Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 537

Search results for: Escherichia coli

537 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

Abstract:

Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

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536 The Effect of Cinnamaldehyde on Escherichia coli Survival during Low Temperature Long Time Cooking

Authors: Fuji Astuti, Helen Onyeaka

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The aim of the study was to investigate the combine effects of cinnamaldehyde (0.25 and 0.45% v/v) on thermal resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli during low temperature long time (LT-LT) cooking below 60℃. Three different static temperatures (48, 53 and 50℃) were performed, and the number of viable cells was studied. The starting concentrations of cells were 10⁸ CFU/ml. In this experiment, heat treatment efficiency for safe reduction indicated by decimal logarithm reduction of viable recovered cells, which was monitored for heating over 6 hours. Thermal inactivation was measured by means of establishing the death curves between the mean log surviving cells (log₁₀ CFU/ml) and designated time points (minutes) for each temperature test. The findings depicted that addition of cinnamaldehyde exhibited to elevate the thermal sensitivity of E. coli. However, the injured cells found to be well-adapted to all temperature tests after certain time point of cooking, in which they grew to more than 10⁵ CFU/ml.

Keywords: cinnamaldehyde, decimal logarithm reduction, Escherichia coli, LT-LT cooking

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
535 Open Reading Frame Marker-Based Capacitive DNA Sensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Potable Water

Authors: Rehan Deshmukh, Sunil Bhand, Utpal Roy

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We report the label-free electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895) in potable water using a DNA probe as a sensing molecule targeting the open reading frame marker. Indium tin oxide (ITO) surface was modified with organosilane and, glutaraldehyde was applied as a linker to fabricate the DNA sensor chip. Non-Faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) behavior was investigated at each step of sensor fabrication using cyclic voltammetry, impedance, phase, relative permittivity, capacitance, and admittance. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed significant changes in surface topographies of DNA sensor chip fabrication. The decrease in the percentage of pinholes from 2.05 (Bare ITO) to 1.46 (after DNA hybridization) suggested the capacitive behavior of the DNA sensor chip. The results of non-Faradic EIS studies of DNA sensor chip showed a systematic declining trend of the capacitance as well as the relative permittivity upon DNA hybridization. DNA sensor chip exhibited linearity in 0.5 to 25 pg/10mL for E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The limit of detection (LOD) at 95% confidence estimated by logistic regression was 0.1 pg DNA/10mL of E. coli O157:H7 (equivalent to 13.67 CFU/10mL) with a p-value of 0.0237. Moreover, the fabricated DNA sensor chip used for detection of E. coli O157:H7 showed no significant cross-reactivity with closely and distantly related bacteria such as Escherichia coli MTCC 3221, Escherichia coli O78:H11 MTCC 723 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 736. Consequently, the results obtained in our study demonstrated the possible application of developed DNA sensor chips for E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in real water samples as well.

Keywords: capacitance, DNA sensor, Escherichia coli O157:H7, open reading frame marker

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
534 The Determination of Contamination Rate of Traditional White Cheese in Behbahan Markets to Coliforms and Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar, Hossaini Seyahi Zohreh

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Infections and food intoxication caused by microbial contamination of food is of major issues in different countries, and diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated food included a large percentage of the country's health problems. Since traditional cheese for cultural reasons, good taste and smell in many parts of the area still has the important place in people's food basket, transmission of pathogenic bacteria could be at risk human health through the consumption of this food. In this study selected randomly 100 samples of 250 grams of traditional cheeses supplied in the city Behbahan market and adjacent to the ice was transferred to the laboratory and microbiological tests were performed immediately. According to the results, from 100 samples tested traditional cheese, 94 samples (94% of samples) were contaminated with coliforms, which of this number 75 samples (75% of samples) the contamination rate was higher than the limit (more than 100 cfu/g). Of the total samples, 36 samples (36% of samples) were contaminated with fecal coliform which of this number 30 samples (30% of samples) were contaminated with Escherichia.coli bacteria. Based on the results of agglutination test,no samples was found positive as pathogenic Escherichia.coli.

Keywords: determination, traditional cheese, Behbahan, Escherichia coli

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
533 Riparian Buffer Strips’ Capability of E. coli Removal in New York Streams

Authors: Helen Sanders, Joshua Cousins

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The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether riparian buffer strips could be used to reduce Escherichia Coli (E. coli) runoff into streams in Central New York. Mainstream methods currently utilized to reduce E. coli runoff include fencing and staggered fertilizing plans for agriculture. These methods still do not significantly limit E. coli and thus, pose a serious health risk to individuals who swim in contaminated waters or consume contaminated produce. One additional method still in research development involves the planting of vegetated riparian buffers along waterways. Currently, riparian buffer strips are primarily used for filtration of nitrate and phosphate runoff to slow erosion, regulate pH and, improve biodiversity within waterways. For my research, four different stream sites were selected for the study, in which rainwater runoff was collected at both the riparian buffer and the E. coli sourced runoff upstream. Preliminary results indicate that there is an average 70% decrease in E. coli content in streams at the riparian buffer strips compared to upstream runoff. This research could be utilized to include vegetated buffer planting as a method to decrease manure runoff into essential waterways.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, riparian buffer strips, vegetated riparian buffers, runoff, filtration

