Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3361

Search results for: molecular characterization

3361 Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement

Authors: Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.

Keywords: molecular markers, crop productivity, genetic diversity, genotype

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3360 In-Vitro Dextran Synthesis and Characterization of an Intracellular Glucosyltransferase from Leuconostoc Mesenteroides AA1

Authors: Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader

Abstract:

Dextransucrase [EC 2.4.1.5] is a glucosyltransferase that catalysis the biosynthesis of a natural biopolymer called dextran. It can catalyze the transfer of D-glucopyranosyl residues from sucrose to the main chain of dextran. This unique biopolymer has multiple applications in several industries and the key utilization of dextran lies on its molecular weight and the type of branching. Extracellular dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides is most extensively studied and characterized. Limited data is available regarding cell-bound or intracellular dextransucrase and on the characterization of dextran produced by in-vitro reaction of intracellular dextransucrase. L. mesenteroides AA1 is reported to produce extracellular dextransucrase that catalyzes biosynthesis of a high molecular weight dextran with only α-(1→6) linkage. Current study deals with the characterization of an intracellular dextransucrase and in vitro biosynthesis of low molecular weight dextran from L. mesenteroides AA1. Intracellular dextransucrase was extracted from cytoplasm and purified to homogeneity for characterization. Kinetic constants, molecular weight and N-terminal sequence analysis of intracellular dextransucrase reveal unique variation with previously reported extracellular dextransucrase from the same strain. In vitro synthesized biopolymer was characterized using NMR spectroscopic techniques. Intracellular dextransucrase exhibited Vmax and Km values of 130.8 DSU ml-1 hr-1 and 221.3 mM, respectively. Optimum catalytic activity was detected at 35°C in 0.15 M citrate phosphate buffer (pH-5.5) in 05 minutes. Molecular mass of purified intracellular dextransucrase is approximately 220.0 kDa on SDS-PAGE. N-terminal sequence of the intracellular enzyme is: GLPGYFGVN that showed no homology with previously reported sequence for the extracellular dextransucrase. This intracellular dextransucrase is capable of in vitro synthesis of dextran under specific conditions. This intracellular dextransucrase is capable of in vitro synthesis of dextran under specific conditions and this biopolymer can be hydrolyzed into different molecular weight fractions for various applications.

Keywords: characterization, dextran, dextransucrase, leuconostoc mesenteroides

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3359 Molecular Characterization of Ardi Goat Assisted by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: M. F. Elzarei, A. M. Alseaf

Abstract:

Hundred uncorrelated animal and thirty six markers were used in this study to study the molecular characterization of Saudi native Ardi goat (BM18189, ILSTS030, INRA005, OarFCB48, BM2113, ILSTS033, INRA023, RM088, CSRD247, ILSTS034, INRA063, SRCRSP1, ILSTS002, ILSTS044, INRA172, SRCRSP5, ILSTS005, ILSTS049, MAF70, SRCRSP8, ILSTS011, ILSTS058, OarAE54, SRCRSP9, ILSTS019, ILSTS059, OARCP34, TGLA53, ILSTS022, ILSTS082, OARE129, TGLA73, ILSTS029, ILSTS087, OARE193, and RM004). Ardi goat showed high variability. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 in SRCRSP1 locus to 13.5 in CSRD247 locus. Gene diversities varied within a wide range, from 0.53 in ILSTS002 locus to 0.86 in RM088 locus. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in order to evaluate the significance of inbreeding occurring in each locus in Ardi population. Only SRCRSP9, INRA005, ILSTS030 loci showed significance in this way.

