Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9622

Search results for: nucleic acid reference material

9622 Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mina Kalantarzadeh, Claire Lockie-Williams, Caroline Howard


DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.

Keywords: degradation, DNA extraction, nucleic acid reference material, trnH-psbA

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9621 Highly-Sensitive Nanopore-Based Sensors for Point-Of-Care Medical Diagnostics

Authors: Leyla Esfandiari


Rapid, sensitive detection of nucleic acid (NA) molecules of specific sequence is of interest for a range of diverse health-related applications such as screening for genetic diseases, detecting pathogenic microbes in food and water, and identifying biological warfare agents in homeland security. Sequence-specific nucleic acid detection platforms rely on base pairing interaction between two complementary single stranded NAs, which can be detected by the optical, mechanical, or electrochemical readout. However, many of the existing platforms require amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent or enzymatic labels, and expensive or bulky instrumentation. In an effort to address these shortcomings, our research is focused on utilizing the cutting edge nanotechnology and microfluidics along with resistive pulse electrical measurements to design and develop a cost-effective, handheld and highly-sensitive nanopore-based sensor for point-of-care medical diagnostics.

Keywords: diagnostics, nanopore, nucleic acids, sensor

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9620 Evaluation of the Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Sustainable Concrete Exposed to Acid Solution

Authors: Adil Tamimi


Limestone powder is a natural material that is available in many parts of the world. In this research self-compacting concrete was designed and prepared using limestone powder. The resulted concrete was exposed to the hydrochloric acid solution and compared with reference concrete. Mechanical properties of both fresh and hardened concrete have been evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscopy “SEM” has been unitized to analyse the morphological development of the hydration products. In sulphuric acid solution, a large formation of gypsum was detected in both samples of self-compacting concrete and conventional concrete. The Higher amount of thaumasite and ettringite was also detected in the SCC sample. In hydrochloric acid solution, monochloroaluminate was detected.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, mechanical properties, Scanning Electron Microscopy, acid solution

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9619 Encryption and Decryption of Nucleic Acid Using Deoxyribonucleic Acid Algorithm

Authors: Iftikhar A. Tayubi, Aabdulrahman Alsubhi, Abdullah Althrwi


The deoxyribonucleic acid text provides a single source of high-quality Cryptography about Deoxyribonucleic acid sequence for structural biologists. We will provide an intuitive, well-organized and user-friendly web interface that allows users to encrypt and decrypt Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence text. It includes complex, securing by using Algorithm to encrypt and decrypt Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence. The utility of this Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid Sequence Text is that, it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to Encrypt and Decrypt store the information about Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence. These interfaces created in this project will satisfy the demands of the scientific community by providing fully encrypt of Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence during this website. We have adopted a methodology by using C# and Active Server Page.NET for programming which is smart and secure. Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence text is a wonderful piece of equipment for encrypting large quantities of data, efficiently. The users can thus navigate from one encoding and store orange text, depending on the field for user’s interest. Algorithm classification allows a user to Protect the deoxy ribonucleic acid sequence from change, whether an alteration or error occurred during the Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence data transfer. It will check the integrity of the Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence data during the access.

Keywords: algorithm, ASP.NET, DNA, encrypt, decrypt

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9618 Determination of Effect Factor for Effective Parameter on Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Material by Concentrated Acid

Authors: Sina Aghili, Ali Arasteh Nodeh


Tamarisk usage as a new group of lignocelluloses material to produce fermentable sugars in bio-ethanol process was studied. The overall aim of this work was to establish the optimum condition for acid hydrolysis of this new material and a mathematical model predicting glucose release as a function of operation variable. Sulfuric acid concentration in the range of 20 to 60%(w/w), process temperature between 60 to 95oC, hydrolysis time from 120 to 240 min and solid content 5,10,15%(w/w) were used as hydrolysis conditions. HPLC was used to analysis of the product. This analysis indicated that glucose was the main fermentable sugar and was increased with time, temperature and solid content and acid concentration was a parabola influence in glucose production.The process was modeled by a quadratic equation. Curve study and model were found that 42% acid concentration, 15 % solid content and 90oC were in optimum condition.