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532 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
531 An Alternative Antimicrobial Approach to Fight Bacterial Pathogens from Phellinus linteus

Authors: S. Techaoei, K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai

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The objective of this research was focused on investigating in vitro antimicrobial activity of Phellinus linteus fruiting body extracts on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phellinus linteus fruiting body was extracted with ethanol and ethyl acetate and was vaporized. The disc diffusion assay was used to assess antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial strains. Primary screening of chemical profile of crude extract was determined by using thin layer chromatography. The positive control and the negative control were used as erythromycin and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively. Initial screening of Phellinus linteus crude extract with the disc diffusion assay demonstrated that only ethanol had greater antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC assay showed that the lower MIC was observed with 0.5 mg/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 0.25 mg/ml. of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. TLC chemical profile of extract was represented at Rf ≈ 0.71-0.76.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Phellinus linteus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial activity

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530 Prediction and Identification of a Permissive Epitope Insertion Site for St Toxoid in cfaB from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

Authors: N. Zeinalzadeh, Mahdi Sadeghi

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of non-inflammatory diarrhea in the developing countries, resulting in approximately 20% of all diarrheal episodes in children in these areas. ST is one of the most important virulence factors and CFA/I is one of the frequent colonization factors that help to process of ETEC infection. ST and CfaB (CFA/I subunit) are among vaccine candidates against ETEC. So, ST because of its small size is not a good immunogenic in the natural form. However to increase its immunogenic potential, here we explored candidate positions for ST insertion in CfaB sequence. After bioinformatics analysis, one of the candidate positions was selected and the chimeric gene (cfaB*st) sequence was synthesized and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The chimeric recombinant protein was purified with Ni-NTA columns and characterized with western blot analysis. The residue 74-75 of CfaB sequence could be a good candidate position for ST and other epitopes insertion.

Keywords: bioinformatics, CFA/I, enterotoxigenic E. coli, ST toxoid

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529 Cell Surface Display of Xylanase on Escherichia coli by TibA Autotransporter

Authors: Yeng Min Yi, Rosli Md Illias, Salehhuddin Hamdan

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Industrial biocatalysis is mainly based on the use of cell free or intracellular enzyme systems. However, the expensive cost and relatively lower operational stability of free enzymes limit practical use in industries. Cell surface display system can be used as a cost-efficient alternative to overcome the laborious purification and substrate transport limitation. In this research, TibA autotransporter from E. coli was used to display Aspergillus fumigatus xylanase (xyn). The amplified xyn was fused in between N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal β-barrel of TibA. The cloned was transformed and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Outer membrane localization of TibA-xyn fusion protein was confirmed by SDS PAGE and western blot with expected size of 62.5 kDa. Functional display of xyn was examined by activity assay. Cell surface displayed xyn exhibited the highest activity at 37 °c, 0.3 mM IPTG. As a summary, TibA displaying system has the potential for further industrial applications. Moreover, this is the first report of the display of xylanase using TibA on the surface of E. coli.

Keywords: biocatalysis, cell surface display, Escherichia coli, TibA autotransporter

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528 The Effect of Electrical Discharge Plasma on Inactivation of Escherichia Coli MG 1655 in Pure Culture

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Tomislava Vukušić

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Electrical discharge plasma is a new non-thermal processing technique which is used for the inactivation of contaminating and hazardous microbes in liquids. Plasma is a source of different antimicrobial species including UV photons, charged particles, and reactive species such as superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide and ozone. Escherichia coli was studied as foodborne pathogen. The aim of this work was to examine inactivation effects of electrical discharge plasma treatment on the Escherichia coli MG 1655 in pure culture. Two types of plasma configuration and polarity were used. First configuration was with titanium wire as high voltage needle and another with medical stainless steel needle used to form bubbles in treated volume and titanium wire as high voltage needle. Model solution samples were inoculated with Escerichia coli MG 1655 and treated by electrical discharge plasma at treatment time of 5 and 10 min, and frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz. With the first configuration after 5 minutes of treatment at frequency of 120 Hz the inactivation rate was 1.3 log₁₀ reduction and after 10 minutes of treatment the inactivation rate was 3.0 log₁₀ reduction. At the frequency of 90 Hz after 10 minutes inactivation rate was 1.3 log₁₀ reduction. With the second configuration after 5 minutes of treatment at frequency of 120 Hz the inactivation rate was 1.2 log₁₀ reduction and after 10 minutes of treatment the inactivation rate was also 3.0 log₁₀ reduction. In this work it was also examined the formation of biofilm, nucleotide and protein leakage at 260/280 nm, before and after treatment and recuperation of treated samples. Further optimization of method is needed to understand mechanism of inactivation.

