Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Sharmila Rathee

12 Disability, Stigma and In-Group Identification: An Exploration across Different Disability Subgroups

Authors: Sharmila Rathee


Individuals with disability/ies often face negative attitudes, discrimination, exclusion, and inequality of treatment due to stigmatization and stigmatized treatment. While a significant number of studies in field of stigma suggest that group-identification has positive consequences for stigmatized individuals, ironically very miniscule empirical work in sight has attempted to investigate in-group identification as a coping measure against stigma, humiliation and related experiences among disability group. In view of death of empirical research on in-group identification among disability group, through present work, an attempt has been made to examine the experiences of stigma, humiliation, and in-group identification among disability group. Results of the study suggest that use of in-group identification as a coping strategy is not uniform across members of disability group and degree of in-group identification differs across different sub-groups of disability groups. Further, in-group identification among members of disability group depends on variables like degree and impact of disability, factors like onset of disability, nature, and visibility of disability, educational experiences and resources available to deal with disabling conditions.

Keywords: disability, stigma, in-group identification, social identity

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11 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar


Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

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10 Carriage of 675 4G/5G Polymorphism in PAI-1 Gene and Its Association with Early Pregnancy Losses in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: R. Komsa-Penkova, G. Golemanov, G. Georgieva, K. Popovski, N. Slavov, P. Ivanov, K. Kovacheva, S. Rathee, E. Konova, A. Blajev


Leptin and PAI-1 are important cytokines and may play a role in the regulation of PCOS development. PCOS is frequently associated with obesity, high BMI index and consequently with increased risk of metabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate PAI-1 levels, genetic influence of the carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism in PAI-1 gene and leptin as a marker of obesity in the development of PCOS. Methods: Genotyping in 84 patients with PCOS and PCO and 100 healthy control subjects to detect single nucleotide deletion 675 G in the promoter of PAI-1 gene. The present study provides evidence that SNP 4G in the PAI-1 gene is associated with early pregnancy losses in patients with polycystosis. Further to this, there is a correlation between leptin levels, PAI-1 levels and BMI in the patients with PCOS, which confirms the role of obesity as a risk factor for PCOS.

Keywords: carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism, PCOS, early pregnancy losses, PAI-1 gene

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9 Analysis of Threats in Interoperability of Medical Devices

Authors: M. Sandhya, R. M. Madhumitha, Sharmila Sankar


Interoperable medical devices (IMDs) face threats due to the increased attack surface accessible by interoperability and the corresponding infrastructure. Initiating networking and coordination functionalities primarily modify medical systems' security properties. Understanding the threats is a vital first step in ultimately crafting security solutions for such systems. The key to this problem is coming up with some common types of threats or attacks with those of security and privacy, and providing this information as a roadmap. This paper analyses the security issues in interoperability of devices and presents the main types of threats that have to be considered to build a secured system.

Keywords: interoperability, threats, attacks, medical devices

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8 EMG Based Orthosis for Upper Limb Rehabilitation in Hemiparesis Patients

Authors: Nancy N. Sharmila, Aparna Mishra


Hemiparesis affects almost 80% of stroke patients each year. It is marked by paralysis or weakness on one half of the body. Our model provides both assistance and physical therapy for hemiparesis patients for swift recovery. In order to accomplish our goal a force is provided that pulls the forearm up (as in flexing the arm), and pushes the forearm down (as in extending the arm), which will also assist the user during ADL (Activities of Daily Living). The model consists of a mechanical component which is placed around the patient’s bicep and an EMG control circuit to assist patients in daily activities, which makes it affordable and easy to use. In order to enhance the neuromuscular system’s effectiveness in synchronize the movement, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) concept is used. The EMG signals are acquired from the unaffected arm as an input to drive the orthosis. This way the patient is invigorated to use the orthosis for regular exercise.