Keywords: fermentable sugar, saccharification, wood, hydrolysis

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9617 Fluorometric Aptasensor: Evaluation of Stability and Comparison to Standard Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Authors: J. Carlos Kuri, Varun Vij, Raymond J. Turner, Orly Yadid-Pecht


Celiac disease (CD) is an immune system disorder that is triggered by ingesting gluten. As a gluten-free (GF) diet has become a concern of many people for health reasons, a gold standard had to be nominated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has taken the seat of this role. However, multiple limitations were discovered, and with that, the desire for an alternative method now exists. Nucleic acid-based aptamers have become of great interest due to their selectivity, specificity, simplicity, and rapid-testing advantages. However, fluorescence-based aptasensors have been tagged as unstable, but lifespan details are rarely stated. In this work, the lifespan stability of a fluorescence-based aptasensor is shown over an 8-week-long study displaying the accuracy of the sensor and false negatives. This study follows 22 different samples, including GF and gluten-rich (GR) and soy sauce products, off-the-shelf products, and reference material from laboratories, giving a total of 836 tests. The analysis shows an accuracy of correctly classifying GF and GR products of 96.30% and 100%, respectively when the protocol is augmented with molecular sieves. The overall accuracy remains around 94% within the first four weeks and then decays to 63%.

Keywords: aptasensor, PEG, rGO, FAM, RM, ELISA

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9616 Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Functionally Graded Material Usage in Lead Acid Storage Batteries and the Benefits

Authors: Sandeep Das


Terminal post is one of the most important features of a Battery. The design and manufacturing of post are very much critical especially when threaded inserts (Bolt-on type) are used since all the collected energy is delivered from the lead part to the threaded insert (Cu or Cu alloy). Any imperfection at the interface may cause Voltage drop, high resistance, high heat generation, etc. This may be because of sudden change of material properties from lead to Cu alloys. To avoid this problem, a scheme of material gradation is proposed for achieving continuous variation of material properties for the Post used in commercially available lead acid battery. The Functionally graded (FG) material for the post is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous material. The volume fraction of the materials used corresponding to each layer is calculated by considering its variation along the direction of current flow (z) according to a power law. Accordingly, the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated and the Post composed of this FG material is modeled using the commercially available ANSYS software. The solid 186 layered structural solid element has been used for discretization of the model of the FG Post. A thermal electric analysis is performed on the layered FG model. The model developed has been validated by comparing the results of the existing Post model& experimental analysis

Keywords: ANSYS, functionally graded material, lead-acid battery, terminal post

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9615 Survey of the Elimination of Red Acid Dye by Wood Dust

Authors: N. Ouslimani, T. Abadlia, M. Fadel


This work focused on the elimination of acid textile dye (red bermacide acid dye BN-CL-200), widely used for dyeing wool and polyamide fibers, by adsorption on a natural material, wood sawdust, in the static mode by keeping under continuous stirring, a specific mass of the adsorbent, with a dye solution of known concentration. The influence of various parameters is studied like the influence of particle size, mass, pH and time. The best results were obtained with 0.4 mm grain size, mass of 3g, Temperature of 20 °C, pH 2 and Time contact of 120 min.

Keywords: acid dye, environment, wood sawdust, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
9614 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn


Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

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9613 Biophysical Study of the Interaction of Harmalol with Nucleic Acids of Different Motifs: Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Approaches

Authors: Kakali Bhadra


Binding of small molecules to DNA and recently to RNA, continues to attract considerable attention for developing effective therapeutic agents for control of gene expression. This work focuses towards understanding interaction of harmalol, a dihydro beta-carboline alkaloid, with different nucleic acid motifs viz. double stranded CT DNA, single stranded A-form poly(A), double-stranded A-form of poly(C)·poly(G) and clover leaf tRNAphe by different spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. Results of this study converge to suggest that (i) binding constant varied in the order of CT DNA > poly(C)·poly(G) > tRNAphe > poly(A), (ii) non-cooperative binding of harmalol to poly(C)·poly(G) and poly(A) and cooperative binding with CT DNA and tRNAphe, (iii) significant structural changes of CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe with concomitant induction of optical activity in the bound achiral alkaloid molecules, while with poly(A) no intrinsic CD perturbation was observed, (iv) the binding was predominantly exothermic, enthalpy driven, entropy favoured with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) while it was entropy driven with tRNAphe and poly(A), (v) a hydrophobic contribution and comparatively large role of non-polyelectrolytic forces to Gibbs energy changes with CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe, and (vi) intercalated state of harmalol with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) structure as revealed from molecular docking and supported by the viscometric data. Furthermore, with competition dialysis assay it was shown that harmalol prefers hetero GC sequences. All these findings unequivocally pointed out that harmalol prefers binding with ds CT DNA followed by ds poly(C)·poly(G), clover leaf tRNAphe and least with ss poly(A). The results highlight the importance of structural elements in these natural beta-carboline alkaloids in stabilizing different DNA and RNA of various motifs for developing nucleic acid based better therapeutic agents.

