is, therefore, one of the most responsible stages in developing a rocket engine design. The paper presents the results of the simulation of three types of rocket propulsion nozzles. Calculations were made using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) in ANSYS Fluent software. The next types of nozzles differ in shape. The analysis was made of a conical nozzle, a bell type nozzle with a conical supersonic part and a bell type nozzle. Calculation results are presented in the form of pressure, velocity and kinetic energy distributions of turbulence in the longitudinal section. The courses of these values along the nozzles are also presented. The results show that the cone nozzle generates strong turbulence in the critical section. Which negatively affect the flow of the working medium. In the case of a bell nozzle, the transformation of the wall caused the elimination of flow disturbances in the critical section. This reduces the probability of waves forming before or after the trailing edge. The most sophisticated construction is the bell type nozzle. It allows you to maximize performance without adding extra weight. The bell type nozzle can be used as a starter and auxiliary engine nozzle due to its advantages. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, nozzle, rocket engine, supersonic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
148 Effect of Different Diesel Fuels on Formation of the Cavitation Phenomena

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi


Cavitation inside the diesel injector nozzle is investigated numerically in this study. Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes set of equations (RANS) are utilized to investigate flow behavior inside the nozzle numerically. Moreover, K-ε turbulent model is found to be a better approach comparing to K-ω turbulent model. Winklhofer rectangular shape nozzle is also simulated in order to verify the current numerical scheme, and with, mass flow rate approach, the current solution is verified. Afterward, a six-hole real-size nozzle was simulated, and it was found that among different fuels used in this study with the same condition, diesel fuel provides the largest length of cavitation. Also, it was found that at the same boundary condition, RME fuel leads to the highest value of discharge coefficient and mass flow rate.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, discharge coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
147 Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging

Authors: H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig


A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both two and three dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.

Keywords: clogging, continuous casting, inclusion, simulation, submerged entry nozzle

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
146 Improvement Performances of the Supersonic Nozzles at High Temperature Type Minimum Length Nozzle

Authors: W. Hamaidia, T. Zebbiche


This paper presents the design of axisymmetric supersonic nozzles, in order to accelerate a supersonic flow to the desired Mach number and that having a small weight, in the same time gives a high thrust. The concerned nozzle gives a parallel and uniform flow at the exit section. The nozzle is divided into subsonic and supersonic regions. The supersonic portion is independent to the upstream conditions of the sonic line. The subsonic portion is used to give a sonic flow at the throat. In this case, nozzle gives a uniform and parallel flow at the exit section. It’s named by minimum length Nozzle. The study is done at high temperature, lower than the dissociation threshold of the molecules, in order to improve the aerodynamic performances. Our aim consists of improving the performances both by the increase of exit Mach number and the thrust coefficient and by reduction of the nozzle's mass. The variation of the specific heats with the temperature is considered. The design is made by the Method of Characteristics. The finite differences method with predictor-corrector algorithm is used to make the numerical resolution of the obtained nonlinear algebraic equations. The application is for air. All the obtained results depend on three parameters which are exit Mach number, the stagnation temperature, the chosen mesh in characteristics. A numerical simulation of nozzle through Computational Fluid Dynamics-FASTRAN was done to determine and to confirm the necessary design parameters.

Keywords: flux supersonic flow, axisymmetric minimum length nozzle, high temperature, method of characteristics, calorically imperfect gas, finite difference method, trust coefficient, mass of the nozzle, specific heat at constant pressure, air, error

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
145 Experimental Study on Dehumidification Performance of Supersonic Nozzle

Authors: Esam Jassim


Supersonic nozzles are commonly used to purify natural gas in gas processing technology. As an innovated technology, it is employed to overcome the deficit of the traditional method, related to gas dynamics, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics theory. An indoor test rig is built to study the dehumidification process of moisture fluid. Humid air was chosen for the study. The working fluid was circulating in an open loop, which had provision for filtering, metering, and humidifying. A stainless steel supersonic separator is constructed together with the C-D nozzle system. The result shows that dehumidification enhances as NPR increases. This is due to the high intensity in the turbulence caused by the shock formation in the divergent section. Such disturbance strengthens the centrifugal force, pushing more particles toward the near-wall region. In return return, the pressure recovery factor, defined as the ratio of the outlet static pressure of the fluid to its inlet value, decreases with NPR.