Keywords: EMG, hemiparesis, orthosis, rehabilitation

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7 Unfolding Prison Crisis in India: An Evaluation from a Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Sharmila Sakravarthy


Prison administration in India, even though an important limb of the criminal justice system are worse off in terms of overcrowding, prolonged detention of under-trial prisoners, and a host of other problems. Considering the statistics of the prison population, over a thousand three hundred prisons across the country were overcrowded, even to the extent of more than six hundred percent. A total of eighteen thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight female prisoners were in India, out of which thirteen thousand hundred and sixty-five were under trials and five thousand and sixty-three convicts. A total of around one thousand seven hundred thirty-five children are residing in prisons along with their mothers. District prisons are more overcrowded than the other prisons, and their practices are at odd with human rights standards. This article examines a range of issues in prisons throughout India including pretrial detention, overcrowding, resources and governance, women and children in prison and rehabilitation. A substantial amount of space is devoted to the reforms that are occurring across the nation, and recommendations are made with regard to what further reforms are necessary.

Keywords: human rights, overcrowding, prisons, rehabilitation

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6 Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymer Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Sharmila Pradhan, Ralf Lach, George Michler, Jean Mark Saiter, Rameshwar Adhikari


Ethylene/1-octene copolymer was modified incorporating three types of nanofillers differed in their dimensionality in order to investigate the effect of filler dimensionality on mechanical properties, for instance, tensile strength, microhardness etc. The samples were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moldings. The microstructure of the novel material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Other important properties such as melting, crystallizing and thermal stability were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The FTIR and XRD results showed that the composites were formed by physical mixing. The TEM result supported the homogeneous dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. The mechanical characterization performed by tensile testing showed that the composites with 1D nanofiller effectively reinforced the polymer. TGA results revealed that the thermal stability of pure EOC is marginally improved by the addition of nanofillers. Likewise, melting and crystallizing properties of the composites are not much different from that of pure.

Keywords: copolymer, differential scanning calorimetry, nanofiller, tensile strength

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5 Hybrid Equity Warrants Pricing Formulation under Stochastic Dynamics

Authors: Teh Raihana Nazirah Roslan, Siti Zulaiha Ibrahim, Sharmila Karim


A warrant is a financial contract that confers the right but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a certain price before expiration. The standard procedure to value equity warrants using call option pricing models such as the Black–Scholes model had been proven to contain many flaws, such as the assumption of constant interest rate and constant volatility. In fact, existing alternative models were found focusing more on demonstrating techniques for pricing, rather than empirical testing. Therefore, a mathematical model for pricing and analyzing equity warrants which comprises stochastic interest rate and stochastic volatility is essential to incorporate the dynamic relationships between the identified variables and illustrate the real market. Here, the aim is to develop dynamic pricing formulations for hybrid equity warrants by incorporating stochastic interest rates from the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) model, along with stochastic volatility from the Heston model. The development of the model involves the derivations of stochastic differential equations that govern the model dynamics. The resulting equations which involve Cauchy problem and heat equations are then solved using partial differential equation approaches. The analytical pricing formulas obtained in this study comply with the form of analytical expressions embedded in the Black-Scholes model and other existing pricing models for equity warrants. This facilitates the practicality of this proposed formula for comparison purposes and further empirical study.

Keywords: Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model, equity warrants, Heston model, hybrid models, stochastic

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4 RA-Apriori: An Efficient and Faster MapReduce-Based Algorithm for Frequent Itemset Mining on Apache Flink