Keywords: calorimetry, docking, DNA/RNA-alkaloid interaction, harmalol, spectroscopy

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9612 Reactivity Study on South African Calcium Based Material Using a pH-Stat and Citric Acid: A Statistical Approach

Authors: Hilary Rutto, Mbali Chiliza, Tumisang Seodigeng


The study on reactivity of calcined calcium-based material is very important in dry flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) process, so as to produce absorbent with high sulphur dioxide capture capacity during the hydration process. The effect of calcining temperature and time on the reactivity of calcined limestone material were investigated. In this study, the reactivity was measured using a pH stat apparatus and also confirming the result by performing citric acid reactivity test. The reactivity was calculated using the shrinking core model. Based on the experiments, a mathematical model is developed to correlate the effect of time and temperature to the reactivity of absorbent. The calcination process variables were temperature (700 -1000°C) and time (1-6 hrs). It was found that reactivity increases with an increase in time and temperature.

Keywords: reactivity, citric acid, calcination, time

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9611 Polyacrylates in Poly (Lactic Acid) Matrix, New Biobased Polymer Material

Authors: Irena Vuković-Kwiatkowska, Halina Kaczmarek


Poly (lactic acid) is well known polymer, often called green material because of its origin (renewable resources) and biodegradability. This biopolymer can be used in the packaging industry very often. Poor resistance to permeation of gases is the disadvantage of poly (lactic acid). The permeability of gases and vapor through the films applied for packages and bottles generally should be very low to prolong products shelf-life. We propose innovation method of PLA gas barrier modification using electromagnetic radiation in ultraviolet range. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and multifunctional acrylate monomers were mixed in different composition. Final films were obtained by photochemical reaction (photocrosslinking). We tested permeability to water vapor and carbon dioxide through these films. Also their resistance to UV radiation was also studied. The samples were conditioned in the activated sludge and in the natural soil to test their biodegradability. An innovative method of PLA modification allows to expand its usage, and can reduce the future costs of waste management what is the result of consuming such materials like PET and HDPE. Implementation of our material for packaging will contribute to the protection of the environment from the harmful effects of extremely difficult to biodegrade materials made from PET or other plastic

Keywords: interpenetrating polymer network, packaging films, photocrosslinking, polyacrylates dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate DPEPA, poly (lactic acid), polymer biodegradation

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9610 Evaluation of Real Time PCR Methods for Food Safety

Authors: Ergun Sakalar, Kubra Bilgic


In the last decades, real-time PCR has become a reliable tool preferred to use in many laboratories for pathogen detection. This technique allows for monitoring target amplification via fluorescent molecules besides admit of quantitative analysis by enabling of convert outcomes of thermal cycling to digital data. Sensitivity and traceability of real-time PCR are based on measuring of fluorescence that appears only when fluorescent reporter dye bound to specific target DNA.The fluorescent reporter systems developed for this purpose are divided into two groups. The first group consists of intercalator fluorescence dyes such as SYBR Green, EvaGreen which binds to double-stranded DNA. On the other hand, the second group includes fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotide probes that are separated into three subgroups due to differences in mechanism of action; initial primer-probes such as Cyclicons, Angler®, Amplifluor®, LUX™, Scorpions, and the second one hydrolysis probes like TaqMan, Snake assay, finally hybridization probes, for instance, Molecular Beacons, Hybprobe/FRET, HyBeacon™, MGB-Eclipse, ResonSense®, Yin-Yang, MGB-Pleiades. In addition nucleic acid analogues, an increase of probe affinity to target site is also employed with fluorescence-labeled probes. Consequently, abundant real-time PCR detection chemistries are chosen by researcher according to the field of application, mechanism of action, advantages, and proper structures of primer/probes.