Keywords: supersonic nozzle, dehumidification, particle separation, nozzle geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
144 Development of Surface Modification Technology for Control Element Drive Mechanism Nozzle and Fatigue Enhancement of Ni-Based Alloys

Authors: Auezhan Amanov, Inho Cho, Young-Sik Pyun


Control element drive mechanism (CEDM) nozzle is manufactured as welded on the reactor vessel and currently uses Alloy 690 material. The top of the reactor is equipped with about 100 CEDM nozzles with an internal diameter of about 70 mm. Relatively large Inlet/Outlet nozzles are equipped with two outlet nozzles and four inlet nozzles on the reactor wall. The inner diameter of the nozzle is vulnerable to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and in order to solve this problem, an ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) treatment is performed on the inner diameter of the nozzle and the weld surface. The ultimate goal is to improve the service life of parts by applying compressive residual stress and suppressing primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The main purpose is to design and fabricate a UNSM treatment device for the internal diameter processing of CEDM nozzles and inlet/outlet nozzles. In order to develop the system, the basic technology such as the development of UNSM tooling is developed and the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of before and after UNSM treatment of reactor nozzle material made of Ni-based alloys using the specimen are compared and evaluated. The inner diameter of the nozzle was treated by a newly developed UNSM treatment under the optimized treatment parameters. It was found that the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of nozzle were improved in comparison with the untreated nozzle, which may be attributed to the increase in hardness, induced compressive residual stress.

Keywords: control element drive mechanism nozzle, fatigue, Ni-based alloy, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification, UNSM

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
143 Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility

Authors: Prateek Kishore, T. M. Muruganandam


Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.

Keywords: method of characteristics, nozzle, supersonic wind tunnel, variable mach number

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
142 Effect of Highly Pressurized Dispersion Arc Nozzle on Breakup of Oil Leakage in Offshore

Authors: N. M. M. Ammar, S. M. Mustaqim, N. M. Nadzir


The most important problem occurs on oil spills in sea water is to reduce the oil spills size. This study deals with the development of high pressurized nozzle using dispersion method for oil leakage in offshore. 3D numerical simulation results were obtained using ANSYS Fluent 13.0 code and correlate with the experimental data for validation. This paper studies the contribution of the process on flow speed and pressure of the flow from two different geometrical designs of nozzles and to generate a spray pattern suitable for dispersant application. Factor of size distribution of droplets generated by the nozzle is calculated using pressures ranging from 2 to 6 bars. Results obtain from both analyses shows a significant spray pattern and flow distribution as well as distance. Results also show a significant contribution on the effect of oil leakage in terms of the diameter of the oil spills break up.

Keywords: arc nozzle, CFD simulation, droplets, oil spills

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
141 Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Spray Atomization Characteristics

Authors: Arya Pirooz


Air and fuel must be mixed correctly so that there is perfect combustion, which calls for fuel atomization by injection. In this study, the effects of different parameters such as number of orifices, length and diameter of orifices, diameter of nozzle sac and the angle of needle seat in injectors were investigated with the use of rate of injection and sac pressure. The unit pump of the OM-457 diesel engine was modelled on Avl-Hydsim. The results illustrate that the sac pressure decreased by 46% when the number of holes were doubled, although the rate of injection had an immense change. Also, the sac pressure increased up to 60% when the diameter of orifices decreased by 40% in spite of the semi-constant injection rate.

Keywords: injection, OM-457 engine, nozzle geometry, atomization

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
140 Application of Subversion Analysis in the Search for the Causes of Cracking in a Marine Engine Injector Nozzle

Authors: Leszek Chybowski, Artur Bejger, Katarzyna Gawdzińska


Subversion analysis is a tool used in the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) methodology. This article introduces the history and describes the process of subversion analysis, as well as function analysis and analysis of the resources, used at the design stage when generating possible undesirable situations. The article charts the course of subversion analysis when applied to a fuel injection nozzle of a marine engine. The work describes the fuel injector nozzle as a technological system and presents principles of analysis for the causes of a cracked tip of the nozzle body. The system is modelled with functional analysis. A search for potential causes of the damage is undertaken and a cause-and-effect analysis for various hypotheses concerning the damage is drawn up. The importance of particular hypotheses is evaluated and the most likely causes of damage identified.

