Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 105

Search results for: Caroline Howard

105 Howard Mold Count of Tomato Pulp Commercialized in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: M. B. Atui, A. M. Silva, M. A. M. Marciano, M. I. Fioravanti, V. A. Franco, L. B. Chasin, A. R. Ferreira, M. D. Nogueira

Abstract:

Fungi attack large amount of fruits and those who have suffered an injury on the surface are more susceptible to the growth, as they have pectinolytic enzymes that destroy the edible portion forming an amorphous and soft dough. The spores can reach the plant by the wind, rain and insects and fruit may have on its surface, besides the contaminants from the fruit trees, land and water, forming a flora composed mainly of yeasts and molds. Other contamination can occur for the equipment used to harvest, for the use of boxes and contaminated water to the fruit washing, for storage in dirty places. The hyphae in tomato products indicate the use of raw materials contaminated or unsuitable hygiene conditions during processing. Although fungi are inactivated in heat processing step, its hyphae remain in the final product and search for detection and quantification is an indicator of the quality of raw material. Howard Method count of fungi mycelia in industrialized pulps evaluates the amount of decayed fruits existing in raw material. The Brazilian legislation governing processed and packaged products set the limit of 40% of positive fields in tomato pulps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the tomato pulp sold in greater São Paulo, through a monitoring during the four seasons of the year. All over 2010, 110 samples have been examined; 21 were taking in spring, 31 in summer, 31 in fall and 27 in winter, all from different lots and trademarks. Samples have been picked up in several stores located in the city of São Paulo. Howard method was used, recommended by the AOAC, 19th ed, 2011 16:19:02 technique - method 965.41. Hundred percent of the samples contained fungi mycelia. The count average of fungi mycelia per season was 23%, 28%, 8,2% and 9,9% in spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Regarding the spring samples of the 21 samples analyzed, 14.3% were off-limits proposed by the legislation. As for the samples of the fall and winter, all were in accordance with the legislation and the average of mycelial filament count has not exceeded 20%, which can be explained by the low temperatures during this time of the year. The acquired samples in the summer and spring showed high percentage of fungal mycelium in the final product, related to the high temperatures in these seasons. Considering that the limit of 40% of positive fields is accepted for the Brazilian Legislation (RDC nº 14/2014), 3 spring samples (14%) and 6 summer samples (19%) will be over this limit and subject to law penalties. According to gathered data, 82% of manufacturers of this product manage to keep acceptable levels of fungi mycelia in their product. In conclusion, only 9.2% samples were for the limits established by Resolution RDC. 14/2014, showing that the limit of 40% is feasible and can be used by these segment industries. The result of the filament count mycelial by Howard method is an important tool in the microscopic analysis since it measures the quality of raw material used in the production of tomato products.

Keywords: fungi, howard, method, tomato, pulps

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
104 Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mina Kalantarzadeh, Claire Lockie-Williams, Caroline Howard

Abstract:

DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.

Keywords: degradation, DNA extraction, nucleic acid reference material, trnH-psbA

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
103 Narcissism in the Life of Howard Hughes: A Psychobiographical Exploration

Authors: Alida Sandison, Louise A. Stroud

Abstract:

Narcissism is a personality configuration which has both normal and pathological personality expressions. Narcissism is highly complex, and is linked to a broad field of research. There are both dimensional and categorical conceptualisations of narcissism, and a variety of theoretical formulations that have been put forward to understand the narcissistic personality configuration. Currently, Kernberg’s Object Relations theory is well supported for this purpose. The complexity and particular defense mechanisms at play in the narcissistic personality make it a difficult personality configuration worth further research. Psychobiography as a methodology allows for the exploration of the lived life, and is thus a useful methodology to surmount these inherent challenges. Narcissism has been a focus of academic interest for a long time, and although there is a lot of research done in this area, to the researchers' knowledge, narcissistic dynamics have never been explored within a psychobiographical format. Thus, the primary aim of the research was to explore and describe narcissism in the life of Howard Hughes, with the objective of gaining further insight into narcissism through the use of this unconventional research approach. Hughes was chosen as subject for the study as he is renowned as an eccentric billionaire who had his revolutionary effect on the world, but was concurrently disturbed within his personal pathologies. Hughes was dynamic in three different sectors, namely motion pictures, aviation and gambling. He became more and more reclusive as he entered into middle age. From his early fifties he was agoraphobic, and the social network of connectivity that could reasonably be expected from someone in the top of their field was notably distorted. Due to his strong narcissistic personality configuration, and the interpersonal difficulties he experienced, Hughes represents an ideal figure to explore narcissism. The study used a single case study design, and purposive sampling to select Hughes. Qualitative data was sampled, using secondary data sources. Given that Hughes was a famous figure, there is a plethora of information on his life, which is primarily autobiographical. This includes books written about his life, and archival material in the form of newspaper articles, interviews and movies. Gathered data were triangulated to avoid the effect of author bias, and increase the credibility of the data used. It was collected using Yin’s guidelines for data collection. Data was analysed using Miles and Huberman strategy of data analysis, which consists of three steps, namely, data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing and verification. Patterns which emerged in the data highlighted the defense mechanisms used by Hughes, in particular that of splitting and projection, in defending his sense of self. These defense mechanisms help us to understand the high levels of entitlement and paranoia experienced by Hughes. Findings provide further insight into his sense of isolation and difference, and the consequent difficulty he experienced in maintaining connections with others. Findings furthermore confirm the effectiveness of Kernberg’s theory in understanding narcissism observing an individual life.

Keywords: Howard Hughes, narcissism, narcissistic defenses, object relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
102 Improving Pediatric Patient Experience

Authors: Matthew Pleshaw, Caroline Lynch, Caleb Eaton, Ali Kiapour

Abstract:

The problem addressed in this proposal is that of the lacking comfort and safety of inpatient rooms, specifically at Boston Children’s Hospital, with the implementation of a system that will allow inpatient children to feel more comfortable in the unfamiliar environment of a hospital. The focus is that of advancing and enhancing the healing process for children in a long-term inpatient stay at the hospital, though a combination of announcing a clinician or hospital staff’s arrival utilizing RFID (Fig. 1), and improving communication between clinicians, parents/guardians, patients, etc. by integrating a mobile application.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Hospital, RFID, Technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
101 A Comparative Synopsis of the Enforcement of Market Abuse Prohibition in Australia and South Africa

Authors: Howard Chitimira

Abstract:

In Australia, the market abuse prohibition is generally well accepted by the investing and non-investing public as well as by the government. This co-operative and co-ordinated approach on the part of all the relevant stakeholders has to date given rise to an increased awareness and commendable combating of market abuse activities in the Australian corporations, companies, and securities markets. It is against this background that this article seeks to comparatively explore the general enforcement approaches that are employed to combat market abuse (insider trading and market manipulation) activity in Australia and South Africa. In relation to this, the role of selected enforcement authorities and possible enforcement methods which may be learnt from both the Australian and South African experiences will be isolated where necessary for consideration by such authorities, especially, in the South African market abuse regulatory framework.

Keywords: insider trading, market abuse, market manipulation, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
100 Statistical Modeling of Mandarin Tone Sandhi: Neutralization of Underlying Pitch Targets

Authors: Si Chen, Caroline Wiltshire, Bin Li

Abstract:

This study statistically models the surface f0 contour and the underlying pitch target of a well-studied third sandhi tone of Mandarin Chinese. Although the growth curve analysis on the surface f0 contours indicates non-neutralization of this sandhi tone (T3) and the base T2, their underlying pitch targets do show neutralization. These results in Mandarin are also consistent with the perception of native speakers, where they cannot distinguish the third T3 from the base T2, compensating contextual variation. It is possible to use the proposed statistical procedure of testing underlying pitch targets to verify tone sandhi processes in other tonal languages.