Keywords: fluorescent dye, food safety, molecular probes, nucleic acid analogues

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9609 The Molecule Preserve Environment: Effects of Inhibitor of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme on Reproductive Potential and Composition Contents of the Mediterranean Flour Moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller

Authors: Yezli-Touiker Samira, Amrani-Kirane Leila, Soltani Mazouni Nadia


Due to secondary effects of conventional insecticides on the environment, the agrochemical research has resulted in the discovery of novel molecules. That research work will help in the development of a new group of pesticides that may be cheaper and less hazardous to the environment and non-target organisms which is the main desired outcome of the present work. Angiotensin-converting enzyme as a target for the development of novel insect growth regulators. Captopril is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) it was tested in vivo by topical application on reproduction of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The compound is diluted in acetone and applied topically to newly emerged pupae (10µg/ 2µl). The effects of this molecule was studied,on the biochemistry of ovary (on amounts nucleic acid, proteins, the qualitative analysis of the ovarian proteins and the reproductive potential (duration of the pre-oviposition, duration of the oviposition, number of eggs laid and hatching percentage). Captopril reduces significantly quantity of ovarian proteins and nucleic acid. The electrophoresis profile reveals the absence of tree bands at the treated series. This molecule reduced the duration of the oviposition period, the fecundity and the eggviability.

Keywords: environment, ephestia kuehniella, captopril, reproduction, the agrochemical research

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9608 Characterization of Penicillin V Acid and Its Related Compounds by HPLC

Authors: Bahdja Guerfi, N. Hadhoum, I. Azouz, M. Bendoumia, S. Bouafia, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul


Background: 'Penicillin V' is a narrow, bactericidal antibiotic of the beta-lactam family of the naturally occurring penicillin group. It is limited to infections due to the germs defined as sensitive. The objective of this work was to identify and to characterize Penicillin V acid and its related compounds by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Firstly phenoxymethylpenicillin was identified by an infrared absorption. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, and determination of water content were also studied. The dosage of Penicillin V acid active substance and the determination of its related compounds were carried on waters HPLC, equipped with a UV detector at 254 nm and Discovery HS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm X 5 µm) which is maintained at room temperature. The flow rate was about 1 ml per min. A mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (65:35:01) was used as mobile phase for phenoxyacetic acid ‘impurity B' and a mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (650:150:5.75) for the assay and 4-hydroxypenicillin V 'impurity D'. Results: The identification of Penicillin V acid active substance and the evaluation of its chemical quality showed conformity with USP 35th edition. The Penicillin V acid content in the raw material is equal to 1692.22 UI/mg. The percentage content of phenoxyacetic acid and 4-hydroxypenicillin V was respectively: 0.035% and 0.323%. Conclusion: Through these results, we can conclude that the Penicillin V acid active substance tested is of good physicochemical quality.

Keywords: characterization, HPLC, Penicillin V acid, related substances

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9607 DNA PLA: A Nano-Biotechnological Programmable Device

Authors: Hafiz Md. HasanBabu, Khandaker Mohammad Mohi Uddin, Md. IstiakJaman Ami, Rahat Hossain Faisal


Computing in biomolecular programming performs through the different types of reactions. Proteins and nucleic acids are used to store the information generated by biomolecular programming. DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) can be used to build a molecular computing system and operating system for its predictable molecular behavior property. The DNA device has clear advantages over conventional devices when applied to problems that can be divided into separate, non-sequential tasks. The reason is that DNA strands can hold so much data in memory and conduct multiple operations at once, thus solving decomposable problems much faster. Programmable Logic Array, abbreviated as PLA is a programmable device having programmable AND operations and OR operations. In this paper, a DNA PLA is designed by different molecular operations using DNA molecules with the proposed algorithms. The molecular PLA could take advantage of DNA's physical properties to store information and perform calculations. These include extremely dense information storage, enormous parallelism, and extraordinary energy efficiency.