Keywords: molecular characterization, microsatellite markers, Ardi goats, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

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3358 Molecular Characterization of Cysticercus tenuicolis of Slaughtered Livestock in Upper-Egypt Governorates

Authors: Mosaab A. Omara, Layla O. Elmajdoubb, Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboodyc, Ahmed ElSifyd, Ahmed O. Elkhtamd

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to present the molecular characterization of cysticercus tenuicolis of Taenia hydatigena from livestock isolates in Egypt, using the amplification of sequencing of the mt-CO1 gene. We introduce a detailed image of the Cysticercus tenuicolis infection in ruminant animals in Upper Egypt. Cysticercus tenuicolis inhabits such organs in ruminants as the omentum, viscera, and liver. In the present study, the infection rate of Cysticercus tenuicolis was found to be 16% and 19% in sheep and goat sample respectively. Firstly we report one larval stage of Taenia hydatigena detected in the camel liver in Egypt. Cysticercus tenuicolis infection manifested a higher prevalence in females than in males. Those above 2 years of age manifested a higher infection rate than younger animals. The preferred site for the infection was the omentum: a 70% preference in sheep and a 68% preference in goat samples. The molecular characterization using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene of isolates from sheep, goats and camels corresponded to T. hydatigena. For this study, molecular characterizations of T. hydatigena were done for the first time in Egypt. Molecular tools are of great assistance in characterizing the Cysticercus tenuicolis parasite especially when the morphological character cannot be detected because the metacestodes are frequently confused with infection by the Hydatid cyst, especially when these occur in the visceral organs. In the present study, Cysticercus tenuicolis manifested high identity in the goat and sheep samples, while differences were found more frequently in the camel samples (10 pairbase). Clearly molecular diagnosis for Cysticercus tenuicolis infection significantly helps to differentiate it from such other metacestodes.

Keywords: cysticercus tenuicolis, its2, genetic, qena, molecular and taenia hydatigena

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3357 Molecular Characterization of Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Karnataka, India

Authors: D. S. Malatesh, K. J. Ananda, C. Ansar Kamran, K. Ganesh Udupa

Abstract:

Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode of dogs and other carnivores and accidentally affects humans. D. repens is reported in many countries, including India. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is a zoonotic disease, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, with higher prevalence reported in dogs from Sri Lanka (30-60%), Iran (61%) and Italy (21-25%). Dirofilariasis in dogs was diagnosed by detection of microfilariae in blood. Identification of different Dirofilaria species was done by using molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though many researchers reported molecular evidence of D. repens across India, to our best knowledge there is no data available on molecular diagnosis of D. repens in dogs and its zoonotic implication in Karnataka state a southern state in India. The aim of the present study was to identify the Dirofilaria species occurring in dogs from Karnataka, India. Out of 310 samples screened for the presence of microfilariae using traditional diagnostic methods, 99 (31.93%) were positive for the presence of microfilariae. Based on the morphometry, the microfilariae were identified as D. repens. For confirmation of species, the samples were subjected to PCR using pan filarial primers (DIDR-F1, DIDR-R1) for amplification of internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. The PCR product of 484 base pairs on agarose gel was indicative of D. repens. Hence, a single PCR reaction using pan filarial primers can be used to differentiate filarial species found in dogs. The present study confirms that dirofilarial species occurring in dogs from Karnataka is D. repens and further sequencing studies are needed for genotypic characterization of D. repens.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, molecular characterization, polymerase chain reaction, Karnataka, India

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3356 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim

Abstract:

Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

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3355 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

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3354 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Mycoplasmosis in Sheep in Egypt

Authors: Walid Mousa, Mohamed Nayel, Ahmed Zaghawa, Akram Salama, Ahmed El-Sify, Hesham Rashad, Dina El-Shafey

Abstract:

Mycoplasmosis in small ruminants constitutes a serious contagious problem in smallholders causing severe economic losses worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the clinical, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma species associated in sheep breeding herds in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt. Out of the examination of 400 sheep, 104 (26%) showed respiratory manifestations, nasal discharges, cough and conjunctivitis with systemic body reaction. Meanwhile, out of these examined sheep, only 56 (14%) were positive for mycoplasma isolation onto PPLO(Pleuropneumonia-like organisms) specific medium. The MIC for evaluating the efficacy of sensitivity of Mycoplasma isolates against different antibiotics groups revealed that both the Linospectin and Tylosin with 2ug, 0.25ug/ml concentration were the most effective antibiotics for Mycoplasma isolates. The application of PCR was the rapid, specific and sensitive molecular approach for detection of M. ovipneumoniae, and M. arginine at 390 and 326 bp, respectively, in all tested isolates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Mycoplsamosis in sheep is important to achieve effective control measures and minimizing the disease dissemination among sheep herds.