Keywords: complex technical system, fuel injector, function analysis, importance analysis, resource analysis, sabotage analysis, subversion analysis, TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving)

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
139 Pulsed Vortex Flow in Low–Temperature Range Heat Pipes

Authors: A. V. Seryakov


The work presents part calculation and part experimental research of the intensification of heat-transfer characteristics of medium-temperature heat pipes. Presented is a vapour jet nozzle, similar to the Laval nozzle, surrounded by a capillary-porous insert along the full length of the heat pipe axial to the direction of heat flow. This increases velocity of the vapour flow, heat-transfer coefficient and pulse rate of two-phase vapour flow.

Keywords: medium-temperature range heat pipes, capillary-porous insert, capillary steam injectors, Laval nozzle, condensation sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
138 A Sliding Mesh Technique and Compressibility Correction Effects of Two-Equation Turbulence Models for a Pintle-Perturbed Flow Analysis

Authors: J. Y. Heo, H. G. Sung


Numerical simulations have been performed for assessment of compressibility correction of two-equation turbulence models suitable for large scale separation flows perturbed by pintle strokes. In order to take into account pintle movement, a sliding mesh method was applied. The chamber pressure, mass flow rate, and thrust have been analyzed, and the response lag and sensitivity at the chamber and nozzle were estimated for a movable pintle. The nozzle performance for pintle reciprocating as its insertion and extraction processes, were analyzed to better understand the dynamic performance of the pintle nozzle.

Keywords: pintle, sliding mesh, turbulent model, compressibility correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
137 An Automated Approach to the Nozzle Configuration of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Drill Bits for Effective Cuttings Removal

Authors: R. Suresh, Pavan Kumar Nimmagadda, Ming Zo Tan, Shane Hart, Sharp Ugwuocha


Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are extensively used in the oil and gas industry as well as the mining industry. Industry engineers continually improve upon PDC drill bit designs and hydraulic conditions. Optimized injection nozzles play a key role in improving the drilling performance and efficiency of these ever changing PDC drill bits. In the first part of this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is performed to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of drilling fluid flow around the PDC drill bit. An Open-source CFD software – OpenFOAM simulates the flow around the drill bit, based on the field input data. A specifically developed console application integrates the entire CFD process including, domain extraction, meshing, and solving governing equations and post-processing. The results from the OpenFOAM solver are then compared with that of the ANSYS Fluent software. The data from both software programs agree. The second part of the paper describes the parametric study of the PDC drill bit nozzle to determine the effect of parameters such as number of nozzles, nozzle velocity, nozzle radial position and orientations on the flow field characteristics and bit washing patterns. After analyzing a series of nozzle configurations, the best configuration is identified and recommendations are made for modifying the PDC bit design.

Keywords: ANSYS Fluent, computational fluid dynamics, nozzle configuration, OpenFOAM, PDC dill bit

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
136 Prediction of Scour Profile Caused by Submerged Three-Dimensional Wall Jets

Authors: Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar


Series of laboratory tests were carried out to study the extent of scour caused by a three-dimensional wall jets exiting from a square cross-section nozzle and into a non-cohesive sand beds. Previous observations have indicated that the effect of the tailwater depth was significant for densimetric Froude number greater than ten. However, the present results indicate that the cut off value could be lower depending on the value of grain size-to-nozzle width ratio. Numbers of equations are drawn out for a better scaling of numerous scour parameters. Also suggested the empirical prediction of scour to predict the scour centre line profile and plan view of scour profile at any particular time.