Keywords: electrical discharge plasma, escherichia coli MG 1655, inactivation, point-to-plate electrode configuration

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527 Anti-Microbial Activity of Ag-N Co-Doped ZnS and ZnS-Fe2O3 Composite Nanoparticles

Authors: O. P. Yadav

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Ag-N co-doped ZnS and ZnS/Fe2O3 composite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical and sol-gel methods. As-synthesized nanomaterial have been characterized by XRD and TEM techniques and their antimicrobial effects were studied using paper disc diffusion technique against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. As-synthesized nanomaterial showed potent antimicrobial activity against studied bacterial strains. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized nanomaterial has also been compared with some commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotic, Escherichia coli, nanomaterial, TEM, Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
526 High Prevalence of Multi-drug Resistant Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among Hospitalised Diarrheal Patients in Kolkata, India

Authors: Debjani Ghosh, Goutam Chowdhury, Prosenjit Samanta, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay

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Acute diarrhoea caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is one of the major public health problem in developing countries, mainly in Asia and Africa. DEC consists of six pathogroups, but the majority of the cases were associated with the three pathogropus, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Hence, we studied the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of these three major DEC pathogroups in hospitalized diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India, during 2012-2019 with a large sample size. 8,891 stool samples were processed, and 7.8% of them was identified as DEC infection screened by multiplex PCR, in which ETEC was most common (47.7%) followed by EAEC (38.4%) and EPEC (13.9%). Clinical patient history suggested that children <5 years of age were mostly affected with ETEC and EAEC, whereas people within >5-14 years of age were significantly associated with EPEC and ETEC infections. Antibiogram profile showed a high prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates among DEC (56.9%), in which 9% were resistant to antibiotics of six different antimicrobial classes. Screening of the antibiotic resistance conferring genes in DEC showed the presence of blaCTX-M (30.2%) in highest number followed by blaTEM (27.5%), tetB (18%), sul2 (12.6%), strA (11.8%), aadA1 (9.8%), blaOXA-1 (9%), dfrA1 (1.6%) and blaSHV (1.2%) which indicates the existence of mobile genetic elements in those isolates. Therefore, the presence of MDR DEC strains in higher number alarms the public health authorities to take preventive measures before the upsurge of the DEC caused diarrhea cases in near future.

Keywords: diarrheagenic escherichia coli, ETEC, EAEC, EPEC

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525 Optimization of Fermentation Parameters for Bioethanol Production from Waste Glycerol by Microwave Induced Mutant Escherichia coli EC-MW (ATCC 11105)

Authors: Refal Hussain, Saifuddin M. Nomanbhay

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Glycerol is a valuable raw material for the production of industrially useful metabolites. Among many promising applications for the use of glycerol is its bioconversion to high value-added compounds, such as bioethanol through microbial fermentation. Bioethanol is an important industrial chemical with emerging potential as a biofuel to replace vanishing fossil fuels. The yield of liquid fuel in this process was greatly influenced by various parameters viz, temperature, pH, glycerol concentration, organic concentration, and agitation speed were considered. The present study was undertaken to investigate optimum parameters for bioethanol production from raw glycerol by immobilized mutant Escherichia coli (E.coli) (ATCC11505) strain on chitosan cross linked glutaraldehyde optimized by Taguchi statistical method in shake flasks. The initial parameters were set each at four levels and the orthogonal array layout of L16 (45) conducted. The important controlling parameters for optimized the operational fermentation was temperature 38 °C, medium pH 6.5, initial glycerol concentration (250 g/l), and organic source concentration (5 g/l). Fermentation with optimized parameters was carried out in a custom fabricated shake flask. The predicted value of bioethanol production under optimized conditions was (118.13 g/l). Immobilized cells are mainly used for economic benefits of continuous production or repeated use in continuous as well as in batch mode.

Keywords: bioethanol, Escherichia coli, immobilization, optimization

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524 Effects of Palm Kernel Expeller Processing on the Ileal Populations of Lactobacilli and Escherichia Coli in Broiler Chickens

Authors: B. Navidshad

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The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of enzymatic treatment and shell content of palm kernel expeller (PKE) on the ileal Lactobacilli and Escherichia coli populations in broiler chickens. At the finisher phase, one hundred male broiler chickens (Cobb-500) were fed a control diet or the diets containing 200 g/kg of normal PKE (70 g/kg shell), low shell PKE (30 g/kg shell), enzymatic treated PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE. The quantitative real-time PCR were used to determine the ileal bacteria populations. The lowest ileal Lactobacilli population was found in the chickens fed the low shell PKE diet. Dietary normal PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE decreased the Escherichia coli population compared to the control diet. The results suggested that PKE could be included up to 200 g/kg in the finisher diet, however, any screening practice to reduce the shell content of PKE without enzymatic degradation of β-mannan, decrease ileal Lactobacilli population.

