Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: multiplex PCR

62 Qualitative Detection of HCV and GBV-C Co-infection in Cirrhotic Patients Using a SYBR Green Multiplex Real Time RT-PCR Technique

Authors: Shahzamani Kiana, Esmaeil Lashgarian Hamed, Merat Shahin

Abstract:

HCV and GBV-C belong to the Flaviviridae family of viruses and GBV-C is the closest virus to HCV genetically. Accumulative research is in progress all over the world to clarify clinical aspects of GBV-C. Possibility of interaction between HCV and GBV-C and also its consequence with other liver diseases are the most important clinical aspects which encourage researchers to develop a technique for simultaneous detection of these viruses. In this study a SYBR Green multiplex real time RT-PCR technique as a new economical and sensitive method was optimized for simultaneous detection of HCV/GBV-C in HCV positive plasma samples. After designing and selection of two pairs of specific primers for HCV and GBV-C, SYBR Green Real time RT-PCR technique optimization was performed separately for each virus. Establishment of multiplex PCR was the next step. Finally our technique was performed on positive and negative plasma samples. 89 cirrhotic HCV positive plasma samples (29 of genotype 3 a and 27 of genotype 1a) were collected from patients before receiving treatment. 14% of genotype 3a and 17.1% of genotype 1a showed HCV/GBV-C co-infection. As a result, 13.48% of 89 samples had HCV/GBV-C co-infection that was compatible with other results from all over the world. Data showed no apparent influence of HGV co-infection on the either clinical or virological aspect of HCV infection. Furthermore, with application of multiplex Real time RT-PCR technique, more time and cost could be saved in clinical-research settings.

Keywords: HCV, GBV-C, cirrhotic patients, multiplex real time RT- PCR

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61 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxogenic Escherichia coli Associated with Dairy Product

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hazmi, Abdullah Al-Arfaj, Moussa Ihab

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Raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was molecular characterization of shiga toxogenic E. coli in raw milk collected from different Egyptian governorates by multiplex PCR. During the period of 25th May to 25th October 2012, a total of 320 bulk-tank milk samples were collected from 10 cow farms located in different Egyptian governorates. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed the presence of E. coli organisms in 65 samples (20.3%), serotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed, 35 strains (10.94%) O111, 15 strains (4.69%) O157: H7, 10 strains (3.13%) O128 and 5 strains (1.56%) O119. Multiplex PCR for detection of shiga toxin type 2 and intimin genes revealed positive amplification of 255 bp fragment of shiga toxin type 2 gene and 384 bp fragment of intimin gene from all E. coli serovar O157: H7, while from serovar O111 were 25 (71.43%), 20 (57.14%) and from serovar O128 were 6 (60%), 8 (80%), respectively. The results of multiplex PCR assay are useful for identification of STEC possessing the eaeA and stx2 genes.

Keywords: raw milk, E. coli, multiplex PCR, Shiga toxin type 2, intimin gene

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60 Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Camel Pox, Contagious Ecthyma and Papilloma Viruses in Clinical Samples of Camels Using a Multiplex PCR

Authors: A. I. Khalafalla, K. A. Al-Busada, I. M. El-Sabagh

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Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. They may be caused by three distinct viruses: camelpox virus (CMPV), camel contagious ecthyma virus (CCEV) and camel papillomavirus (CAPV). These diseases are difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify CMPV and CCEV, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost- and time–saving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation a multiplex PCR assays able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets, and was applied to the detection of 110 tissue samples. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. In conclusion, this rapid, sensitive and specific assay is considered a useful method for identifying three important viruses in specimens from camels and as part of a molecular diagnostic regime.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, diagnosis, pox and pox-like diseases, camels

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59 Frequency of BCR-ABL Fusion Transcript Types with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen Thailand

Authors: Kanokon Chaicom, Chitima Sirijerachai, Kanchana Chansung, Pinsuda Klangsang, Boonpeng Palaeng, Prajuab Chaimanee, Pimjai Ananta

Abstract:

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the consistent involvement of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), which is derived from a reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22, the main product of the t(9;22) (q34;q11) translocation, is found in the leukemic clone of at least 95% of CML patients. There are two major forms of the BCR/ABL fusion gene, involving ABL exon 2, but including different exons of BCR gene. The transcripts b2a2 (e13a2) or b3a2 (e14a2) code for a p210 protein. Another fusion gene leads to the expression of an e1a2 transcript, which codes for a p190 protein. Other less common fusion genes are b3a3 or b2a3, which codes for a p203 protein and e19a2 (c3a2) transcript, which codes for a p230 protein. Its frequency varies in different populations. In this study, we aimed to report the frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcript types with CML by multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Multiplex PCR for BCR-ABL was performed on 58 patients, to detect different types of BCR-ABL transcripts of the t (9; 22). All patients examined were positive for some type of BCR/ABL rearrangement. The majority of the patients (93.10%) expressed one of the p210 BCR-ABL transcripts, b3a2 and b2a2 transcripts were detected in 53.45% and 39.65% respectively. The expression of an e1a2 transcript showed 3.75%. Co-expression of p210/p230 was detected in 3.45%. Co-expression of p210/p190 was not detected. Multiplex PCR is useful, saves time and reliable in the detection of BCR-ABL transcript types. The frequency of one or other rearrangement in CML varies in different population.

Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, BCR-ABL fusion transcript types, multiplex PCR, frequency of BCR-ABL fusion

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58 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Desouky Abd El Haleem, Sahar Zaki

Abstract:

This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp.

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57 South African Breast Cancer Mutation Spectrum: Pitfalls to Copy Number Variation Detection Using Internationally Designed Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification and Next Generation Sequencing Panels

Authors: Jaco Oosthuizen, Nerina C. Van Der Merwe

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The National Health Laboratory Services in Bloemfontien has been the diagnostic testing facility for 1830 patients for familial breast cancer since 1997. From the cohort, 540 were comprehensively screened using High-Resolution Melting Analysis or Next Generation Sequencing for the presence of point mutations and/or indels. Approximately 90% of these patients stil remain undiagnosed as they are BRCA1/2 negative. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was initially added to screen for copy number variation detection, but with the introduction of next generation sequencing in 2017, was substituted and is currently used as a confirmation assay. The aim was to investigate the viability of utilizing internationally designed copy number variation detection assays based on mostly European/Caucasian genomic data for use within a South African context. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique is based on the hybridization and subsequent ligation of multiple probes to a targeted exon. The ligated probes are amplified using conventional polymerase chain reaction, followed by fragment analysis by means of capillary electrophoresis. The experimental design of the assay was performed according to the guidelines of MRC-Holland. For BRCA1 (P002-D1) and BRCA2 (P045-B3), both multiplex assays were validated, and results were confirmed using a secondary probe set for each gene. The next generation sequencing technique is based on target amplification via multiplex polymerase chain reaction, where after the amplicons are sequenced parallel on a semiconductor chip. Amplified read counts are visualized as relative copy numbers to determine the median of the absolute values of all pairwise differences. Various experimental parameters such as DNA quality, quantity, and signal intensity or read depth were verified using positive and negative patients previously tested internationally. DNA quality and quantity proved to be the critical factors during the verification of both assays. The quantity influenced the relative copy number frequency directly whereas the quality of the DNA and its salt concentration influenced denaturation consistency in both assays. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification produced false positives due to ligation failure when ligation was inhibited due to a variant present within the ligation site. Next generation sequencing produced false positives due to read dropout when primer sequences did not meet optimal multiplex binding kinetics due to population variants in the primer binding site. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for the South African population have been proven. Verification resulted in repeatable reactions with regards to the detection of relative copy number differences. Both multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and next generation sequencing multiplex panels need to be optimized to accommodate South African polymorphisms present within the genetically diverse ethnic groups to reduce the false copy number variation positive rate and increase performance efficiency.

Keywords: familial breast cancer, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, next generation sequencing, South Africa

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56 Bacterial Profiling and Development of Molecular Diagnostic Assays for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Bovine mastitis

Authors: Aqeela Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Tayyab, Yung Fu Chang

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For the identification of bovine mastitic pathogen, an economical, rapid and sensitive molecular diagnostic assay is developed by PCR multiplexing of gene and pathogenic species specific DNA sequences. The multiplex PCR assay is developed for detecting nine important bacterial pathogens causing mastitis Worldwide. The bacterial species selected for this study are Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysagalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus chromogenes Mycoplasma bovis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A single reaction assay was developed and validated by 27 reference strains and further tested on 276 bacterial strains obtained from culturing mastitic milk. The multiplex PCR assay developed here is further evaluated by applying directly on genomic DNA isolated from 200 mastitic milk samples. It is compared with bacterial culturing method and proved to be more sensitive, rapid, economical and can specifically identify 9 bacterial pathogens in a single reaction. It has detected the pathogens in few culture negative mastitic samples. Recognition of disease is the foundation of disease control and prevention. This assay can be very helpful for maintaining the udder health and milk monitoring.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacteria, mastitis, milk

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55 Genotyping of Salmonella enterica Collected from Poultry Farms Located in Riyadh, KSA by Multiplex-PCR

Authors: Moussa I. Mohamed, Turki, K. A. Al-Faraj, Abdullah A. Al-Arfaj, Ashgan M. Hessain