Keywords: densimetric froude number, jets, nozzle, sand, scour, tailwater, time

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
135 Performance of Different Spray Nozzles in the Application of Defoliant on Cotton Plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Authors: Mohamud Ali Ibrahim, Ali Bayat, Ali Bolat


Defoliant spraying is an important link in the mechanized cotton harvest because adequate and uniform spraying can improve defoliation quality and reduce cotton trash content. In defoliant application, application volume and spraying technology are extremely important. In this study, the effectiveness of defoliant application to cotton plant that has come to harvest with two different application volumes and three different types of nozzles with a standard field crop sprayer was determined. Experiments were carried in two phases as field area trials and laboratory analysis. Application rates were 250 l/ha and 400 L/ha, and spraying nozzles were (1) Standard flat fan nozzle (TP8006), (2) Air induction nozzle (AI 11002-VS), and (3) Dual Pattern nozzle (AI307003VP). A tracer (BSF) and defoliant were applied to mature cotton with approximately 60% open bolls and samplings for BSF deposition and spray coverage on the cotton plant were done at two plant height (upper layer, lower layer) of plant. Before and after spraying, bolls open and leaves rate on cotton plants were calculated, and filter papers were used to detect BSF deposition, and water sensitive papers (WSP) were used to measure the coverage rate of spraying methods used. Spectrofluorophotometer was used to detect the amount of tracer deposition on targets, and an image process computer programme was used to measure coverage rate on WSP. In analysis, conclusions showed that air induction nozzle (AI 11002-VS) achieved better results than the dual pattern and standard flat fan nozzles in terms of higher depositions, coverages, and leaf defoliations, and boll opening rates. AI nozzles operating at 250 L/ha application rate provide the highest deposition and coverage rate on applications of the defoliant; in addition, BSF as an indicator of the defoliant used reached on leaf beneath in merely this spray nozzle. After defoliation boll opening rate was 85% on the 7th and 12th days after spraying and falling rate of leaves was 76% at application rate of 250 L/ha with air induction (AI1102) nozzle.

Keywords: cotton defoliant, air induction nozzle, dual pattern nozzle, standard flat fan nozzle, coverage rate, spray deposition, boll opening rate, leaves falling rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
134 Modeling and Simulation of Turbulence Induced in Nozzle Cavitation and Its Effects on Internal Flow in a High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Ali Javaid, Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Imran Shafi


To control combustion inside a direct injection diesel engine, fuel atomization is the best tool. Controlling combustion helps in reducing emissions and improves efficiency. Cavitation is one of the most important factors that significantly affect the nature of spray before it injects into combustion chamber. Typical fuel injector nozzles are small and operate at a very high pressure, which limits the study of internal nozzle behavior especially in case of diesel engine. Simulating cavitation in a fuel injector will help in understanding the phenomenon and will assist in further development. There is a parametric variation between high speed and high torque low speed diesel engines. The objective of this study is to simulate internal spray characteristics for a low speed high torque diesel engine. In-nozzle cavitation has strong effects on the parameters e.g. mass flow rate, fuel velocity, and momentum flux of fuel that is to be injected into the combustion chamber. The external spray dynamics and subsequently the air – fuel mixing depends on a lot of the parameters of fuel injecting the nozzle. The approach used to model turbulence induced in – nozzle cavitation for high-torque low-speed diesel engine, is homogeneous equilibrium model. The governing equations were modeled using Matlab. Complete Model in question was extensively evaluated by performing 3-D time-dependent simulations on Open FOAM, which is an open source flow solver and implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). Results thus obtained will be analyzed for better evaporation in the near-nozzle region. The proposed analyses will further help in better engine efficiency, low emission, and improved fuel economy.

Keywords: cavitation, HEM model, nozzle flow, open foam, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
133 Numerical Modeling the Cavitating Flow in Injection Nozzle Holes

Authors: Ridha Zgolli, Hatem Kanfoudi


Cavitating flows inside a diesel injection nozzle hole were simulated using a mixture model. A 2D numerical model is proposed in this paper to simulate steady cavitating flows. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the liquid and vapor mixture, which is considered as a single fluid with variable density which is expressed as function of the vapor volume fraction. The closure of this variable is provided by the transport equation with a source term TEM. The processes of evaporation and condensation are governed by changes in pressure within the flow. The source term is implanted in the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The influence of numerical and physical parameters is presented in details. The numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data for steady flow.