Keywords: palm kernel expeller, exogenous enzyme, shell content, ileum bacteria, broiler chickens

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523 Production of Human BMP-7 with Recombinant E. coli and B. subtilis

Authors: Jong Il Rhee

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The polypeptide representing the mature part of human BMP-7 was cloned and efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, which had a clear band for hBMP-7, a homodimeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 15.4 kDa. Recombinant E.coli produced 111 pg hBMP-7/mg of protein hBMP-7 through IPTG induction. Recombinant B. subtilis also produced 350 pg hBMP-7/ml of culture medium. The hBMP-7 was purified in 2 steps using an FPLC system with an ion exchange column and a gel filtration column. The hBMP-7 produced in this work also stimulated the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a dose-dependent manner, i.e. 2.5- and 8.9-fold at 100 and 300 ng hBMP-7/ml, respectively, and showed intact biological activity.

Keywords: B. subtilis, E. coli, fermentation, hBMP-7

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522 Modified Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Escherichia coli by Adding Hyaluronic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes (GLMU2 and HYAD) from Pasteurella multocida

Authors: P. Pasomboon, P. Chumnanpuen, T. E-kobon

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Hyaluronic acid (HA) consists of linear heteropolysaccharides repeat of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. HA has various useful properties to maintain skin elasticity and moisture, reduce inflammation, and lubricate the movement of various body parts without causing immunogenic allergy. HA can be found in several animal tissues as well as in the capsule component of some bacteria including Pasteurella multocida. This study aimed to modify a genome-scale metabolic model of Escherichia coli using computational simulation and flux analysis methods to predict HA productivity under different carbon sources and nitrogen supplement by the addition of two enzymes (GLMU2 and HYAD) from P. multocida to improve the HA production under the specified amount of carbon sources and nitrogen supplements. Result revealed that threonine and aspartate supplement raised the HA production by 12.186%. Our analyses proposed the genome-scale metabolic model is useful for improving the HA production and narrows the number of conditions to be tested further.

Keywords: Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli, hyaluronic acid, genome-scale metabolic model, bioinformatics

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521 Effect of Oxidative Stress on Glutathione Reductase Activity of Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Sabrina Mahboob, Anamika Saha, Afrin Jahan, Mohammad Nurul Islam

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently experienced by the female population where the prevalence increases with aging. Escherichia coli, one of the most common UTI causing organisms, retains glutathione defense mechanism that aids the organism to withstand the harsh physiological environment of urinary tract, host oxidative immune response and even to affect antibiotic-mediated cell death and the emergence of resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glutathione reductase activity of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by observing the reduced glutathione (GSH) level alteration under stressful condition. Urine samples of 58 patients with UTI were collected. Upon isolation and identification, 88% of the samples presented E. coli as UTI causing organism among which randomly selected isolates (n=9), obtained from urine samples of female patients, were considered for this study. E. coli isolates were grown under normal and stressful conditions where H₂O₂ was used as the stress-inducing agent. GSH level estimation of the isolates in both conditions was carried out based on the colorimetric measurement of 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and GSH reaction product using microplate reader assay. The GSH level of isolated E. coli sampled from adult patients decreased under stress compared to normal condition (p = 0.011). On the other hand, GSH production increased markedly in samples that were collected from elderly subjects (p = 0.024). A significant partial correlation between age and change of GSH level was found as well (p = 0.007). This study may help to reveal ways for better understanding of E. coli pathogenesis of UTI prevalence in elderly patients.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, glutathione reductase activity, oxidative stress, reduced glutathione (GSH), urinary tract infection (UTI)

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520 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Faecal Carriage Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli among Hospitalized Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: C. A. Ologunde

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Escherichia coli have been a major microorganisms associated with, and isolated from feacal samples either in adult or children all over the world. Strains of these organisms are resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients and FQs are the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial class in hospitals, and the level of resistant of E. coli to these antimicrobial agents is a risk factor that should be assessed. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli in hospitalized patients in Ado-Ekiti. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients in hospitals in the study area and FQ-resistant E. coli were isolated and identified by means of Nalidixic acid multi-disk and a 1-step screening procedure. Species identification and FQ resistance were confirmed by automated testing (Vitek, bioMerieux, USA). Individual colonies were subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine macro-restriction polymorphism after digestion of chromosomal DNA. FQ-resistant E. coli was detected in the stool sample of 37(62%) hospitalized patient. With multivariable analyses, the use of FQ before hospitalization was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures for the 3-12 months of study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified conal spread of 1(one) strain among 18 patients. Loss (9 patients) or acquisition (10 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. It was concluded that FQ-resistant E. coli carriage was associated with clonal spread. The differential effects of individual fluoroquinolone on antimicrobial drug resistance are an important area for future study, as hospitals manipulate their formularies with regard to use of individual fluoroquinolone, often for economic reasons.