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to detect the incidences of Salmonella enterica from different poultry farms located in Egypt on molecular basis. During the summer of 2012, a total of 1800 cloacal swabs were collected from poultry farms located I Cairo, Egypt to be subjected for isolation of Salmonella enteric. Moreover, a total of 300 samples of poultry and poultry products were collected from different retail establishment markets in Cairo, Egypt including, 150 local whole frozen chickens, 50 imported whole frozen chickens, 100 local chicken cut samples. The highest rate of isolation 8% was obtained from imported frozen chickens and local chicken cuts, followed by local frozen chickens 6.66% and finally rectal swabs from apparently health chickens 6.4 %. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were most frequent among the total Salmonella isolates. Multiplex-PCR for the rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis from field samples especially after pre-enrichment on Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) selective broth (PCR-RV), revealed the same positive samples. Therefore PCR-RV technique is rabid, time saving and applicable to detect Salmonella serovars directly from chicken samples. Moreover, detecting Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis by this assay was carried out within 2 days opposed to 5–6 d by the bacteriological and serological methods.

Keywords: Salmonella enterica, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis enrichment, multiplex-PCR

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54 Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens β2-Toxin in Type a Isolates of Sheep and Goats

Authors: Mudassar Mohiuddin, Zahid Iqbal

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Introduction: Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen responsible for causing enteric diseases in both human and animals. The bacteria produce several toxins. These toxins play vital role in the pathogenesis of various fatal enteric diseases and are classified into five types, on the basis of the differential production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. In addition to the so-called major toxins, there are other toxins like beta2 toxin, produced by some strains of C. perfringens which may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Aim of the study: In this study a multiplex PCR assay was developed and used for detection of cpb2 gene to identify the Beta2 harboring isolates among different types of C. perfringens. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of β2-toxin gene in local isolates of Clostridium perfringens. Methodology: This was an experimental study. Random sampling technique was used. A total of 97 sheep and goats were included in this study. All were Pakistani local breeds. The samples were collected during the period from Sep, 2014 to Mar, 2015 from selected districts of Punjab province (Pakistan). Faecal samples were cultured in cooked meat media. The identification of Clostridium perfringens was made on the basis of biochemical tests. Multiplex PCR was performed to identify the toxin genes. Results: A total of 43 C. perfringens isolates were genotyped using multiplex PCR assay. The gene encoding C. perfringens β2-toxin (cpb2) was present in more than 50% of the isolates genotyped. However, the prevalence of this gene varied between sheep and goat isolates. Conclusion: The present study suggests the high occurrence of C. perfringens b2-toxin (cpb2) in the local isolates of Pakistan. As β2-toxin is present in both healthy and diseased animals, so further studies are suggested to establish the role of β2-toxin in pathogenesis of the clostridial enteric diseases.

Keywords: beta 2 toxin gene, clostridium perfringens, enteric diseases, goats, multiplex PCR, sheep

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53 Microfluidic Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Ahmad Manbohi, Seyyed Hamid Ahmadi

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A low-cost paper-based microfluidic device (PAD) for the multiplex electrochemical determination of glucose, uric acid, and dopamine in biological fluids was developed. Using wax printing, PAD containing a central zone, six channels, and six detection zones was fabricated, and the electrodes were printed on detection zones using pre-made electrodes template. For each analyte, two detection zones were used. The carbon working electrode was coated with chitosan-BSA (and enzymes for glucose and uric acid). To detect glucose and uric acid, enzymatic reactions were employed. These reactions involve enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions of the analytes and produce free electrons for electrochemical measurement. Calibration curves were linear (R² > 0.980) in the range of 0-80 mM for glucose, 0.09–0.9 mM for dopamine, and 0–50 mM for uric acid, respectively. Blood samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method.

Keywords: biological fluids, biomarkers, microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensors, Multiplex

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52 Mesenteric Vasculitis Causing Perforated Diverticulitis Mimicking Abdominal Sepsis

Authors: Christopher Leung, Assad Zahid

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Mesenteric vasculitis can often mimic abdominal sepsis in a postoperative setting leading to a predicament where steroids could improve mesenteric vasculitis whilst worsening abdominal sepsis. Here this study presents a unique and rare case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis secondary to systemic vasculitis. A 68-year-old gentleman presented with perforated sigmoid diverticulitis requiring an emergency Hartmann’s procedure. Early in his postoperative course, he had painful and asymmetrical neuropathy that, after a careful history and examination, revealed a patient with mono neuritis multiplex on a background history of longstanding rheumatoid arthritis. On day seven of his postoperative course, he had rising inflammatory markers and a CT abdomen and pelvis showing fluid around the mesentery. Whilst contamination from sigmoid perforation was somewhat congruent with these signs, a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa, a common cause of mononeuritis multiplex, is also possible, although involvement of the large bowel in polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare. The histopathology from the initial Hartmann’s procedure was re-examined, showing medium vessel disease vasculitis. Given his lack of fevers, absence of abdominal pain, and worsening neurology, he was given a provisional diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa and was treated successfully, not on IV antibiotics but on steroids. Large bowel involvement of polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare and this is the first case of polyarteritis nodosa causing perforated diverticulitis. The learning point here is to obtain a good clinical picture of a patient to identify mesenteric vasculitis as compared to abdominal sepsis as the treatment of one worsens the other.