Keywords: growth curve analysis, Mandarin Chinese, tone sandhi, underlying pitch target

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
99 Mechanical Properties of Recycled Plasticized PVB/PVC Blends

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Christian Carrot, Caroline Pillon, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

The mechanical properties of blends consisting of plasticized poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of using recycled PVB waste derived from windshields. PVC was plasticized with 38% of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), while PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The optimal process conditions for the PVB/PVC blend in 1:1 ratio were determined. Entropy was used in order to theoretically predict the blends miscibility. The PVB content of each blend composition used was ranging from zero to 100%. Tensile strength and strain were tested. In addition, a comparison between recycled and original PVB, used as constituents of the blend, was performed.

Keywords: poly(vinyl butyral), poly(vinyl chloride), windshield, polymer waste, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
98 Fabrication of Titania and Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning Process

Authors: R. F. Louh, Cathy Chou, Victor Wang, Howard Yan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to manufacture titania and reduced graphene oxide (TiO2/rGO) composite nanofibers via electrospinning (ESP) of precursor fluid consisted of titania sol containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) and GO solution. The GO nanoparticles were derived from Hummers’ method. A metal grid ring was used to provide the bias voltage to reach higher ESP yield and nonwoven fabric with dense network of TiO2/GO composite nanofibers. The ESP product was heat treated at 500°C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere to acquire TiO2/rGO nanofibers by thermal reduction of GO and phase transformation into anatase TiO2. The TiO2/rGO nanofibers made from various volume fractions of GO solution by ESP were analyzed by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, BET and FTIR. Such TiO2/rGO fibers having photocatalytic property, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity can be used for photovoltaics and chemical sensing applications.

Keywords: electrospinning process, titanium oxide, thermally reduced graphene oxide, composite nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
97 Packaging in the Design Synthesis of Novel Aircraft Configuration

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between internally placed components and the external surface, during the conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.

Keywords: packaging, optimisation, BWB, parameterisation, aircraft conceptual design

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
96 Spectral Anomaly Detection and Clustering in Radiological Search

Authors: Thomas L. McCullough, John D. Hague, Marylesa M. Howard, Matthew K. Kiser, Michael A. Mazur, Lance K. McLean, Johanna L. Turk

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Radiological search and mapping depends on the successful recognition of anomalies in large data sets which contain varied and dynamic backgrounds. We present a new algorithmic approach for real-time anomaly detection which is resistant to common detector imperfections, avoids the limitations of a source template library and provides immediate, and easily interpretable, user feedback. This algorithm is based on a continuous wavelet transform for variance reduction and evaluates the deviation between a foreground measurement and a local background expectation using methods from linear algebra. We also present a technique for recognizing and visualizing spectrally similar clusters of data. This technique uses Laplacian Eigenmap Manifold Learning to perform dimensional reduction which preserves the geometric "closeness" of the data while maintaining sensitivity to outlying data. We illustrate the utility of both techniques on real-world data sets.

Keywords: radiological search, radiological mapping, radioactivity, radiation protection

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95 Prediction of Oxygen Transfer and Gas Hold-Up in Pneumatic Bioreactors Containing Viscous Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Caroline E. Mendes, Alberto C. Badino

Abstract:

Pneumatic reactors have been widely employed in various sectors of the chemical industry, especially where are required high heat and mass transfer rates. This study aimed to obtain correlations that allow the prediction of gas hold-up (Ԑ) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), and compare these values, for three models of pneumatic reactors on two scales utilizing Newtonian fluids. Values of kLa were obtained using the dynamic pressure-step method, while  was used for a new proposed measure. Comparing the three models of reactors studied, it was observed that the mass transfer was superior to draft-tube airlift, reaching  of 0.173 and kLa of 0.00904s-1. All correlations showed good fit to the experimental data (R2≥94%), and comparisons with correlations from the literature demonstrate the need for further similar studies due to shortage of data available, mainly for airlift reactors and high viscosity fluids.

Keywords: bubble column, internal loop airlift, gas hold-up, kLa

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94 How Tattoos and Brands Impact the Recovery of Sex Trafficking Victim: An Exploratory Study of Sex Trafficking Survivors.

