Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Echinococcus granulosus

6 Echinococcus in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: C. I. Boshoff, S. Steenkamp-Jonker

Abstract:

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by Echinococcus granulosus is an important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide, with severe zoonotic potential. It is important to understand the variability of Echinococcus granulosus, as genotype variations may influence lifecycle patterns, development rate, and transmission. Cystic Echinococcus samples were collected from domestic animals in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A molecular study was performed on 14 hydatid cysts obtained from caprine, ovine and bovine livers in order to determine the Echinococcus granulosus strain present in these hosts. The sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (coxI) gene of the hydatid cysts produced sequences of 400 bp for each sample analysed. These sequences were aligned with those present in GenBank and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Based on coxI genotype the isolates could be grouped into E. granulosus sensu stricto. The findings of the study represent a pilot molecular study on Echinococcus from domestic animals undertaken in South Africa.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, genotypes, livestock, South Africa

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5 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Alamgir Hossain

Abstract:

The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Cox1, 12S rRNA, molecular characterization, Bangladesh

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4 Morphological and Molecular Studies (ITS1) of Hydatid Cysts in Slaughtered Sheep in Mashhad Area

Authors: G. R. Hashemi Tabar, G. R. Razmi, F. Mirshekar

Abstract:

Echinococcus granulosus have ten strains from G1 to G9. Each strain is related to special intermediated host. The morphology, epidemiology, treatment and control in these strains are different. There are many morphological and molecular methods to differentiate of Echinococcus strains. However, using both methods were provided better information about identification of each strain. The aim of study was to identify Echinococcus granulosus strain of hydrated cysts in slaughtered sheep using morphological and molecular methods in Mashhad area. In the present study, the infected liver and lung with hydatid cysts were collected and transferred to laboratory. The hydatid cyst liquid was extracted and morphological characters of rostellar hook protosclocies were measured using micrometer ocular. The total length of large blade length of large hooks, total length of small and blade length of small hooks, and number of hooks per protoscolex were 23± 0.3μm, 11.7±0.5 μm, 19.3±1.1 μm,8±1.1 and 33.7±0.7 μm, respectively. In molecular section of the study, DNA each samples was extracted with MBST Kit and development of PCR using special primers (EgF, EgR) which amplify fragment of ITS1 gen. The PCR product was digested with Bsh1236I enzyme. Based on pattern of PCR-RLFP results (four band forming), G1, G2 and G3 strain of Echinococcus granulosus were obtained. Differentiation of three strains was done using sequencing analysis and G1 strain was diagnosed. The agreement between the molecular results with morphometric characters of rosetellar hook was confirmed the presence of G1 strain of Echinococcus in the slaughtered sheep of Mashhad area.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid cyst, PCR, sheep

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3 Hematological Changes in the Hydatidosed Male Sheep after Experimental Inoculation of Echinococcus granulosus Eggs

Authors: M. Younus, Muhammad Shafique, M. Athar Khan, Tanveer Akhtar , M. Moeen Athar

Abstract:

A total of 48 apparently healthy weaned sheep lambs (Ovis aries) of 8-10 weeks old weighing 7-10 Kg were purchased from the contractors, maintained in the experimental station of University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus at Lahore, Pakistan. They were dewormed against nematodes with levamisole (ICI) at recommended dose rates. The feces were tested against the parasitic eggs, no helminths ova were seen. All the 48 sheep lambs were divided into two groups i.e. group A & group B. Group 'A' comprising of 40 sheep, kept as infected groups whereas group 'B' comprising of 08 sheep & kept as a new infected control group. Each sheep lamb of group A was given 3-4 fresh gravid segments contains 2-3 thousand eggs of Echinococcus granulosus. These were collected from experimentally infected dogs by feeding fresh hydrated cysts collected from liver & lungs of sheep after slaughtering. Each lamb was fed with fresh gravid segments for a total period of 5 days or each alternate day. Coagulated blood was collected before the start of infected diet and after every month by jugular phlebotomy of each sheep lamb from the infected & new infected control group. One lamb each from group A & group B was slaughtered at the end of each month for the presence of macroscopic hydatid cyst in viscera & abdominal cavity. After 180 days of the experiment, hydatid cysts were confirmed in the abdominal cavity. Hematological parameters of zero days & then at the end of every month revealed that there was a gradual increase (PL 0.05) in the White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rates (ESR). The increasing trend was probably due to inflammatory response and lytic effect of the newly developing E. granulosus hydatid cysts. The red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) infected groups were decreased significantly as compared to the control group (PL 0.05). The experiment was terminated at the end of the 7th month. It can be concluded that Echinococcus granulosus can damage livestock and other intermediate hosts such as horses, the development of hydatid cysts affect the organs due to the growing cysts pressuring the organ tissues. Parts of the tissue die, which impairs the functioning of the affected organ. The clinical signs depend on the affected organ. The major damage for livestock is organ condemnation at slaughter.