Authors: Sanjay Rathee, Arti Kashyap


Extraction of useful information from large datasets is one of the most important research problems. Association rule mining is one of the best methods for this purpose. Finding possible associations between items in large transaction based datasets (finding frequent patterns) is most important part of the association rule mining. There exist many algorithms to find frequent patterns but Apriori algorithm always remains a preferred choice due to its ease of implementation and natural tendency to be parallelized. Many single-machine based Apriori variants exist but massive amount of data available these days is above capacity of a single machine. Therefore, to meet the demands of this ever-growing huge data, there is a need of multiple machines based Apriori algorithm. For these types of distributed applications, MapReduce is a popular fault-tolerant framework. Hadoop is one of the best open-source software frameworks with MapReduce approach for distributed storage and distributed processing of huge datasets using clusters built from commodity hardware. However, heavy disk I/O operation at each iteration of a highly iterative algorithm like Apriori makes Hadoop inefficient. A number of MapReduce-based platforms are being developed for parallel computing in recent years. Among them, two platforms, namely, Spark and Flink have attracted a lot of attention because of their inbuilt support to distributed computations. Earlier we proposed a reduced- Apriori algorithm on Spark platform which outperforms parallel Apriori, one because of use of Spark and secondly because of the improvement we proposed in standard Apriori. Therefore, this work is a natural sequel of our work and targets on implementing, testing and benchmarking Apriori and Reduced-Apriori and our new algorithm ReducedAll-Apriori on Apache Flink and compares it with Spark implementation. Flink, a streaming dataflow engine, overcomes disk I/O bottlenecks in MapReduce, providing an ideal platform for distributed Apriori. Flink's pipelining based structure allows starting a next iteration as soon as partial results of earlier iteration are available. Therefore, there is no need to wait for all reducers result to start a next iteration. We conduct in-depth experiments to gain insight into the effectiveness, efficiency and scalability of the Apriori and RA-Apriori algorithm on Flink.

Keywords: apriori, apache flink, Mapreduce, spark, Hadoop, R-Apriori, frequent itemset mining

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3 Quality of Life among Female Sex Workers of Selected Organization of Pokhara: A Methodological Triangulation

Authors: Sharmila Dahal Paudel


Background: There are around twenty-four thousand to twenty-eight thousand Female Sex Workers in Nepal. FSWs are the vulnerable groups for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections which directly and indirectly ease to reduce the quality of life of such groups. Due to their highly marginalized status, FSWs in Nepal have limited access to information about reproductive health and safe sex practices. The objectives of the study are to assess the quality of life of female sex workers and the factors affecting them. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study with methodological triangulation was conducted among 108 FSWs on the basis of service record of selected organization of Pokhara valley. The complete enumerative sampling was used to select FSWs. Structured interview schedule, WHOQOL-BREF and in-depth questionnaire were used to collect the data. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to interpret the result. Results: The mean age of participants were 23.44 years and the mean quality of life score was 174.06 ranging from 56.54 to 370.78. Among the domain scores, the mean score is highest in social domain (55.89) followed by physical (45.42), psychological (39.27) and the environmental (34.23). Regarding the association of QOL with socio-demographic, occupation and health-related variables, the multi-linear regression suggests that the satisfaction with occupation was highly significant with the total QOL score (B=-50.50, SE=10.46; p= <0.001) and there is negative relation between QOL and feeling of exploitation and facing STI problems. This means those who feels exploited have significantly less QOL comparing with those who did not feel the same. In correlation analysis, all the domains are positively co-related with each domain which is found to be significant at 1% level of significance. Conclusion: The highest mean score was in social domain, and the lowest is in environmental domain which suggests that the items included in environmental domains could not be utilized or hindrance were there.


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2 Evaluation of the Use of Proseal LMA in Patients Undergoing Elective Lower Segment Caesarean Section under General Anaesthesia: A Prospective Randomised Controlled Study