Authors: Jeremy Berry, Shannon Rodrigue, Caroline Norris

Abstract:

This study explores the impact of tattoos and/or brands on the recovery of sex trafficking survivors. Many victims of sex trafficking are forced or coerced to take markings of ownership while in the sex trafficking trade in the form of painful tattoos or brands. As a result, victims who are rescued and in recovery often must live with permanent reminders of their traumatic experiences or are left to resort to expensive cosmetic or cover-up jobs, which for many are out of reach. As is often true of domestic violence victims who are left with scars from their abusers, the impact of these permanent markers can delay the healing process and contribute to post-traumatic stress. This study tells the story from the perspectives of the survivors of sex trafficking, how these specific permanent reminders impacted their healing. The study employs a thematic analysis of interviews with sex trafficking victims via focus group interviews.

Keywords: sex trafficking, tattoos, trauma, healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
93 The Emerging Global Judicial Ethics: Issues and Problems

Authors: Caroline Foulquier-Expert

Abstract:

In many states around the world, actions to improve judicial ethics are developing significantly through the production of professional standards for judges. The quest to improve the ethics of judges is legitimate. However, as this development tends to be very important at the moment, some risks it presents must be highlighted. Indeed, if the objective of improving Judges’ Ethics is legitimate, it can also lead to banalization of justice, reinforcement of criticism against the judiciary and to broach incidentally the question of the limits of judgment, which is most perilous for the independence of the judiciary. This research, based on case studies, interviews with judges and an analysis of the literature on this topic (mainly from the United States of America and European Union Member States), tends to draw attention to the fact that the result of the development of these professional standards is that the ethical requirements of judges become ethical requirements of justice, which is an undesirable effect of which we must be aware, in order to prevent it.

Keywords: judicial ethics, codes of conduct, independence, limits of judgment

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
92 Running the Athena Vortex Lattice Code in JAVA through the Java Native Interface

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNI

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
91 Integrating the Athena Vortex Lattice Code into a Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation Platform in JAVA

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNI

Procedia PDF Downloads 500
90 A Historical Overview of the General Implementation of the European Union Market Abuse Directive in the United Kingdom before the Brexit and Its Future Implications

Authors: Howard Chitimira

Abstract:

The European Union (EU) was probably the first body to establish multinational anti-market abuse laws aimed at enhancing the detection and curbing of cross-border market abuse activities in its member states. Put differently, the EU Insider Dealing Directive was adopted in 1989 and was the first law that harmonised the insider trading ban among the EU member states. Thereafter, the European Union Directive on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation (EU Market Abuse Directive) was adopted in a bid to improve and effectively discourage all the forms of market abuse in the EU’s securities and financial markets. However, the EU Market Abuse Directive had its own gaps and flaws. In light of this, the Market Abuse Regulation and the Criminal Sanctions for Market Abuse Directive were enacted to repeal and replace the EU Market Abuse Directive in 2016. The article examines the adequacy of the EU Market Abuse Directive and its implementation in the United Kingdom (UK) prior to the British exit (Brexit). This is done to investigate the possible implications of the Brexit referendum outcome of 23 June 2016 on the future regulation of market abuse in the UK.

Keywords: market abuse, insider trading, market manipulation, European Union, United Kingdom

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
89 A New Tactical Optimization Model for Bioenergy Supply Chain

Authors: Birome Holo Ba, Christian Prins, Caroline Prodhon

Abstract:

Optimization is an important aspect of logistics management. It can reduce significantly logistics costs and also be a good tool for decision support. In this paper, we address a planning problem specific to biomass supply chain. We propose a new mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model dealing with different feed stock production operations such as harvesting, packing, storage, pre-processing and transportation, with the objective of minimizing the total logistic cost of the system on a regional basis. It determines the optimal number of harvesting machine, the fleet size of trucks for transportation and the amount of each type of biomass harvested, stored and pre-processed in each period to satisfy demands of refineries in each period. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposal model with a numerical example, a case study in Aube (France department), which gives preliminary and interesting, results on a small test case.