Keywords: abdominal sepsis, diverticulitis, mesenteric vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa

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51 Improving Sample Analysis and Interpretation Using QIAGENs Latest Investigator STR Multiplex PCR Assays with a Novel Quality Sensor

Authors: Daniel Mueller, Melanie Breitbach, Stefan Cornelius, Sarah Pakulla-Dickel, Margaretha Koenig, Anke Prochnow, Mario Scherer

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The European STR standard set (ESS) of loci as well as the new expanded CODIS core loci set as recommended by the CODIS Core Loci Working Group, has led to a higher standardization and harmonization in STR analysis across borders. Various multiplex PCRs assays have since been developed for the analysis of these 17 ESS or 23 CODIS expansion STR markers that all meet high technical demands. However, forensic analysts are often faced with difficult STR results and the questions thereupon. What is the reason that no peaks are visible in the electropherogram? Did the PCR fail? Was the DNA concentration too low? QIAGEN’s newest Investigator STR kits contain a novel Quality Sensor (QS) that acts as internal performance control and gives useful information for evaluating the amplification efficiency of the PCR. QS indicates if the reaction has worked in general and furthermore allows discriminating between the presence of inhibitors or DNA degradation as a cause for the typical ski slope effect observed in STR profiles of such challenging samples. This information can be used to choose the most appropriate rework strategy.Based on the latest PCR chemistry called FRM 2.0, QIAGEN now provides the next technological generation for STR analysis, the Investigator ESSplex SE QS and Investigator 24plex QS Kits. The new PCR chemistry ensures robust and fast PCR amplification with improved inhibitor resistance and easy handling for a manual or automated setup. The short cycling time of 60 min reduces the duration of the total PCR analysis to make a whole workflow analysis in one day more likely. To facilitate the interpretation of STR results a smart primer design was applied for best possible marker distribution, highest concordance rates and a robust gender typing.

Keywords: PCR, QIAGEN, quality sensor, STR

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50 Generating a Multiplex Sensing Platform for the Accurate Diagnosis of Sepsis

Authors: N. Demertzis, J. L. Bowen

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Sepsis is a complex and rapidly evolving condition, resulting from uncontrolled prolonged activation of host immune system due to pathogenic insult. The aim of this study is the development of a multiplex electrochemical sensing platform, capable of detecting both pathogen associated and host immune markers to enable the rapid and definitive diagnosis of sepsis. A combination of aptamers and molecular imprinting approaches have been employed to generate sensing systems for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), c-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Gold working electrodes were mechanically polished and electrochemically cleaned with 0.1 M sulphuric acid using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Following activation, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was generated, by incubating the electrodes with a thiolated anti-LPS aptamer / dithiodibutiric acid (DTBA) mixture (1:20). 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) in combination with the anti-LPS aptamer was used for the development of the hybrid molecularly imprinted sensor (apta-MIP). Aptasensors, targeting PCT and CRP were also fabricated, following the same approach as in the case of LPS, with mercaptohexanol (MCH) replacing DTBA. In the case of the CRP aptasensor, the SAM was formed following incubation of a 1:1 aptamer: MCH mixture. However, in the case of PCT, the SAM was formed with the aptamer itself, with subsequent backfilling with 1 μM MCH. The binding performance of all systems has been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The apta-MIP’s polymer thickness is controlled by varying the number of electropolymerisation cycles. In the ideal number of polymerisation cycles, the polymer must cover the electrode surface and create a binding pocket around LPS and its aptamer binding site. Less polymerisation cycles will create a hybrid system which resembles an aptasensor, while more cycles will be able to cover the complex and demonstrate a bulk polymer-like behaviour. Both aptasensor and apta-MIP were challenged with LPS and compared to conventional imprinted (absence of aptamer from the binding site, polymer formed in presence of LPS) and non-imprinted polymers (NIPS, absence of LPS whilst hybrid polymer is formed). A stable LPS aptasensor, capable of detecting down to 5 pg/ml of LPS was generated. The apparent Kd of the system was estimated at 17 pM, with a Bmax of approximately 50 pM. The aptasensor demonstrated high specificity to LPS. The apta-MIP demonstrated superior recognition properties with a limit of detection of 1 fg/ml and a Bmax of 100 pg/ml. The CRP and PCT aptasensors were both able to detect down to 5 pg/ml. Whilst full binding performance is currently being evaluated, there is none of the sensors demonstrate cross-reactivity towards LPS, CRP or PCT. In conclusion, stable aptasensors capable of detecting LPS, PCT and CRP at low concentrations have been generated. The realisation of a multiplex panel such as described herein, will effectively contribute to the rapid, personalised diagnosis of sepsis.