Keywords: MIC, mycoplasmosis, PCR, sheep

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3353 Analysis of Some Produced Inhibitors for Corrosion of J55 Steel in NaCl Solution Saturated with CO₂

Authors: Ambrish Singh

Abstract:

The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran (AP) and benzimidazole (BI) derivatives on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ was investigated by electrochemical, weight loss, surface characterization, and theoretical studies. The electrochemical studies included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), and electrochemical frequency modulation trend (EFMT). Surface characterization was done using contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) studies were done using Gaussian and Materials Studio softwares. All the studies suggested the good inhibition by the synthesized inhibitors on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ due to the formation of a protective film on the surface. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitor, EFM, AFM, DFT, MD

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3352 Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Diffused by Molybdenum

Authors: Alaeddine Kaouka

Abstract:

The properties and characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different contents of Mo were investigated. Microstructure characterization and hardness are considered. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Mo stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The Mo element added to titanium alloys changes the lattice parameters of phases. Microstructural observations indicate an obvious reduction in the prior grain size. The hardness has increased with the increase in β-phase stability, while Young’s modulus and ductility have decreased.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical properties, molybdenum, titanium alloy

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3351 Molecular Characterization of Major Isolated Organism Involved in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: H. K. Ratre, M. Roy, S. Roy, M. S. Parmar, V. Bhagat

Abstract:

Mastitis is a common problem of dairy industries. Reduction in milk production and an irreparable damage to the udder associated with the disease are common causes of culling of dairy cows. Milk from infected animals is not suitable for drinking and for making different milk products. So, it has a major economic importance in dairy cattle. The aims of this study were to investigate the bacteriological panorama in milk from udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and to carried out for the molecular characterization of the major isolated organisms, from subclinical mastitis-affected cows in and around Durg and Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. Isolation and identification of bacteria from the milk samples of subclinical mastitis-affected cows were done by standard and routine culture procedures. A total of 78 isolates were obtained from cows and among the various bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus spp. occupied prime position with occurrence rate of 51.282%. However, other bacteria isolated includeStreptococcus spp. (20.512%), Micrococcus spp. (14.102%), E. coli (8.974%), Klebsiela spp. (2.564%), Salmonella spp. (1.282%) and Proteus spp. (1.282%). Staphylococcus spp. was isolated as the major causative agent of subclinical mastitis in the studied area. Molecular characterization of Staphylococus aureusisolates was done for genetic expression of the virulence genes like ‘nuc’ encoding thermonucleaseexoenzyme, coa and spa by PCR amplification of the respective genes in 25 Staphylococcus isolates. In the present study, 15 isolates (77.27%) out of 20 coagulase positive isolates were found to be genotypically positive for ‘nuc’ where as 20 isolates (52.63%) out of 38 CNS expressed the presence of the same virulence gene. In the present study, three Staphylococcus isolates were found to be genotypically positive for coa gene. The Amplification of the coa gene yielded two different products of 627, 710 bp. The amplification of the gene segment encoding the IgG binding region of protein A (spa) revealed a size of 220 and 253bp in twostaphylococcus isolates. The X-region binding of the spa gene produced an amplicon of 315 bp in one Staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be major isolate (51.28%) responsible for causing subclinical mastitis in cows which also showed expression of virulence genesnuc, coa and spa.

Keywords: mastitis, bacteria, characterization, expression, gene

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3350 Characterization Microstructural Dual Phase Steel for Application In Civil Engineering

Authors: S. Habibi, T. E. Guarcia, A. Megueni, A. Ziadi, L. Aminallah, A. S. Bouchikhi

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The characterization of the microstructure of Dual Phase steel in various low-carbon, with a yield stress between 400 and 900 MPa were conducted .In order to assess the mechanical properties of steel, we examined the influence of their chemical compositions interictal and heat treatments (austenite + ferrite area) on their micro structures. In this work, we have taken a number of commercial DP steels, micro structurally characterized and used the conventional tensile testing of these steels for mechanical characterization.