Keywords: biomass logistics, supply chain, modelling, optimization, bioenergy, biofuels

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
88 Modification of the Athena Vortex Lattice Code for the Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
87 Police and Community Crime Prevention in Sweden

Authors: Peter Lindstrom, Caroline Gyberg, Scott Goodwin

Abstract:

The Swedish police organisation was fundamentally reorganized in 2015 when 21 regional police forces were combined into one national police authority divided in 7 larger police regions, 35 police areas, and some 100 local police districts. A central theme for the reform was that local crime prevention policing should be more unified in the country. In this paper, we review crime prevention strategies in Sweden from a criminological and policing perspective focusing, among other things, on differences between urban and rural areas. In the crime prevention field, words such as 'knowledge- and evidence-based', 'collaboration', and 'strategies' are common. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between theoretical and practical knowledge in local crime prevention work. Our research indicate that an elaborated and strategic connection between theoretical and practical perspectives is important for successful local crime prevention work. Universities may provide a platform such knowledge exchange.

Keywords: crime prevention, police reform, urban and rural areas, criminological and policing perspectives

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
86 Promoting Stem Education and a Cosmic Perspective by Using 21st Century Science of Learning

Authors: Rohan Roberts

Abstract:

The purpose of this project was to collaborate with a group of high-functioning, more-able students (aged 15-18) to promote STEM Education and a love for science by bringing a cosmic perspective into the classroom and high school environment. This was done using 21st century science of learning, a focus on the latest research on Neuroeducation, and modern pedagogical methods based on Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences, Bill Lucas’ theory of New Smarts, and Sir Ken Robinson’s recommendations on encouraging creativity. The result was an increased sense of passion, excitement, and wonder about science in general, and about the marvels of space and the universe in particular. In addition to numerous unique and innovative science-based initiatives, clubs, workshops, and science trips, this project also saw a marked rise in student-teacher collaboration in science learning and in student engagement with the general public through the press, social media, and community-based initiatives. This paper also outlines the practical impact that bringing a cosmic perspective into the classroom has had on the lives, interests, and future career prospects of the students involved in this endeavour.

Keywords: cosmic perspective, gifted and talented, neuro-education, STEM education

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85 Tutankhamen’s Shrines (Naoses): Scientific Identification of Wood Species and Technology

Authors: Medhat Abdallah, Ahmed Abdrabou

Abstract:

Tutankhamen tomb was discovered on November 1922 by Howard carter, the grave was relatively intact and crammed full of the most beautiful burial items and furniture, the black shrine-shaped boxes on sleds studied here founded in treasury chamber. This study aims to identify the wood species used in making those shrines, illustrate technology of manufacture. Optical Microscope (OM), 3D software and Imaging Processes including; Visible light, Raking light and Visible-induced infrared luminescence were effective in illustrating wooden joints and techniques of manufacture. The results revealed that cedar of Lebanon Cedrus libani and sycamore fig Ficus sycomorus had been used for making the shrines’ boards and sleds while tamarisk Tamarix sp., Turkey Oak Quercus cerris L., and Sidder (nabk) Zizyphus spina christi used for making dowels. The wooden joint of mortise and tenon was used to connect the body of the shrine to the sled, while wooden pegs used to connect roof and cornice to the shrine body.

Keywords: Tutankhamen, wood species, optical microscope, Cedrus libani, Ficus sycomorus

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
84 In vitro Bioacessibility of Phenolic Compounds from Fruit Spray Dried and Lyophilized Powder

Authors: Carolina Beres, Laurine Da Silva, Danielle Pereira, Ana Ribeiro, Renata Tonon, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Karina Dos Santos, Flavia Gomes, Lourdes Cabral

Abstract:

The health benefits of bioactive compounds such as phenolics are well known. The main source of these compounds are fruits and derivates. This study had the objective to study the bioacessibility of phenolic compounds from grape pomace and juçara dried extracts. For this purpose both characterized extracts were submitted to a simulated human digestion and the total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant scavenging capacity was determinate in digestive fractions (oral, gastric, intestinal and colonic). Juçara had a higher anthocianins bioacessibility (17.16%) when compared to grape pomace (2.08%). The opposite result was found for total phenolic compound, where the higher bioacessibility was for grape (400%). The phenolic compound increase indicates a more accessible compound in the human gut. The lyophilized process had a beneficial impact in the final accessibility of the phenolic compounds being a more promising technique.