Keywords: cavitation, injection nozzle, numerical simulation, k–ω

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
132 Thrust Vectoring Control of Supersonic Flow through an Orifice Injector

Authors: I. Mnafeg, A. Abichou, L. Beji


Traditional mechanical control systems in thrust vectoring are efficient in rocket thrust guidance but their costs and their weights are excessive. The fluidic injection in the nozzle divergent constitutes an alternative procedure to achieve the goal. In this paper, we present a 3D analytical model for fluidic injection in a supersonic nozzle integrating an orifice. The fluidic vectoring uses a sonic secondary injection in the divergent. As a result, the flow and interaction between the main and secondary jet has built in order to express the pressure fields from which the forces and thrust vectoring are deduced. Under various separation criteria, the present analytical model results are compared with the existing numerical and experimental data from the literature.

Keywords: flow separation, fluidic thrust vectoring, nozzle, secondary jet, shock wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
131 Fabrication of Uniform Nanofibers Using Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle Based Microfluidic Liquid Jet System

Authors: R. Vasireddi, J. Kruse, M. Vakili, M. Trebbin


Here we present a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) based microfluidic jetting devices for spinning of nano/microfibers. The device is fabricated by soft lithography techniques and is based on the principle of a GDVN for precise three-dimensional gas focusing of the spinning solution. The nozzle device is used to produce micro/nanofibers of a perfluorinated terpolymer (THV), which were collected on an aluminum substrate for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The influences of air pressure, polymer concentration, flow rate and nozzle geometry on the fiber properties were investigated. It was revealed that surface properties are controlled by air pressure and polymer concentration while the diameter and shape of the fibers are influenced mostly by the concentration of the polymer solution and pressure. Alterations of the nozzle geometry had a negligible effect on the fiber properties, however, the jetting stability was affected. Round and flat fibers with differing surface properties from craters, grooves to smooth surfaces could be fabricated by controlling the above-mentioned parameters. Furthermore, the formation of surface roughness was attributed to the fast evaporation rate and velocity (mis)match between the polymer solution jet and the surrounding air stream. The diameter of the fibers could be tuned from ~250 nm to ~15 µm. Because of the simplicity of the setup, the precise control of the fiber properties, access to biocompatible nanofiber fabrication and the easy scale-up of parallel channels for high throughput, this method offers significant benefits compared to existing solution-based fiber production methods.

Keywords: gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) principle, microfluidic device, spinning, uniform nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
130 Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on the Flow at the Outlet of a Propellant Nozzle

Authors: R. Haoui


The purpose of this work is to simulate the flow at the exit of Vulcan 1 engine of European launcher Ariane 5. The geometry of the propellant nozzle is already determined using the characteristics method. The pressure in the outlet section of the nozzle is less than atmospheric pressure on the ground, causing the existence of oblique and normal shock waves at the exit. During the rise of the launcher, the atmospheric pressure decreases and the shock wave disappears. The code allows the capture of shock wave at exit of nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer to ensure convergence and avoid the calculation instabilities. The Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy coefficient (CFL) and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence. The nonlinear partial derivative equations system which governs this flow is solved by an explicit unsteady numerical scheme by the finite volume method. The accuracy of the solution depends on the size of the mesh and also the step of time used in the discretized equations. We have chosen in this study the mesh that gives us a stationary solution with good accuracy.

Keywords: finite volume, lunchers, nozzles, shock wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
129 Optimum Design of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Abdullah Bolek, Oktay Yilmaz, Ertan Oznergiz, Hikmet Kocabas, Safak Yilmaz


Nanofibers are effective material which have frequently been investigated to produce high quality air filters. As an environmental approach our aim is to achieve nanofibers by melting. In spun-bond systems extruder, spin-pump, nozzle package and attenuator are used. Molten polymer which flows from extruder is made steady by spin-pump. Regular melt passes through nozzle holes and forms fibers under high pressure. The fibers pulled from nozzle are shrunk to micron size by an attenuator, after solidification they are collected on a conveyor. In this research different designs of attenuator system have been studied and also CFD analysis have been done on them. Afterwards, one of these designs tested and finally some optimizations have been done to reduce pressure loss and increase air velocity.

Keywords: attenuator, nanofiber, spun-bond, extruder

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