Keywords: E. coli, fluoroquinolone, risk factors, feacal carriage, hospitalized patients, Ado-Ekiti

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519 Elucidation of the Sequential Transcriptional Activity in Escherichia coli Using Time-Series RNA-Seq Data

Authors: Pui Shan Wong, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara, Sachiyo Aburatani

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Functional genomics and gene regulation inference has readily expanded our knowledge and understanding of gene interactions with regards to expression regulation. With the advancement of transcriptome sequencing in time-series comes the ability to study the sequential changes of the transcriptome. This method presented here works to augment existing regulation networks accumulated in literature with transcriptome data gathered from time-series experiments to construct a sequential representation of transcription factor activity. This method is applied on a time-series RNA-Seq data set from Escherichia coli as it transitions from growth to stationary phase over five hours. Investigations are conducted on the various metabolic activities in gene regulation processes by taking advantage of the correlation between regulatory gene pairs to examine their activity on a dynamic network. Especially, the changes in metabolic activity during phase transition are analyzed with focus on the pagP gene as well as other associated transcription factors. The visualization of the sequential transcriptional activity is used to describe the change in metabolic pathway activity originating from the pagP transcription factor, phoP. The results show a shift from amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, to energy metabolism during the transition to stationary phase in E. coli.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, gene regulation, network, time-series

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518 Design of an Artificial Oil Body-Cyanogen Bromide Technology Platform for the Expression of Small Bioactive Peptide, Mastoparan B

Authors: Tzyy-Rong Jinn, Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Yi-Ching Chung, Feng-Chia Hsieh

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In this study, we attempted to develop a recombinant oleosin-based fusion expression strategy in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coupled with the artificial oil bodies (AOB)-cyanogen bromide technology platform to produce bioactive mastoparan B (MP-B). As reported, the oleosin in AOB system plays a carrier (fusion with target protein), since oleosin possess two amphipathic regions (at the N-terminus and C-terminus), which result in the N-terminus and C-terminus of oleosin could be arranged on the surface of AOB. Thus, the target protein fused to the N-terminus or C-terminus of oleosin which also is exposed on the surface of AOB, and this process will greatly facilitate the subsequent separation and purification of target protein from AOB. In addition, oleosin, a unique structural protein of seed oil bodies, has the added advantage of helping the fused MP-B expressed in inclusion bodies, which can protect from proteolytic degradation. In this work, MP-B was fused to the C-terminus of oleosin and then was expressed in E. coli as an insoluble recombinant protein. As a consequence, we successfully developed a reliable recombinant oleosin-based fusion expression strategy in Escherichia coli and coupled with the artificial oil bodies (AOB)-cyanogen bromide technology platform to produce the small peptide, MP-B. Take together, this platform provides an insight into the production of active MP-B, which will facilitate studies and applications of this peptide in the future.

Keywords: artificial oil bodies, Escherichia coli, Oleosin-fusion protein, Mastoparan-B

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517 Effects of β-Glucan on the Release of Nitric Oxide by RAW264.7 Cells Stimulated with Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

Authors: Eun Young Choi, So Hui Choe, Jin Yi Hyeon, Ji Young Jin, Bo Ram Keum, Jong Min Lim, Hyung Rae Cho, Kwang Keun Cho, In Soon Choi

Abstract:

This research analyzed the effect of β-glucan that is expected to alleviate the production of inflammatory mediator in macrophagocyte, which was processed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia, a pathogen related to allergy. The incubated layer was used for nitric oxide (NO) analysis. The DNA-binding activation of the small unit of NF-κB was measured using ELISA-based kit. In RAW264.7 cells that were vitalized by E.coli LPS, β-glucan inhibited both the combatant and rendering phases of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO. β-glucan increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cell that was stimulated by E.coli LPS, and HO-1 activation was inhibited by SnPP. This shows that NO production induced by LPS is related to the inhibition effect of β-glucan. The phosphorylation of JNK and p38 induced by LPS were not influenced by β-glucan, and IκB-α decomposition was not influenced either. Instead, β-glucan remarkably inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT1 that was induced by E.coli LPS. Overall, β-glucan inhibited the production of NO in macrophagocyte that was vitalized by E.coli LPS through HO-1 induction and STAT1 pathways inhibition in this research. As the host inflammation reaction control by β-glucan weakens the progress of allergy, β-glucan can be used as an effective treatment method.