Keywords: biological systems, DNA computing, parallel computing, programmable logic array, PLA, DNA

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9606 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama


Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC

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9605 Development of a New Polymeric Material with Controlled Surface Micro-Morphology Aimed for Biosensors Applications

Authors: Elham Farahmand, Fatimah Ibrahim, Samira Hosseini, Ivan Djordjevic, Leo. H. Koole


Compositions of different molar ratios of polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) were synthesized via free- radical polymerization. Polymer coated surfaces have been produced on silicon wafers. Coated samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have shown that the roughness of the surfaces have increased by increasing the molar ratio of monomer methacrylic acid (MAA). This study reveals that the gradual increase in surface roughness is due to the fact that carboxylic functional groups have been generated by MAA segments. Such surfaces can be desirable platforms for fabrication of the biosensors for detection of the viruses and diseases.

Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA), polymeric material, atomic force microscopy, roughness, carboxylic functional groups

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9604 Collagen Hydrogels Cross-Linked by Squaric Acid

Authors: Joanna Skopinska-Wisniewska, Anna Bajek, Marta Ziegler-Borowska, Alina Sionkowska


Hydrogels are a class of materials widely used in medicine for many years. Proteins, such as collagen, due to the presence of a large number of functional groups are easily wettable by polar solvents and can create hydrogels. The supramolecular network capable to swelling is created by cross-linking of the biopolymers using various reagents. Many cross-linking agents has been tested for last years, however, researchers still are looking for a new, more secure reactants. Squaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxy 3-cyclobutene 1,2- dione, is a very strong acid, which possess flat and rigid structure. Due to the presence of two carboxyl groups the squaric acid willingly reacts with amino groups of collagen. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of addition of squaric acid on the chemical, physical and biological properties of collagen materials. The collagen type I was extracted from rat tail tendons and 1% solution in 0.1M acetic acid was prepared. The samples were cross-linked by the addition of 5%, 10% and 20% of squaric acid. The mixtures of all reagents were incubated 30 min on magnetic stirrer and then dialyzed against deionized water. The FTIR spectra show that the collagen structure is not changed by cross-linking by squaric acid. Although the mechanical properties of the collagen material deteriorate, the temperature of thermal denaturation of collagen increases after cross-linking, what indicates that the protein network was created. The lyophilized collagen gels exhibit porous structure and the pore size decreases with the higher addition of squaric acid. Also the swelling ability is lower after the cross-linking. The in vitro study demonstrates that the materials are attractive for 3T3 cells. The addition of squaric acid causes formation of cross-ling bonds in the collagen materials and the transparent, stiff hydrogels are obtained. The changes of physicochemical properties of the material are typical for cross-linking process, except mechanical properties – it requires further experiments. However, the results let us to conclude that squaric acid is a suitable cross-linker for protein materials for medicine and tissue engineering.

Keywords: collagen, squaric acid, cross-linking, hydrogel

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9603 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Metallurgical Slag

Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha


Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the production of acidified water from abandoned mines and active mines as well. The reason behind the generation of this kind of acidified water is the oxidation of pyrites present in the rocks in and around mining areas. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which is a sulfur oxidizing bacteria, helps in the oxidation process. AMD is extremely acidic in nature, (pH 2-3) with high concentration of several trace and heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such as chloride and sulfate. AMD has several detrimental effect on aquatic organism and environment. It can directly or indirectly contaminate the ground water and surface water as well. The present study considered the treatment of AMD with metallurgical slag, which is a waste material. Slag helped to enhance the pH of AMD to 8.62 from 1.5 with 99% removal of trace metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co. Metallurgical slag was proven as efficient neutralizing material for the treatment of AMD.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, Heavy metals, metallurgical slag, Neutralization

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9602 Influence of Synthetic Antioxidant in the Iodine Value and Acid Number of Jatropha Curcas Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono


Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels that promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which is have advantage on sustainability and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tend to decompose during storage, biodiesel also have the same characteristic that tend to decompose and formed higher acid value which is the result of oxidation to double bond on a chain of ester. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introduce a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. The quality degradation on biodiesel could evaluated by measuring iodine value and acid number of biodiesel. Biodiesel made from High Fatty Acid Jatropha curcas oil equality by using esterification and esterification process will stand on the quality by introduce 90 ppm pyrogallol powder on the biodiesel, which could extend the quality from 2 hours to more than 6 hours in rancimat test evaluation.