Keywords: echinococcus granulosus, hydatidosis, sheep, hematology

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2 Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst in a 13-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Bayan Hafiz, Ashwaq Al-Qarni, Abdulelah AlMalki, Esraa Kaheel

Abstract:

Hydatid disease is caused by genus Echinococcus, it is transmitted to human through sheep and cattle. People who lived in an endemic area should be suspected to have the disease. Pulmonary hydatid disease can be presented by respiratory manifestations as in our case. We report a case of child, 13 years old, who was presented by shortness of breath and non-productive cough 2 months ago. The patient had an attack of hemoptysis 3 months ago but there is no history of fever, other constitutional symptoms or any medical illness. The patient has had a close contact with a horse. On examination, the patient was oriented and vitally stable. Both side of chest were moving equally with decrease air entry on the left side of the chest. Cervical lymph node enlargement was also detected. The case was provisionally diagnosed as tuberculosis. The x-ray was normal, while CT scan showed two cysts in the left side. The patient was treated surgically with resection of both cysts without lobectomy. Broncho-alveolar lavage was done and together with plural effusion and both cysts were sent for histopathology. The patient received the following medication: albendazole 200MG/BID/Orally for 30 days and Cefuroxime 250MG/Q12H/Orally for 10 days.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid disease, pediatrics, pulmonary hydatid cyst

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1 Experience of Hydatid Disease of Liver at a Tertiary Care Center 7 Years Experience

Authors: Jibran Abbasy, Rizwan Sultan, Ammar Humayun, Tabish Chawla

Abstract:

Background: Hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus Granulosus affects liver in 70-90% of cases. Dogs are the definitive host while humans are the accidental host. Modalities used for its treatment are especially important for our population as the disease is endemic in many Asian countries. The aim of the study was to perform an audit of the various modalities used for treatment of hydatid disease of liver and the response to each modality in tertiary care center of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of patients diagnosed and treated for Hydatid disease of the liver at Aga Khan University Hospital from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2014 was completed. All patients aged 16 and above were included. Patients who had extra hepatic disease and missing records were excluded. Outcome measures were morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results: During the study period 56 patients were treated for isolated hepatic hydatid disease and were included. Mean age was 39 years with 48% being females and 52% males. Most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain seen in 53% of patients(n=41). Duration of symptoms was less than 6 months in 74% (n=38). Mostly right lobe was involved in 69% (n=38).Most common treatment modality used was surgery in 34 patients followed by PAIR in 14 patients while 8 patients were treated medically. At a median follow up of 34 months recurrence was seen in 2 patients treated with PAIR while no patient treated with surgery had recurrence with the median follow up of 20 months. While no morbidity and mortality were observed in PAIR, but in surgery 5 patients had morbidity while 1 patient had mortality. Conclusion: Our data is comparative to other studies in terms of morbidity, mortality, and recurrence. We had adequate follow up. In our study PAIR and surgery both are effective and have less complications and recurrence rate. Surgery is still the gold standard in terms of recurrence.

Keywords: echinococcous granulosus, puncture aspiration irrigation reaspiration (PAIR), surgery, hydatid disease

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