Keywords: characterization, construction in civil engineering, micro structure, tensile DP steel

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3349 Phylogenetic Analyses of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Unvaccinated Chicken Flocks in Kyrgyzstan from 2015 to 2016

Authors: Giang Tran Thi Huong, Hieu Dong Van, Tung Dao Duy, Saadanov Iskender, Isakeev Mairambek, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yuki Ozeki, Yohei Takeda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai

Abstract:

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious viral disease of the poultry industry and other birds throughout the world. At present, very little is known about molecular epidemiological data regarding the causes of ND outbreak in commercial poultry farms in Kyrgyzstan. In the current study, the NDV isolated from the one out of three samples from the unvaccinated flock was confirmed as NDV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this NDV strain is clustered in the Class II subgenotype VIId, and closely related to the Chinese NDV isolate. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolated NDV strain has an origin different from the 4 NDV strains previously identified in Kyrgyzstan. According to the mean death time (MDT: 61.1 h) and a multibasic amino acid (aa) sequence at the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (¹¹²R-R-Q-K-R-F¹¹⁷), the NDV isolate was determined as mesogenic strain. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes (notably, ³⁴⁷E→K) and the global head were observed in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of the current isolate. The present study represents the molecular characterization of the coding gene region of NDV in Kyrgyzstan. Additionally, further study will be investigated on the antigenic characterization using monoclonal antibody.

Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, Newcastle disease, genotype, genome characterization

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3348 Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Generated Waste in Nouri Petrochemical Complex, Assaluyeh, Iran

Authors: L. Heidari, M. Jalili Ghazizade

Abstract:

In recent years, different petrochemical complexes have been established to produce aromatic compounds. Among them, Nouri Petrochemical Complex (NPC) is the largest producer of aromatic raw materials in the world, and is located in south of Iran. Environmental concerns have been raised in this region due to generation of different types of solid waste generated in the process of aromatics production, and subsequently, industrial waste characterization has been thoroughly considered. The aim of this study is qualitative and quantitative characterization of industrial waste generated in the aromatics production process and determination of the best method for industrial waste management. For this purpose, all generated industrial waste during the production process was determined using a checklist. Four main industrial wastes were identified as follows: spent industrial soil, spent catalyst, spent molecular sieves and spent N-formyl morpholine (NFM) solvent. The amount of heavy metals and organic compounds in these wastes were further measured in order to identify the nature and toxicity of such a dangerous compound. Then industrial wastes were classified based on lab analysis results as well as using different international lists of hazardous waste identification such as EPA, UNEP and Basel Convention. Finally, the best method of waste disposal is selected based on environmental, economic and technical aspects. 

Keywords: aromatic compounds, industrial soil, molecular sieve, normal formyl morpholine solvent

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3347 Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Influenza a(H3N2) Virus Circulating during the 2010-2011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ghazanfar Ali, Fahad N Almajhdi

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This study provides data on the viral diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H3N2) virus isolated in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 80 clinically infected patients in the peak of the 2010-2011 winter seasons were processed for viral diagnosis by RT-PCR. Sequencing of entire HA and NA genes of representative isolates and molecular epidemiological analysis were performed. A total of 06 patients were positive for influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial viruses by RT-PCR assays; out of these only one sample was positive for influenza A(H3N2) by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA gene sequences showed identities higher than 99-98.8 % in both genes. They were also similar to reference isolates in HA sequences (99 % identity) and in NA sequences (99 % identity). Amino acid sequences predicted for the HA gene were highly identical to reference strains. The NA amino acid substitutions identified did not include the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y substitution. Conclusion: Viral isolation and RT-PCR together were useful for diagnosis of the influenza A (H3N2) virus. Variations in HA and NA sequences are similar to those identified in worldwide reference isolates and no drug resistance was found.