Keywords: biodiesel, antioxidant, iodine number, acid value

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9601 Evaluating Acid Buffering Capacity of Sewage Sludge Barrier for Inhibiting Remobilization of Heavy Metals in Tailing Impoundment

Authors: Huyuan Zhang, Yi Chen


Compacted sewage sludge has been proved to be feasible as a barrier material for tailing impoundment because of its low permeability and retardation of heavy metals. The long-term penetration of acid mine drainage, however, would acidify the barrier system and result in remobilization of previously immobilized heavy metal pollutants. In this study, the effect of decreasing pH on the mobility of three typical heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) is investigated by acid titration test on sewage sludge under various conditions. The remobilization of heavy metals is discussed based on the acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge-leachate system. Test results indicate that heavy metals are dramatically released out when pH is decreased below 6.2, and their amounts take the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge decreases with the solid-liquid ratio but increases with the anaerobic incubation time, and it is mainly governed by dissolution of contained carbonate and organics. These results reveal that the sewage sludge possesses enough acid buffering capacity to consume protons within the acid mine drainage. Thus, this study suggests that an explosive remobilization of heavy metals is not expected in a long-term perspective.

Keywords: acid buffering capacity, barrier, heavy metals, remobilization, sewage sludge

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9600 Synthesis and Characterization of Lactic Acid Grafted TiO2 Nanocomposites

Authors: Qasar Saleem


The aim of this project was to synthesize and analyze Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite. When dispersed at the nanoscale TiO2 can behave as see through transparent UV filters and thermomechanical materials. The synthesis plan involved three stages. First, dispersion of TiO2 white powder in water/ethanol solvent system. Second grafting TiO2 surface by oligomers of lactic acid aimed at changing its surface features. Third polymerization of lactic acid monomer with grafted TiO2 in the presence of anhydrous stannous chloride as a catalyst. Polylactic acid grafted-TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by melt polycondensation in situ of lactic acid onto titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles surface. The product was characterized by TGA, DSC, FTIR, and UV analysis and degradation observation. An idea regarding bonds between the grafting polymer and surface modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Characteristics peaks of Ti–carbonyl bond, the related intensities of the Fourier transmission absorption peaks of graft composite, the melt and decomposition behavior stages of Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite convinced that oligomers of polylactic acid were chemically bonded on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. Through grafting polylactic acid, the Polylactic acid grafted -TiO2 sample shown good absorption in UV region and degradation behavior under normal atmospheric conditions. Regaining transparency of degraded white opaque Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite on heating was another character. Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite will be a potential candidate in future for biomedical, UV shielding and environment friendly material.

Keywords: condensation, nanocomposites, oligomers, polylactic

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9599 MRI Compatible Fresnel Zone Plates made of Polylactic Acid

Authors: Daniel Tarrazó-Serrano, Sergio Pérez-López, Sergio Castiñeira-Ibáñez, Pilar Candelas, Constanza Rubio


Zone Plates (ZPs) are used in many areas of physics where planar fabrication is advantageous in comparison with conventional curved lenses. There are several types of ZPs, such as the well-known Fresnel ZPs or the more recent Fractal ZPs and Fibonacci ZPs. The material selection of the lens plays a very important role in the beam modulation control. This work presents a comparison between two Fresnel ZP made from different materials in the ultrasound domain: Polylactic Acid (PLA) and brass. PLA is the most common material used in commercial 3D-printers due to its high design flexibility and low cost. Numerical simulations based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and experimental results are shown, and they prove that the focusing capabilities of brass ZPs and PLA ZPs are similar. For this reason, PLA is proposed as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible material with great potential for therapeutic ultrasound focusing applications.

Keywords: FZP, PLA, focus, ultrasound, MRI

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9598 Agro-Industrial Waste as a Source of Catalyst Production

Authors: Brenda Cecilia Ledesma, Andrea Beltramone


This work deals with the bio-waste valorization approach for catalyst development, the use of products derived from biomass as raw material and the obtaining of biofuels. In this research, activated carbons were synthesized from the orange peel using different synthesis conditions. With the activated carbons obtained with the best structure and texture, PtIr bimetallic catalysts were prepared. Carbon activation was carried out through a chemical process with phosphoric acid as an activating agent, varying the acid concentration, the ratio substrate/activating agent and time of contact between them. The best support was obtained using a carbonization time of 1 h, the temperature of carbonization of 470oC, the phosphoric acid concentration of 50 wt.% and a BET area of 1429 m2/g. Subsequently, the metallic nanoparticles were deposited in the activated carbon to use the solid as a catalytic material for the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-DMF. The catalyst presented an excellent performance for biofuels generation.