Keywords: aptamer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, molecularly imprinted polymers, sepsis

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49 An Unbiased Profiling of Immune Repertoire via Sequencing and Analyzing T-Cell Receptor Genes

Authors: Yi-Lin Chen, Sheng-Jou Hung, Tsunglin Liu

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Adaptive immune system recognizes a wide range of antigens via expressing a large number of structurally distinct T cell and B cell receptor genes. The distinct receptor genes arise from complex rearrangements called V(D)J recombination, and constitute the immune repertoire. A common method of profiling immune repertoire is via amplifying recombined receptor genes using multiple primers and high-throughput sequencing. This multiplex-PCR approach is efficient; however, the resulting repertoire can be distorted because of primer bias. To eliminate primer bias, 5’ RACE is an alternative amplification approach. However, the application of RACE approach is limited by its low efficiency (i.e., the majority of data are non-regular receptor sequences, e.g., containing intronic segments) and lack of the convenient tool for analysis. We propose a computational tool that can correctly identify non-regular receptor sequences in RACE data via aligning receptor sequences against the whole gene instead of only the exon regions as done in all other tools. Using our tool, the remaining regular data allow for an accurate profiling of immune repertoire. In addition, a RACE approach is improved to yield a higher fraction of regular T-cell receptor sequences. Finally, we quantify the degree of primer bias of a multiplex-PCR approach via comparing it to the RACE approach. The results reveal significant differences in frequency of VJ combination by the two approaches. Together, we provide a new experimental and computation pipeline for an unbiased profiling of immune repertoire. As immune repertoire profiling has many applications, e.g., tracing bacterial and viral infection, detection of T cell lymphoma and minimal residual disease, monitoring cancer immunotherapy, etc., our work should benefit scientists who are interested in the applications.

Keywords: immune repertoire, T-cell receptor, 5' RACE, high-throughput sequencing, sequence alignment

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48 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) as Multiplex Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing Platforms

Authors: Pola Goldberg Oppenheimer, Stephan Hofmann, Sumeet Mahajan

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Owing to its fingerprint molecular specificity and high sensitivity, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an established analytical tool for chemical and biological sensing capable of single-molecule detection. A strong Raman signal can be generated from SERS-active platforms given the analyte is within the enhanced plasmon field generated near a noble-metal nanostructured substrate. The key requirement for generating strong plasmon resonances to provide this electromagnetic enhancement is an appropriate metal surface roughness. Controlling nanoscale features for generating these regions of high electromagnetic enhancement, the so-called SERS ‘hot-spots’, is still a challenge. Significant advances have been made in SERS research, with wide-ranging techniques to generate substrates with tunable size and shape of the nanoscale roughness features. Nevertheless, the development and application of SERS has been inhibited by the irreproducibility and complexity of fabrication routes. The ability to generate straightforward, cost-effective, multiplex-able and addressable SERS substrates with high enhancements is of profound interest for miniaturised sensing devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been concurrently, a topic of extensive research however, their applications for plasmonics has been only recently beginning to gain interest. CNTs can provide low-cost, large-active-area patternable substrates which, coupled with appropriate functionalization capable to provide advanced SERS-platforms. Herein, advanced methods to generate CNT-based SERS active detection platforms will be discussed. First, a novel electrohydrodynamic (EHD) lithographic technique will be introduced for patterning CNT-polymer composites, providing a straightforward, single-step approach for generating high-fidelity sub-micron-sized nanocomposite structures within which anisotropic CNTs are vertically aligned. The created structures are readily fine-tuned, which is an important requirement for optimizing SERS to obtain the highest enhancements with each of the EHD-CNTs individual structural units functioning as an isolated sensor. Further, gold-functionalized VACNTFs are fabricated as SERS micro-platforms. The dependence on the VACNTs’ diameters and density play an important role in the Raman signal strength, thus highlighting the importance of structural parameters, previously overlooked in designing and fabricating optimized CNTs-based SERS nanoprobes. VACNTs forests patterned into predesigned pillar structures are further utilized for multiplex detection of bio-analytes. Since CNTs exhibit electrical conductivity and unique adsorption properties, these are further harnessed in the development of novel chemical and bio-sensing platforms.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), EHD patterning, SERS, vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests (VACNTF)