Keywords: bioacessibility, phenolic compounds, grape, juçara

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83 A Syntactic Errors Analysis in the Malaysian ESL Learners' Written Composition

Authors: Annie Gedion, Johan Severinus Tati, Jacinta Caroline Peter

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Syntax error analysis studies have a significant role in English language teaching especially in the second language. This study investigates the syntax errors in written composition by 50 multilingual ESL learners in Politeknik Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia. The subjects speak their own dialect, Malay as their second language and English as their third or foreign language. Data were collected from the written discourse in the form of descriptive essays. The subjects were asked to write in the classroom within 45 minutes. 15 categories of errors were classified into a set of syntactic categories and were analysed based on the five steps of the syntactic analysis procedure. The findings of the study showed that the mother tongue interference, as well as lack of vocabulary and grammar knowledge, were the major sources of syntax errors in the learners’ written composition. Learners should be exposed to the differentiation of Malay and English grammar to avoid interference and effective learning of second language writing.

Keywords: errors analysis, syntactic analysis, English as a second language, ESL writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
82 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

Authors: Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Yiming Weng

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental restorative, compressive strength, S. mutans viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
81 A Furaneol-Containing Glass-Ionomer Cement for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Dong Xie, Yuling Xu, Leah Howard

Abstract:

Secondary caries is found to be one of the main reasons to the restoration failure of dental restoratives. To prevent secondary caries formation, dental restoratives ought to be made antibacterial. In this study, a natural fruit component furaneol was tethered onto polyacid, the formed polyacid was used to formulate the light-curable glass-ionomer cements, and then the effect of this new antibacterial compound on compressive strength (CS) and antibacterial activity of the formed cement was evaluated. Fuji II LC glass powders were used as fillers. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed cement. The experimental cement showed a significant antibacterial activity, accompanying with an initial CS reduction. Increasing the compound loading significantly decreased the S. mutans viability from 5 to 81% and also reduced the initial CS of the formed cements from 4 to 58%. The cement loading with 7% antibacterial polymer showed 168 MPa, 7.8 GPa, 243 MPa, 46 MPa, and 57 MPa in yield strength, modulus, CS, diametral tensile strength and flexural strength, respectively, as compared to 141, 6.9, 236, 42 and 53 for Fuji II LC. The cement also showed an antibacterial function to other bacteria. No human saliva effect was noticed. It is concluded that the experimental cement may potentially be developed to a permanent antibacterial cement.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental materials, strength, cell viability

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80 Quantifying Product Impacts on Biodiversity: The Product Biodiversity Footprint

Authors: Leveque Benjamin, Rabaud Suzanne, Anest Hugo, Catalan Caroline, Neveux Guillaume

Abstract:

Human products consumption is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss. However, few pertinent ecological indicators regarding product life cycle impact on species and ecosystems have been built. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies are well under way to conceive standardized methods to assess this impact, by taking already partially into account three of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment pressures (land use, pollutions, climate change). Coupling LCA and ecological data and methods is an emerging challenge to develop a product biodiversity footprint. This approach was tested on three case studies from food processing, textile, and cosmetic industries. It allowed first to improve the environmental relevance of the Potential Disappeared Fraction of species, end-point indicator typically used in life cycle analysis methods, and second to introduce new indicators on overexploitation and invasive species. This type of footprint is a major step in helping companies to identify their impacts on biodiversity and to propose potential improvements.

Keywords: biodiversity, companies, footprint, life cycle assessment, products

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79 The Relationship between Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Primary School Learners from a Pre-Dominantly Rural Province in South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe, Philemon Lyoka, Chioneso Show Marange, Dennyford Mafa

Abstract:

There is arguably a lack of literature regarding body physical fitness and body composition amongst primary school learners in South Africa. For this reason, the study is aimed at investigating and accessing how body composition relates to physical fitness amongst primary school learners in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In order to achieve this, a school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 876 primary school learners aged 9 to 14 years. Body composition indicators were measured and/or calculated, whilst physical fitness was evaluated according to the EUROFIT fitness standards by a 20 m shuttle run, push-ups, sit and reach as well as sit-ups. Out of 876 participants, a total of 870 were retained. Of these, 351 (40.34%) were boys, and 519 (59.66%) were girls. The average age of learners was 11.04 ± 1.50 years, with boys having a significantly (p = 0.002) higher mean age (M = 11.24; SD = 1.51 years) as compared to that of girls (M = 10.91; SD = 1.48 years). The non-parametric Spearman Rho correlation coefficients revealed several significant and negative relationships between body composition measurements with physical fitness characteristics, which were stronger in girls than in boys. The findings advocate for policymakers and responsible authorities to initiate the development of policies and interventions targeted at encouraging physical activity and health promotion among primary school learners in South Africa, especially in girls.