Keywords: β-glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), nitric oxide (NO), RAW264.7 cells, STAT1

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516 Understanding the Prevalence and Expression of Virulence Factors Harbored by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Debjyoti Bhakat, Indranil Mondal, Asish K. Mukhopadayay, Nabendu S. Chatterjee

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and travelers in developing countries. Colonization factors play an important role in pathogenesis and are one of the main targets for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine development. However, ETEC vaccines had poorly performed in the past, as the prevalence of colonization factors is region-dependent. There are more than 25 classical colonization factors presently known to be expressed by ETEC, although all are not expressed together. Further, there are other multiple non-classical virulence factors that are also identified. Here the presence and expression of common classical and non-classical virulence factors were studied. Further studies were done on the expression of prevalent colonization factors in different strains. For the prevalence determination, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed, which was confirmed by simplex PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR was done to study the RNA expression of these virulence factors. Strains negative for colonization factors expression were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Among the clinical isolates, the most prevalent toxin was est+elt, followed by est and elt, while the pattern was reversed in the control strains. There were 29% and 40% strains negative for any classical colonization factors (CF) or non-classical virulence factors (NCVF) among the clinical and control strains, respectively. Among CF positive ETEC strains, CS6 and CS21 were the prevalent ones in the clinical strains, whereas in control strains, CS6 was the predominant one. For NCVF genes, eatA was the most prevalent among the clinical isolates and etpA for control. CS6 was the most expressed CF, and eatA was the predominantly expressed NCVF for both clinical and controlled ETEC isolates. CS6 expression was more in strains having CS6 alone. Different strains express CS6 at different levels. Not all strains expressed their respective virulence factors. Understanding the prevalent colonization factor, CS6, and its nature of expression will contribute to designing an effective vaccine against ETEC in this region of the globe. The expression pattern of CS6 also will help in examining the relatedness between the ETEC subtypes.

Keywords: classical virulence factors, CS6, diarrhea, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, expression, non-classical virulence factors

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515 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Desouky Abd El Haleem, Sahar Zaki

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This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp.

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514 Molecular Detection and Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli in a Tertiary Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria

Authors: I. N. Nwafia, U. C. Ozumba, M. E. Ohanu, S. O. Ebede

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Antibiotic resistance is increasing globally and has become a major health challenge. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase is clinically important because the ESBL gene are mostly plasmid encoded and these plasmids frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other classes of antimicrobials thereby limiting antibiotic options in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs production in Escherichia coli, to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of ESBLs producing Escherichia coli, to detect TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes and the risk factors to acquisition of ESBL producing Escherichia coli. The protocol of the study was approved by Health Research and Ethics committee of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that involved all hospitalized patients in UNTH from whose specimens Escherichia coli was isolated during the period of the study. The samples analysed were urine, wound swabs, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. These samples were cultured in 5% sheep Blood agar and MacConkey agar (Oxoid Laboratories, Cambridge UK) and incubated at 35-370C for 24 hours. Escherichia coli was identified with standard biochemical tests and confirmed using API 20E auxanogram (bioMerieux, Marcy 1'Etoile, France). The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method and interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guideline. ESBL production was confirmed using ESBL Epsilometer test strips (Liofilchem srl, Italy). The ESBL bla genes were detected with polymerase chain reaction, after extraction of DNA with plasmid mini-prep kit (Jena Bioscience, Jena, Germany). Data analysis was with appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred and six isolates (53.00%) out of the 200 were from urine, followed by isolates from different swabs specimens 53(26.50%) and the least number of the isolates 4(2.00) were from blood (P value = 0.096). Seventy (35.00%) out of the 200 isolates, were confirmed positive for ESBL production. Forty-two (60.00%) of the isolates were from female patients while 28(40.00%) were from male patients (P value = 0.13). Sixty-eight (97.14%) of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem while all of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. From the 70 positive isolates the ESBL genes detected with polymerase chain reaction were blaCTX-M (n=26; 37.14%), blaTEM (n=7; 10.00%), blaSHV (n=2; 2.86%), blaCTX-M/TEM (n=7; 10.0%), blaCTX-M/SHV (n=14; 20.0%) and blaCTX-M/TEM/SHV (n=10; 14.29%). There was no gene detected in 4(5.71%) of the isolates. The most associated risk factors to infections caused by ESBL producing Escherichia coli was previous antibiotics use for the past 3 months followed by admission in the intensive care unit, recent surgery, and urinary catheterization. In conclusion, ESBLs was detected in 4 of every 10 Escherichia coli with the predominant gene detected being CTX-M. This knowledge will enable appropriate measures towards improvement of patient health care, antibiotic stewardship, research and infection control in the hospital.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Escherichia coli, extended spectrum beta lactamase, resistance

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513 Biosynthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Property

Authors: Prachi Singh

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This paper presents a low-cost, eco-friendly and reproducible microbe mediated biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, from titanium as a precursor, were confirmed by TEM analysis. The morphological characteristics state spherical shape, with the size of individual or aggregate nanoparticles, around 30-40 nm. Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. Here, the antibacterial effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on Escherichia coli was investigated, which was confirmed by CFU (Colony-forming unit). Further, growth curve study of E. coli Hb101 in the presence and absence of TiO2 nanoparticles was done. Optical density decrease was observed with the increase in the concentration of TiO2. It could be attributed to the inactivation of cellular enzymes and DNA by binding to electron-donating groups such as carboxylates, amides, indoles, hydroxyls, thiols, etc. which cause little pores in bacterial cell walls, leading to increased permeability and cell death. This justifies that TiO2 nanoparticles have efficient antibacterial effect and have potential to be used as an antibacterial agent for different purposes.