Keywords: influenza A (H3N2), genetic characterization, viral isolation, RT-PCR, Saudi Arabia

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3346 Characterization of Organic Matter in Spodosol Amazonian by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Authors: Amanda M. Tadini, Houssam Hajjoul, Gustavo Nicolodelli, Stéphane Mounier, Célia R. Montes, Débora M. B. P. Milori

Abstract:

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in maintaining soil productivity and accounting for the promotion of biological diversity. The main components of the SOM are the humic substances which can be fractionated according to its solubility in humic acid (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (HU). The determination of the chemical properties of organic matter as well as its interaction with metallic species is an important tool for understanding the structure of the humic fractions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as a source of information about what is happening at the molecular level in these compounds. Specially, soils of Amazon region are an important ecosystem of the planet. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular and structural composition of HA samples from Spodosol of Amazonia using the fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (EEM) and Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRFS). The results showed that the samples of HA showed two fluorescent components; one has a more complex structure and the other one has a simpler structure, which was also seen in TRFS through the evaluation of each sample lifetime. Thus, studies of this nature become important because it aims to evaluate the molecular and structural characteristics of the humic fractions in the region that is considered as one of the most important regions in the world, the Amazon.

Keywords: Amazonian soil, characterization, fluorescence, humic acid, lifetime

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3345 Comparative Assessment of ISSR and RAPD Markers among Egyptian Jojoba Shrubs

Authors: Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled, Galal A.R. El-Sherbeny, Ahmed M. Hassanein, Gameel M. G. Aly

Abstract:

Classical methods of identification, based on agronomical characterization, are not always the most accurate way due to the instability of these characteristics under the influence of the different environments. In order to estimate the genetic diversity, molecular markers provided excellent tools. In this study, Genetic variation of nine Egyptian jojoba shrubs was tested using ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers and based on the morphological characterization. The average of the percentage of polymorphism (%P) ranged between 58.17% and 74.07% for ISSR and RAPD markers, respectively. The range of genetic similarity percents among shrubs based on ISSR and RAPD markers were from 82.9 to 97.9% and from 85.5 to 97.8%, respectively. The average of PIC (polymorphism information content) values were 0.19 (ISSR) and 0.24 (RAPD). In the present study, RAPD markers were more efficient than the ISSR markers. Where the RAPD technique exhibited higher marker index (MI) average (1.26) compared to ISSR one (1.11). There was an insignificant correlation between the ISSR and RAPD data (0.076, P > 0.05). The dendrogram constructed by the combined RAPD and ISSR data gave a relatively different clustering pattern.

Keywords: correlation, molecular markers, polymorphism, marker index

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3344 Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Capripoxviruses from Outbreak in Iran 2021

Authors: Maryam Torabi, Habibi, Abdolahi, Mohammadi, Hassanzadeh, Darban Maghami, Baghi

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Sheeppox Virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV) are considerable diseases of sheep, and goats, caused by viruses of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus. They are responsible for economic losses. Animal mortality, morbidity, cost of vaccinations, and restrictions in animal products’ trade are the reasons of economic losses. Control and eradication of CaPV depend on early detection of outbreaks so that molecular detection and genetic analysis could be effective to this aim. This study was undertaken to molecularly characterize SPPV and GTPV strains that have been circulating in Iran. 120 skin papules and nodule biopsies were collected from different regions of Iran and were examined for SPPV, GTPV viruses using TaqMan Real -Time PCR. Some of these amplified genes were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Out of the 120 samples analysed, 98 were positive for CaPV by Real- Time PCR (81.6%), and most of them wereSPPV. then 10 positive samples were sequenced and characterized by amplifying the ORF 103CaPV gene. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis for these positive samples revealed a high percentage of identity with SPPV isolated from different countries in Middle East. In conclusions, molecular characterization revealed nearly complete identity with all recent SPPVs strains in local countries that requires further studies to monitor the virus evolution and transmission pathways to better understand the virus pathobiology that will help for SPPV control.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology, Real-Time PCR, phylogenetic analysis, capripoxviruses

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3343 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Alamgir Hossain

Abstract:

The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Cox1, 12S rRNA, molecular characterization, Bangladesh