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47 Fluorescence Sensing as a Tool to Estimate Palm Oil Quality and Yield

Authors: Norul Husna A. Kasim, Siva K. Balasundram

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The gap between ‘actual yield’ and ‘potential yield’ has remained a problem in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Ineffective maturity assessment and untimely harvesting have compounded this problem. Typically, the traditional method of palm oil quality and yield assessment is destructive, costly and laborious. Fluorescence-sensing offers a new means of assessing palm oil quality and yield non-destructively. This work describes the estimation of palm oil quality and yield using a multi-parametric fluorescence sensor (Multiplex®) to quantify the concentration of secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanin and flavonoid, in fresh fruit bunches across three different palm ages (6, 9, and 12 years-old). Results show that fluorescence sensing is an effective means of assessing FFB maturity, in terms of palm oil quality and yield quantifications.

Keywords: anthocyanin, flavonoid fluorescence sensor, palm oil yield and quality

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46 Genetic Polymorphisms of the Human Organic Cation Transporter 2 gene, SLC22A2, in the Zulu population

Authors: N. Hoosain, S. Nene, B. Pearce, C. Jacobs, M. Du Plessis, M. Benjeddou

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Organic Cation Transporters play a vital role in the absorption, tissue distribution and elimination of various substrates. Numerous studies have suggested that variations in non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SLC22A2 could influence an individual’s response to various treatments, including clinically important drugs. This study is the first to determine the baseline frequency distribution for twenty SNPs of SLC22A2in the Zulu population. DNA was collected from 101 unrelated “healthy” Zulu participants. Genotypes of all samples were determined using a multiplex PCR and SNaPshot assay followed by the generation of the haplotype structure. This is the first time that the baseline frequency distribution of SNPs is reported for the Zulu population. Data from this study could be used in in vitro and in vivo pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic studies to evaluate the potential role the studied SNPs play in the therapeutic efficacy of clinically important drugs.

Keywords: SLC22A2 gene, SNaPshot assay, PCR, Zulu population

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45 Two-Step Patterning of Microfluidic Structures in Paper by Laser Cutting and Wax Printing for Mass Fabrication of Biosensor

Authors: Bong Keun Kang, Sung Suk Oh, Jeong-Woo Sohn, Jong-Ryul Choi, Young Ho Kim

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In this paper, we describe two-step micro-pattering by using laser cutting and wax printing. Wax printing is performed only on the bridges for hydrophobic barriers. We prepared 405nm blue-violet laser module and wax pencil module. And, this two modules combine x-y plot. The hollow microstructure formed by laser patterning define the hydrophilic flowing paths. However, bridges are essential to avoid the cutting area being the island. Through the support bridges, microfluidic solution spread out to the unnecessary areas. Chromatography blotting paper was purchased from Whatman. We used 20x20 cm and 46x57 cm of chromatography blotting paper. Axis moving speed of x-y plot was the main parameter of optimization. For aligning between the two patterning, the paper sheet was taped at the bottom. After the two-step patterning, temperature curing step was done at 110-130 °C. The resolution of the fabrication and the potential of the multiplex detection were investigated.

Keywords: µPADs, microfluidic, biosensor, mass-fabrication

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44 High-Throughput, Purification-Free, Multiplexed Profiling of Circulating miRNA for Discovery, Validation, and Diagnostics

Authors: J. Hidalgo de Quintana, I. Stoner, M. Tackett, G. Doran, C. Rafferty, A. Windemuth, J. Tytell, D. Pregibon

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We have developed the Multiplexed Circulating microRNA assay that allows the detection of up to 68 microRNA targets per sample. The assay combines particle­based multiplexing, using patented Firefly hydrogel particles, with single­ step RT-PCR signal. Thus, the Circulating microRNA assay leverages PCR sensitivity while eliminating the need for separate reverse transcription reactions and mitigating amplification biases introduced by target­-specific qPCR. Furthermore, the ability to multiplex targets in each well eliminates the need to split valuable samples into multiple reactions. Results from the Circulating microRNA assay are interpreted using Firefly Analysis Workbench, which allows visualization, normalization, and export of experimental data. To aid discovery and validation of biomarkers, we have generated fixed panels for Oncology, Cardiology, Neurology, Immunology, and Liver Toxicology. Here we present the data from several studies investigating circulating and tumor microRNA, showcasing the ability of the technology to sensitively and specifically detect microRNA biomarker signatures from fluid specimens.