Keywords: BMI, body composition, body fat, children, physical fitness, primary school

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78 Restraint and Seclusion: Individual and Environmental Characteristics of the Educators Super Users

Authors: Caroline A. Mathieu, Steve Geoffrion, Alexandre Dumais, Denis Lafortune

Abstract:

In Quebec, troubled youths stay in a rehabilitation Center (RC), and educators in RC’S are particularly at risk of exposure to workplace violence. In order to manage youth violence and protect youth safety or their own, educators can resort to restraint and seclusion (R&S) strategies. To our best knowledge, in the literature, no study was found on the topic of R&S super users either in psychiatry or in a rehabilitation center. The objective of this study is to explore the differences between R&S super users and normal users among educators in terms of individual and environmental characteristics, over an eight weeks period. The 278 participants were volunteers recruited from 36 units that foster around 8 to 12 youths per unit, in a suburb of Montreal; Quebec, Canada. The results indicate that among the variables that were studied, only fear of violence and past exposure to violence at work characterized the R&S super users. These results suggest that exposure to violence in the workplace might increase the anticipation and fear of violence from a youth; this is concordant with the results indicating that these variables are the ones separating normal users from super users.

Keywords: seclusion and restraint, violence, youth, educators

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77 Becoming a Shakti: An Analysis of Western Women's Experiences of Tantra Practices

Authors: Caroline Jones

Abstract:

Research over the last decade suggests that there have been distinct changes in both women’s sexual behaviour and attitudes towards female sexuality in the UK. Areas such as discussing sex, participating in sexual activity outside of traditional monogamous relationships, and engaging in boudoir photography have all been explored by researchers. Women’s participation in tantric practices, however, is a relatively unexplored area of sexuality, despite an increasing number of Tantra schools opening in the UK. Tantra is a practice in which women are considered to have a higher consciousness than men, where the sexual role of women is deemed to be very different to a traditional Western sexually passive role. This research looks at this area, and is based on in-depth, semi-structured, thematically analysed interviews with women who have participated in tantric workshops and/or retreats across the country. The interviews investigate why women engage with such practices, what they feel they gain from the experience, and how shifting notions of appropriate sexual roles for women impact on their sexuality and life generally. While Tantra is still a minority activity in the UK, the findings shed light on not only these areas but also on women’s constructions of their sexuality, their relationships with their bodies and sexualities, and ways in which they express and engage with changing notions of female sexuality.

Keywords: sexuality, Tantra, gender, Shakti

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76 The Lived Experience of People with a Mental Illness of Their Engagement in Therapeutic Recreation

Authors: Caroline Picton, Lorna Moxham, Christopher Patterson, Dana Perlman, Ellie Taylor, Renee Brighton

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to extrapolate the meaning for people living with a mental illness of their participation in a therapeutic recreation experience. The study’s participants engaged in a five-day adventure camp, known as Recovery Camp, alongside undergraduate health care students. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used as an exploratory method to interview 25 participants (n=25). Van Kaam’s structured analytical framework guided the analysis of the transcribed narratives. The findings provide insight into using therapeutic recreation to enhance personal mental health recovery. Recovery Camp was viewed by participants as having a transformational effect on forming positive social connectedness and improving their self-identity. Participants perceived the Recovery Camp experience as one that gave them a sense of purpose and increased their motivation to undertake further activities. The insights gained of the benefits of therapeutic recreation for people living with a mental illness can be used to promote purposeful community engagement.

Keywords: interpretive phenomenology, lived experience, mental illness, personal mental health recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 388