Authors: Shalini Saini, Sharmila Ahuja


Anaesthesia for caesarean section poses challenges unique to the obstetric patient due to changes in the airway and respiratory system. The choice of anaesthesia for caesarean section depends on various factors however general anaesthesia (GA) is necessary for certain situations. Supraglottic airway devices are an emerging method to secure airway, especially in difficult situations. Of these devices, proseal –LMA (PLMA) is designed to provide better protection of the airway. The use of PLMA has been reported successfully as a rescue device in difficult intubation situations and in patients undergoing elective caesarean section without any complications. The study was prospective and randomised and was designed to compare PLMA in patients undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) with the endotracheal tube (ETT). Patients undergoing LSCS under GA belonging to ASA grade 1 and 2 were included. Patients with the history of fewer than 6 hrs of fasting, known/predicted difficult airway, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypertensive disorder were excluded. A standard anaesthesia protocol was followed. All patients received aspiration prophylaxis. The airway was secured with either PLMA or ETT. Parameters noted were- ease of insertion, adequacy of ventilation, hemodynamic changes at insertion and removal of device, incidence of regurgitation and aspiration. Data was analysed by unpaired t- test, Chi-square /Fisher’s test. The findings of our study indicated that PLMA was easy to insert (20.67±6.835 sec) with comparable insertion time to TT (18.33 ± 4.971, p 0.136) and adequate ventilation was achieved with very minimal hemodynamic changes seen with PLMA as compared to ETT at insertion and removal of devices (p 0.01). There was no incidence of regurgitation with the use of PLMA. The incidence of a postoperative sore throat was minimal (6.7%) with PLMA (p<0.05). PLMA appears to be a safe alternative to ETT for selected obstetric patients undergoing elective LSCS. Further study with a larger group of patients is required to establish the safety of PLMA in obstetric patients.

Keywords: caesarean section, general anaesthesia, proseal LMA, endotracheal tube

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1 Innocent Victims and Immoral Women: Sex Workers in the Philippines through the Lens of Mainstream Media

Authors: Sharmila Parmanand


This paper examines dominant media representations of prostitution in the Philippines and interrogates sex workers’ interactions with the media establishment. This analysis of how sex workers are constituted in media, often as both innocent victims and immoral actors, contributes to an understanding of public discourse on sex work in the Philippines, where decriminalisation has recently been proposed and sex workers are currently classified as potential victims under anti-trafficking laws but also as criminals under the penal code. The first part is an analysis of media coverage of two prominent themes on prostitution: first, raid and rescue operations conducted by law enforcement; and second, prostitution on military bases and tourism hotspots. As a result of pressure from activists and international donors, these two themes often define the policy conversations on sex work in the Philippines. The discourses in written and televised news reports and documentaries from established local and international media sources that address these themes are explored through content analysis. Conclusions are drawn based on specific terms commonly used to refer to sex workers, how sex workers are seen as performing their cultural roles as mothers and wives, how sex work is depicted, associations made between sex work and public health, representations of clients and managers and ‘rescuers’ such as the police, anti-trafficking organisations, and faith-based groups, and which actors are presumed to be issue experts. Images of how prostitution is used as a metaphor for relations between the Philippines and foreign nations are also deconstructed, along with common tropes about developing world female subjects. In general, sex workers are simultaneously portrayed as bad mothers who endanger their family’s morality but also as long-suffering victims who endure exploitation for the sake of their children. They are also depicted as unclean, drug-addicted threats to public health. Their managers and clients are portrayed as cold, abusive, and sometimes violent, and their rescuers as moral and altruistic agents who are essential for sex workers’ rehabilitation and restoration as virtuous citizens. The second part explores sex workers’ own perceptions of their interactions with media, through interviews with members of the Philippine Sex Workers Collective, a loose organisation of sex workers around the Philippines. They reveal that they are often excluded by media practitioners and that they do not feel that they have space for meaningful self-revelation about their work when they do engage with journalists, who seem to have an overt agenda of depicting them as either victims or women of loose morals. In their assessment, media narratives do not necessarily reflect their lived experiences, and in some cases, coverage of rescues and raid operations endangers their privacy and instrumentalises their suffering. Media representations of sex workers may produce subject positions such as ‘victims’ or ‘criminals’ and legitimize specific interventions while foreclosing other ways of thinking. Further, in light of media’s power to reflect and shape public consciousness, it is a valuable academic and political project to examine whether sex workers are able to assert agency in determining how they are represented.

Keywords: discourse analysis, news media, sex work, trafficking

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