Keywords: antibacterial effect, CFU, Escherichia coli Hb101, growth curve, TEM, TiO2 nanoparticle, Toxicity, UV-Vis

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512 Production of Recombinant Human Serum Albumin in Escherichia coli: A Crucial Biomolecule for Biotechnological and Healthcare Applications

Authors: Ashima Sharma, Tapan K. Chaudhuri

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Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is one of the most demanded therapeutic protein with immense biotechnological applications. The current source of HSA is human blood plasma. Blood is a limited and an unsafe source as it possesses the risk of contamination by various blood derived pathogens. This issue led to exploitation of various hosts with the aim to obtain an alternative source for the production of the rHSA. But, till now no host has been proven to be effective commercially for rHSA production because of their respective limitations. Thus, there exists an indispensable need to promote non-animal derived rHSA production. Of all the host systems, Escherichia coli is one of the most convenient hosts which has contributed in the production of more than 30% of the FDA approved recombinant pharmaceuticals. E. coli grows rapidly and its culture reaches high cell density using inexpensive and simple substrates. The fermentation batch turnaround number for E. coli culture is 300 per year, which is far greater than any of the host systems available. Therefore, E. coli derived recombinant products have more economical potential as fermentation processes are cheaper compared to the other expression hosts available. Despite of all the mentioned advantages, E. coli had not been successfully adopted as a host for rHSA production. The major bottleneck in exploiting E. coli as a host for rHSA production was aggregation i.e. majority of the expressed recombinant protein was forming inclusion bodies (more than 90% of the total expressed rHSA) in the E. coli cytosol. Recovery of functional rHSA form inclusion body is not preferred because it is tedious, time consuming, laborious and expensive. Because of this limitation, E. coli host system was neglected for rHSA production for last few decades. Considering the advantages of E. coli as a host, the present work has targeted E. coli as an alternate host for rHSA production through resolving the major issue of inclusion body formation associated with it. In the present study, we have developed a novel and innovative method for enhanced soluble and functional production of rHSA in E.coli (~60% of the total expressed rHSA in the soluble fraction) through modulation of the cellular growth, folding and environmental parameters, thereby leading to significantly improved and enhanced -expression levels as well as the functional and soluble proportion of the total expressed rHSA in the cytosolic fraction of the host. Therefore, in the present case we have filled in the gap in the literature, by exploiting the most well studied host system Escherichia coli which is of low cost, fast growing, scalable and ‘yet neglected’, for the enhancement of functional production of HSA- one of the most crucial biomolecule for clinical and biotechnological applications.

Keywords: enhanced functional production of rHSA in E. coli, recombinant human serum albumin, recombinant protein expression, recombinant protein processing

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511 Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Schiff Bases with Different Benzaldehyde Derivatives

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa, Ahmed H. H. El-Ghandour, Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, Omayma F. Abdel-Gawad

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Eighteen carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) schiff bases and their reduced derivatives have been synthesized. They were characterized by spectral analyses (FT-IR and H1-NMR) and scanning electron microscopy observation. Their antibacterial activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae (RCMB 010010), Bacillis subtilis (RCMB 010067), as Gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli (RCMB 010052) as Gram negative bacteria and the antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 02568), Geotricum candidum (RCMB 05097), and Candida albicans (RCMB 05031) were examined using agar disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate how the antibacterial and the antifungal activity are clearly affected by both the nature and position of the substituent groups in the aryl ring of the prepared derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base and its reduced form show higher antimicrobial activity comparing with other para substituted derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base: 18.3, 17, and 15.6 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 16.2, 17.3, and 16.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. CMCh-4-nitroBenz reduced form: 19.5, 18.7, and 16.2 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 17.5, 19.5, and 17.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. Also CMCh-3-bromoBenz show good results; CMCh-3-bromoBenz schiff base: 19.2, 16.9, and 14.6 mm Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 18.4, 17.6, and 15.9 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively.