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3342 Characterization of Coal Fly Ash with Potential Use in the Manufacture Geopolymers to Solidify/Stabilize Heavy Metal Ions

Authors: P. M. Fonseca Alfonso, E. A. Murillo Ruiz, M. Diaz Lagos

Abstract:

Understanding the physicochemical properties and mineralogy of fly ash from a particular source is essential for to protect the environment and considering its possible applications, specifically, in the production of geopolymeric materials that solidify/stabilize heavy metals ions. The results of the characterization of three fly ash samples are shown in this paper. The samples were produced in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant in the State of Boyaca, Colombia. The particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogy, and molecular structure of three samples were analyzed using laser diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy respectively. The particle size distribution of the three samples probably ranges from 0.128 to 211 μm. Approximately 59 elements have been identified in the three samples. It is noticeable that the ashes are made up of aluminum and silicon compounds. Besides, the iron phase in low content was also found. According to the results found in this study, the fly ash samples type F has a great potential to be used as raw material for the manufacture of geopolymers with potential use in the stabilization/solidification of heavy metals; mainly due to the presence of amorphous aluminosilicates typical of this type of ash, which react effectively with alkali-activator.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymers, molecular structure, physicochemical properties.

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3341 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxogenic Escherichia coli Associated with Dairy Product

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hazmi, Abdullah Al-Arfaj, Moussa Ihab

Abstract:

Raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was molecular characterization of shiga toxogenic E. coli in raw milk collected from different Egyptian governorates by multiplex PCR. During the period of 25th May to 25th October 2012, a total of 320 bulk-tank milk samples were collected from 10 cow farms located in different Egyptian governorates. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed the presence of E. coli organisms in 65 samples (20.3%), serotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed, 35 strains (10.94%) O111, 15 strains (4.69%) O157: H7, 10 strains (3.13%) O128 and 5 strains (1.56%) O119. Multiplex PCR for detection of shiga toxin type 2 and intimin genes revealed positive amplification of 255 bp fragment of shiga toxin type 2 gene and 384 bp fragment of intimin gene from all E. coli serovar O157: H7, while from serovar O111 were 25 (71.43%), 20 (57.14%) and from serovar O128 were 6 (60%), 8 (80%), respectively. The results of multiplex PCR assay are useful for identification of STEC possessing the eaeA and stx2 genes.

Keywords: raw milk, E. coli, multiplex PCR, Shiga toxin type 2, intimin gene

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3340 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Libya

Authors: Abdulwahab Kammon, Tan Sheau Wei, Abdul Rahman Omar, Abdunaser Dayhum, Ibrahim Eldghayes, Monier Sharif

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Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus which causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Recently, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreak of respiratory distress associated with high mortality and dramatic drop in egg production. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were analyzed for several poultry viruses. IBV was detected using SYBR Green I real-time PCR detection based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Sequence analysis of the partial N gene indicated high similarity (~ 94%) to IBV strain 3382/06 that was isolated from Taiwan. Even though the IBV strain 3382/06 is more similar to that of the Mass type H120, the isolate has been implicated associated with intertypic recombinant of 3 putative parental IBV strains namely H120, Taiwan strain 1171/92 and China strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Complete sequencing and antigenicity studies of the Libya IBV strains are currently underway to determine the evolution of the virus and its importance in vaccine induced immunity. In this paper, we documented for the first time the presence of possibly variant IBV strain from Libya which required a dramatic change in the vaccination program.

Keywords: Libya, infectious bronchitis, molecular characterization, viruses, vaccine

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3339 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Octahedral Molecular Sieve from Mn Oxide Residues

Authors: Irlana C. do Mar, Thayna A. Ferreira, Dayane S. Rezende, Bruno A. M. Figueira, José M. R. Mercury

Abstract:

This work presents a low-cost Mn starting material to synthesis manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve with Mg²⁺ in the tunnel (Mg-OMS-1), based on the Mn residues from Carajás Mineral Province (Amazon, Brazil). After hydrothermal and cation exchange procedures, the Mn residues transformed to a single phase, Mg-OMS-1. The raw material and the synthesis processes were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tunnel structure was synthesized hydrothermally at 180 °C for three days without impurities. According to the XRD analysis, the formation of crystalline Mg-OMS-1 was identified through reflections at 9.8º, 12º and 18º (2θ), as well as a thermal stability around 300 ºC. The SEM analysis indicated that the final product presents good crystallinity with a homogeneous size. In addition, an intense and diagnostic FTIR band was identified at 515 cm⁻¹ related to the MnO₆ octahedral stretching vibrations.