Keywords: biomarkers, biofluids, miRNA, photolithography, flowcytometry

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43 Analysis of the AZF Region in Slovak Men with Azoospermia

Authors: J. Bernasovská, R. Lohajová Behulová, E. Petrejčiková, I. Boroňová, I. Bernasovský

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Y chromosome microdeletions are the most common genetic cause of male infertility and screening for these microdeletions in azoospermic or severely oligospermic men is now standard practice. Analysis of the Y chromosome in men with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia has resulted in the identification of three regions in the euchromatic part of the long arm of the human Y chromosome (Yq11) that are frequently deleted in men with otherwise unexplained spermatogenic failure. PCR analysis of microdeletions in the AZFa, AZFb and AZFc regions of the human Y chromosome is an important screening tool. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of microdeletions in men with fertility disorders in Slovakia. We evaluated 227 patients with azoospermia and with normal karyotype. All patient samples were analyzed cytogenetically. For PCR amplification of sequence-tagged sites (STS) of the AZFa, AZFb and AZFc regions of the Y chromosome was used Devyser AZF set. Fluorescently labeled primers for all markers in one multiplex PCR reaction were used and for automated visualization and identification of the STS markers we used genetic analyzer ABi 3500xl (Life Technologies). We reported 13 cases of deletions in the AZF region 5,73%. Particular types of deletions were recorded in each region AZFa,b,c .The presence of microdeletions in the AZFc region was the most frequent. The study confirmed that percentage of microdeletions in the AZF region is low in Slovak azoospermic patients, but important from a prognostic view.

Keywords: AZF, male infertility, microdeletions, Y chromosome

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42 Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Washizuka

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The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.

Keywords: cytokine, saliva, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, child

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41 THRAP2 Gene Identified as a Candidate Susceptibility Gene of Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases Pedigree in Tunisian Population

Authors: Ghazi Chabchoub, Mouna Feki, Mohamed Abid, Hammadi Ayadi

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Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), including Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), are inherited as complex traits. Genetic factors associated with AITDs have been tentatively identified by candidate gene and genome scanning approaches. We analysed three intragenic microsatellite markers in the thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 2 gene (THRAP2), mapped near D12S79 marker, which have a potential role in immune function and inflammation [THRAP2-1(TG)n, THRAP2-2 (AC)n and THRAP2-3 (AC)n]. Our study population concerned 12 patients affected with AITDs belonging to a multiplex Tunisian family with high prevalence of AITDs. Fluorescent genotyping was carried out on ABI 3100 sequencers (Applied Biosystems USA) with the use of GENESCAN for semi-automated fragment sizing and GENOTYPER peak-calling software. Statistical analysis was performed using the non parametric Lod score (NPL) by Merlin software. Merlin outputs non-parametric NPLall (Z) and LOD scores and their corresponding asymptotic P values. The analysis for three intragenic markers in the THRAP2 gene revealed strong evidence for linkage (NPL=3.68, P=0.00012). Our results suggested the possible role of THRAP2 gene in AITDs susceptibility in this family.

Keywords: autoimmunity, autoimmune disease, genetic, linkage analysis

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40 Investigation of Carbapenem-Resistant Genes in Acinetobacter spp. Isolated from Patients at Tertiary Health Care Center, Northeastern Thailand

Authors: S. J. Sirima, C. Thirawan, R.Puntharikorn, K. Ungsumalin, J. Kaemwich

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Acinetobacter spp. is a gram negative bacterium causing the high incidence of multi-drug resistance in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. A hundred isolates of Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from patients admitted at tertiary health care center, Northeastern region, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, were subjected to modified Hodge test and combined disc test in order to evaluate the production of carbapenemases. The results revealed that about 35% of isolates were found to be carbapenemases producers. In addition, multiplex polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect blaOXA-like genes. It showed that 92% of isolates possess blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-23-like genes. However, blaOXA-58-like gene was detected in only 8 isolates. No detection of blaOXA-24-like gene was observed in all isolates. In conclusion, an ability to produce carbepenemases would be an important mechanism of multi-drug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. at tertiary health care center, Northeastern region, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. Furthermore, it was likely that the class D carbapenemases genes, blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-23-like, might contribute to imipenem-resistance exhibiting among isolates.

Keywords: Acinetobacter spp., blaOXA-like genes, carbapenemases, tertiary health care center

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39 Exploratory Characterization of Antibacterial Efficacy of Synthesized Nanoparticles on Staphylococcus Isolates from Hospital Specimens in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reham K. Sebaih, Afaf I. Shehata , Awatif A. Hindi, Tarek Gheith, Amal A. Hazzani Anas Al-Orjan