Keywords: chitosan, schiff base, minimum inhibition concentration, antimicrobial activity

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510 The Influence of Ligands Molecular Structure on the Antibacterial Activity of Some Metal Complexes

Authors: Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Lidija R. Jevrić, Strahinja Z. Kovačević

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In last decade, metal-organic complexes have captured intensive attention because of their wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antimicrobial and antiHIV. Therefore, it is of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry to explore the assembly of functional organic ligands with metal ion and to investigate the relationship between the structure and property. In view of our studies, we reasoned that benzimidazoles complexed to metal ions could act as a potent antibacterial agents. Thus, we have bioassayed the inhibitory potency of benzimidazoles and their metal salts (Co or Ni) against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. In order to validate our in vitro study, we performed in silico studies using molecular docking software’s. The investigated compounds and their metal complexes (Co, Ni) showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. In silico docking studies of the synthesized compounds suggested that complexed benzimidazoles have a greater binding affinity and enhanced antibacterial activity in comparison with noncomplexed ligands. In view of their enhanced inhibitory properties we propose that the studied complexes can be used as potential pharmaceuticals. This study is financially supported by COST action CM1306 and the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina.

Keywords: benzimidazoles, complexes, antibacterial, Escherichia coli, metal

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509 Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Risk Factors for Salmonella Species and Escherichia Coli from Raw Meat at Butchery Houses in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Haftay Abraha Tadesse, Dawit Gebreegziabiher Hagos, Atsebaha Gebrekidan Kahsay, Mahumd Abdulkader

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Background: Salmonella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are important foodborne pathogens affecting humans and animals. They are among the most important causes of infection that are associated with the consumption of contaminated food. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors for Salmonella species and E. coli in raw meat from butchery houses of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2019. Socio-demographic data and risk factors were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Meat samples were collected aseptically from the butchery houses and transported using icebox to Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Sciences for the isolation and identification of Salmonella species and E. coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data obtained were cleaned and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 and logistic regression models with odds ratio were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 153 out of 384 (39.8%) of the meat specimens were found to be contaminated. The contamination of Salmonella species and E. coli were 15.6% (n=60) and 20.8%) (n=80), respectively. Mixed contamination (Salmonella species and E. coli) was observed in 13 (3.4 %) of the analyzed. Poor washing hands regularly (AOR = 8.37; 95% CI: 2.75-25.50) and not using gloves during meat handling (AOR=11. 28; 95% CI:(4.69 27.10) were associated with overall bacterial contamination. About 100% of the tested isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, Co trimoxazole , sulphamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and norfloxacine of E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively, while the resistance of amoxyclav_amoxicillin and erythromycin were both isolated bacteria species. The overall multidrug resistance pattern for Salmonella and E. coli were 51.4% (n=19) and 31.8% (14), respectively. Conclusion: Of the 153 (153/384) contaminated raw meat, 60 (15.6%) and 80 (20.8%) were contaminated by Salmonella species and E. coli, respectively. Poor handwashing practice and not using glove during meat handling showed a significant association with bacterial contamination. Multidrug-resistant showed in Salmonella species, and E. coli were 19 (51.4%) and 14 (31.8%), respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility test, butchery houses, E. coli, raw meat, salmonella species

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508 A Prospective Study on the Pattern of Antibiotics Use and Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Its Correlation with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Stelvin Sebastian, Andriya Annie Tom, Joyalanna Babu, Merin Joshy

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Introduction: The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics in poultry and livestock industry to treat and prevent bacterial diseases and as growth promoters in feeds has led to the problem of development of antibiotic resistance both in animals and human population. Aim: To study the pattern of antibiotic use and prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry chickens in selected farms in Muvattupuzha and to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria from poultry environment to UTI patients. Methodology: Two farms from each of 6 localities in Muvattupuzha were selected. A questionnaire on the pattern of antibiotic use and various farming practices were surveyed from farms. From each farm, 60samples of fresh fecal matter, litter from inside, litter from the outside shed, agricultural soil and control soil were collected, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E. coli was done. Antibiogram of UTI patients was collected from the secondary care hospital included in the study, and those were compared with resistance patterns of poultry samples. Results: From survey response antibiotics such as ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, ceftriaxone, neomycin, cephalexin, and oxytetracycline were used for treatment and prevention of infections in poultry. 31of 48 samples (51.66%) showed E. coli growth. 7 of 15 antibiotics (46.6%) showed resistance. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, meropenem, tetracycline showed 100% resistance to all samples. Statistical analysis confirmed similar resistance pattern in the poultry environment and UTI patients for antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, and ofloxacin. Conclusion: E. coli were resistant not only to extended-spectrum beta-lactams but also to carbapenems, which may be disseminated to the environment where litter was used as manure. This may due to irrational use of antibiotics in chicken or from their use in poultry feed as growth promoters. The study concludes the presence of multidrug-resistant E.coli in poultry and its spread to environment and humans, which may cause potentially serious implications for human health.

Keywords: multidrug resistance, escherichia coli, urinary tract infection, poultry

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