Keywords: orange peel, bio-waste valorization, platinum, iridium, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

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9597 Effect of Acid-Basic Treatments of Lingocellulosic Material Forest Wastes Wild Carob on Ethyl Violet Dye Adsorption

Authors: Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Derradji Chebli, Tariq Yahyaoui, Hichem Attout


The effect of acid -basic treatment of lingocellulosic material (forest wastes wild carob) on Ethyl violet adsorption was investigated. It was found that surface chemistry plays an important role in Ethyl violet (EV) adsorption. HCl treatment produces more active acidic surface groups such as carboxylic and lactone, resulting in an increase in the adsorption of EV dye. The adsorption efficiency was higher for treated of lingocellulosic material with HCl than for treated with KOH. Maximum biosorption capacity was 170 and 130 mg/g, for treated of lingocellulosic material with HCl than for treated with KOH at pH 6 respectively. It was also found that the time to reach equilibrium takes less than 25 min for both treated materials. The adsorption of basic dye (i.e., ethyl violet or basic violet 4) was carried out by varying some process parameters, such as initial concentration, pH and temperature. The adsorption process can be well described by means of a pseudo-second-order reaction model showing that boundary layer resistance was not the rate-limiting step, as confirmed by intraparticle diffusion since the linear plot of Qt versus t^0.5 did not pass through the origin. In addition, experimental data were accurately expressed by the Sips equation if compared with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The values of ΔG° and ΔH° confirmed that the adsorption of EV on acid-basic treated forest wast wild carob was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The positive values of ΔS° suggested an irregular increase of the randomness at the treated lingocellulosic material -solution interface during the adsorption process.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm models, thermodynamic parameters, wild carob

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9596 Characterization of Sunflower Oil for Illustration of Its Components

Authors: Mehwish Shahzadi


Sunflower is cultivated all over the world not only as an ornament plant but also for the purpose of getting oil. It is the third most cultivated plant in the history because its oil considered best for health. The present study deals with the preparation of sunflower oil from commercial seed sample which was obtained from local market. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined which included saponification value, acid value and ester value. Results showed that saponification value of the oil was 191.675, acid value was 0.64 and ester value to be 191.035 for the sample under observation. GC-MS analysis of sunflower oil was carried out to check its composition. Oleic acid was determined with linoleic acid and isopropyl palmitate. It represents the presence of three major components of sunflower oil. Other compounds detected were, p-toluylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl ester and 2,4-decadienal, (E,E).

Keywords: GC-MS, oleic acid, saponification value, sunflower oil

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9595 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz


Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

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9594 Synthesis and in-Vitro Biological Activity of Novel Gallic Acid Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Mostafavi


A diversity of biological activities and pharmaceutical uses have been attributed to gallic acid derivatives such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti inflammatory. A series of gallic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their structure was confirmed by FT-IR, HNMR, CNMR, elemental analysis. In vitro biological activity of compounds was determined against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 7829, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as (Gram-negative) bacteria and bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 6538 as (Gram-positive) bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were done by use of the paper disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar (Merck). Chloramiphenicol, Penicilline, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were standard reference antibiotics. The zone of inhibition against bacteria was measured after 24 hours at 37 °C. Compounds 3, 4, 5 were the main antibacterial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive.

Keywords: gallic acid derivatives, antibacterial, antibiotics, inhibition

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9593 Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum Aluminate Electrolyte Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: Onkar Nath Verma, Nitish Kumar Singh, Raghvendra, Pravin Kumar, Prabhakar Singh


The perovskite type electrolyte material LaAlO3 was prepared by solution based auto-combustion method using Al (NO3)3.6H2O, La2O3 with dilute nitrate acid (HNO3) as precursors and citric acid (C6H8O7.H2O) as a fuel. The synthesis protocol gave an easy processing of the LaAlO3 nano-particles. The XRD measurement revealed that the material has single phase with space group R-3c (rhombohedral). Thermal behavior was measured by simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The compact pellet density was determined. Also, the surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity of LaAlO3 was measured employing LCR meter and found to increase with increasing temperature. This increase in conductivity may be attributed to increased mobility of oxide ion.

Keywords: perovskite, LaAlO3, XRD, SEM, DTA-TGA, SOFC

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