Keywords: Mn residues , Octahedral Molecular Sieve, Synthesis, Characterization

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3338 Characterization Techniques for Studying Properties of Nanomaterials

Authors: Nandini Sharma

Abstract:

Monitoring the characteristics of a nanostructured material comprises measurements of structural, morphological, mechanical, optical and electronic properties of the synthesized nanopowder and different layers and coatings of nanomaterials coated on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) substrates like fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) or Indium doped tin oxide (ITO). This article focuses on structural and optical characterization with emphasis on measurements of the photocatalytic efficiency as a photocatalyst and their interpretation to extract relevant information about various TCOs and materials, their emitter regions, and surface passivation. It also covers a brief description of techniques based on photoluminescence that can portray high resolution pictorial graphs for application as solar energy devices. With the advancement in the scientific techniques, detailed information about the structural, morphological, and optical properties can be investigated, which is further useful for engineering and designing of an efficient device. The common principles involved in the prevalent characterization techniques aid to illustrate the range of options that can be broadened in near future for acurate device characterization and diagnosis.

Keywords: characterization, structural, optical, nanomaterial

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3337 Sampling and Characterization of Fines Created during the Shredding of Non Hazardous Waste

Authors: Soukaina Oujana, Peggy Zwolinski

Abstract:

Fines are heterogeneous residues created during the shredding of non-hazardous waste. They are one of the most challenging issues faced by recyclers, because they are at the present time considered as non-sortable and non-reusable mixtures destined to landfill. However, fines contain a large amount of recoverable materials that could be recycled or reused for the production of solid recovered fuel. This research is conducted in relation to a project named ValoRABES. The aim is to characterize fines and establish a suitable sorting process in order to extract the materials contained in the mixture and define their suitable recovery paths. This paper will highlight the importance of a good sampling and will propose a sampling methodology for fines characterization. First results about the characterization will be also presented.

Keywords: fines, non-hazardous waste, recovery, shredding residues, waste characterization, waste sampling

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3336 Characterization of Fungal Endophytes in Leaves, Stems and Roots of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich Harms)

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Joshua O. Oyekanmi, Jumoke T. Abimbola, Olajumoke E. Ayanda

Abstract:

African yam bean (AYB), (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a leguminous crop that provides nutritionally rich seeds, tubers and leaves for human consumption. AYB potentials as an important food security crop is yet to be realized and thus classified as underutilized crop. Underutilization of the crop has been partly associated with scarce information on the incidence and characterization of fungal endophytes infecting vascular parts of AYB. Accurate and robust detection of these endophytic fungi is essential for diagnosis, modeling, surveillance and protection of germplasm (seed) health. This work aimed at isolating and identifying fungal endophytes associated with leaves, stems and roots of AYB in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study investigated both cultural and molecular properties of endophytic fungi in AYB for its characterization and diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated and culturally identified. DNA extraction, PCR amplification using ITS primers and analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA fragments were conducted on selected isolates. BLAST analysis was conducted on consensus nucleotide sequences of 28 out of 30 isolates and results showed similar homology with genera of Rhizopus, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, Purpureocillium, Corynespora, Magnaporthe, Macrophomina, Curvularia, Acrocalymma, Talaromyces and Simplicillium. Slight similarity was found with endophytes associated with soybean. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method showed high diversity among the general. These organisms have high economic importance in crop improvement. For an instance, Purpureocillium lilacinum showed high potential in control of root rot caused by nematodes in tomatoes. Though some can be pathogens, but many of the fungal endophytes have beneficial attributes to plant in host health, uptake of nutrients, disease suppression, and host immunity.

Keywords: molecular characterization, African Yam Bean, fungal endophyte, plant parts

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3335 Oil Palm Leaf and Corn Stalk, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characterization

Authors: Zawawi Daud

Abstract:

Agro waste can be defined as waste from agricultural plant. Oil palm leaf and corn stalk can be categorized as ago waste material. At first, the comparison between oil palm leaf and corn stalk by mechanical properties from soda pulping process. After that, focusing on surface characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both material have a potential due to mechanical properties (tensile, tear, burst and fold) and surface characterization but corn stalk shows more in strength and compactness due to fiber characterization compared to oil palm leaf. This study promoting the green technology in develop a friendly product and suitable to be used as an alternative pulp in paper making industry.

Keywords: fiber, oil palm leaf, corn stalk, green technology

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3334 Chemometric QSRR Evaluation of Behavior of s-Triazine Pesticides in Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević

Abstract:

This study considers the selection of the most suitable in silico molecular descriptors that could be used for s-triazine pesticides characterization. Suitable descriptors among topological, geometrical and physicochemical are used for quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) model establishment. Established models were obtained using linear regression (LR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. In this paper, MLR models were established avoiding multicollinearity among the selected molecular descriptors. Statistical quality of established models was evaluated by standard and cross-validation statistical parameters. For detection of similarity or dissimilarity among investigated s-triazine pesticides and their classification, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used and gave similar grouping. This study is financially supported by COST action TD1305.

Keywords: chemometrics, classification analysis, molecular descriptors, pesticides, regression analysis

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3333 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Ichthyosis at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh KSA

Authors: Reema K. AlEssa, Sahar Alshomer, Abdullah Alfaleh, Sultan ALkhenaizan, Mohammed Albalwi

Abstract:

Ichthyosis is a disorder of abnormal keratinization, characterized by excessive scaling, and consists of more than twenty subtypes varied in severity, mode of inheritance, and the genes involved. There is insufficient data in the literature about the epidemiology and characteristics of ichthyosis locally. Our aim is to identify the histopathological features and genetic profile of ichthyosis. Method: It is an observational retrospective case series study conducted in March 2020, included all patients who were diagnosed with Ichthyosis and confirmed by histological and molecular findings over the last 20 years in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Molecular analysis was performed by testing genomic DNA and checking genetic variations using the AmpliSeq panel. All disease-causing variants were checked against HGMD, ClinVar, Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), and Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) databases. Result: A total of 60 cases of Ichthyosis were identified with a mean age of 13 ± 9.2. There is an almost equal distribution between female patients 29 (48%) and males 31 (52%). The majority of them were Saudis, 94%. More than half of patients presented with general scaling 33 (55%), followed by dryness and coarse skin 19 (31.6%) and hyperlinearity 5 (8.33%). Family history and history of consanguinity were seen in 26 (43.3% ), 13 (22%), respectively. History of colloidal babies was found in 6 (10%) cases of ichthyosis. The most frequent genes were ALOX12B, ALOXE3, CERS3, CYP4F22, DOLK, FLG2, GJB2, PNPLA1, SLC27A4, SPINK5, STS, SUMF1, TGM1, TGM5, VPS33B. Most frequent variations were detected in CYP4F22 in 16 cases (26.6%) followed by ALOXE3 6 (10%) and STS 6 (10%) then TGM1 5 (8.3) and ALOX12B 5 (8.3). The analysis of molecular genetic identified 23 different genetic variations in the genes of ichthyosis, of which 13 were novel mutations. Homozygous mutations were detected in the majority of ichthyosis cases, 54 (90%), and only 1 case was heterozygous. Few cases, 4 (6.6%) had an unknown type of ichthyosis with a negative genetic result. Conclusion: 13 novel mutations were discovered. Also, about half of ichthyosis patients had a positive history of consanguinity.

Keywords: ichthyosis, genetic profile, molecular characterization, congenital ichthyosis

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3332 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra

Abstract:

This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics

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