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Staphylococci spp are ubiquitous gram-positive bacteria is often associated with infections, especially nosocomial infections, and antibiotic resistanceStudy pathogenic bacteria and its use as a tool in the technology of Nano biology and molecular genetics research of the latest research trends of modern characterization and definition of different multiresistant of bacteria including Staphylococci. The Staphylococci are widespread all over the world and particularly in Saudi Arabia The present work study was conducted to evaluate the effect of five different types of nanoparticles (biosynthesized zinc oxide, Spherical and rod of each silver and gold nanoparticles) and their antibacterial impact on the Staphylococcus species. Ninety-six isolates of Staphylococcus species. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MRSA were collected from different sources during the period between March 2011G to June 2011G. All isolates were isolated from inpatients and outpatients departments at Royal Commission Hospital in Yanbu Industrial, Saudi Arabia. High percentage isolation from males(55%) than females (45%). Staphylococcus epidermidis from males was (47%), (28%), and(25%). For Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Isolates from females were Staphylococcus aureus with higher percent of (47%), (30%), and (23%) for MRSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus aureus from wound swab were the highest percent (51.42%) followed by vaginal swab (25.71%). Staphylococcus epidermidis were founded with higher percentage in blood (37.14%) and wound swab (34.21%) respectively related to other. The highest percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(80.77%) were isolated from wound swab, while those from nostrils were (19.23%). Staphylococcus species were isolates in highest percentage from hospital Emergency department with Staphylococcus aureus (59.37%), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (28.13%)and Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%) respectively. Evaluate the antibacterial property of Zinc oxide, Silver, and Gold nanoparticles as an alternative to conventional antibacterial agents Staphylococci isolates from hospital sources we screened them. Gold and Silver rods Nanoparticles to be sensitive to all isolates of Staphylococcus species. Zinc oxide Nanoparticles gave sensitivity impact range(52%) and (48%). The Gold and Silver spherical nanoparticles did not showed any effect on Staphylococci species. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles gave bactericidal impact (25%) and bacteriostatic impact (75%) for of Staphylococci species. Detecting the association of nanoparticles with Staphylococci isolates imaging by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of some bacteriostatic isolates for Zinc Oxide nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), showed some Overlapping Bacterial cells with lower their number and appearing some appendages with deformities in external shape. Molecular analysis was applied by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used for the identification of genes within Staphylococcal pathogens. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed using six primer pairs to detect different genes using 50bp and 100bp DNA ladder marker. The range of Molecular gene typing ranging between 93 bp to 326 bp for Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by TSST-1,mecA,femA and eta, while the bands border were from 546 bp to 682 bp for Staphylococcus epidermidis using icaAB and atlE. Sixteen isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for the femA gene at 132bp,this allowed the using of this gene as an internal positive control, fifteen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for mecA gene at163bp.This gene was responsible for antibiotic resistant Methicillin, Two isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for the TSST-1 gene at326bp which is responsible for toxic shock syndrome in some Staphylococcus species, None were positive for eta gene at 102bpto that was responsible for Exfoliative toxins. Six isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for atlE gene at 682 bp which is responsible for the initial adherence, three isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for icaAB gene at 546bp that are responsible for mediates the formation of the biofilm. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the ability of the detection of the genes to discriminate between infecting Staphylococcus strains and considered biological tests, they may potentiate the clinical criteria used for the diagnosis of septicemia or catheter-related infections.

Keywords: multiplex polymerase chain reaction, toxic shock syndrome, Staphylococcus aureus, nosocomial infections

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38 Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/cas9-Based Lateral Flow and Fluorescence Diagnostics for Rapid Pathogen Detection

Authors: Mark Osborn

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Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas) proteins can be designed to bind specified DNA and RNA sequences and hold great promise for the accurate detection of nucleic acids for diagnostics. Commercially available reagents were integrated into a CRISPR/Cas9-based lateral flow assay that can detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequences with single-base specificity. This approach requires minimal equipment and represents a simplified platform for field-based deployment. A rapid, multiplex fluorescence CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease cleavage assay capable of detecting and differentiating SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus in a single reaction was also developed. These findings provide proof of principle for CRISPR/Cas9 point-of-care diagnosis that can detect specific SARS-CoV-2 strain(s). Further, Cas9 cleavage allows for a scalable fluorescent platform for identifying respiratory viral pathogens with overlapping symptomology. Collectively, this approach is a facile platform for diagnostics with broad application to user-defined sequence interrogation and detection.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, lateral flow assay, SARS-Co-V2, single-nucleotide resolution

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37 Urban Green Space Analysis Incorporated at Bodakdev, Ahmedabad City Based on the RS and GIS Techniques

Authors: Nartan Rajpriya

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City is a multiplex ecological system made up of social, economic and natural sub systems. Green space system is the foundation of the natural system. It is also suitable part of natural productivity in the urban structure. It is dispensable for constructing a high quality human settlements and a high standard ecocity. Ahmedabad is the fastest growing city of India. Today urban green space is under strong pressure in Ahmedabad city. Due to increasing urbanization, combined with a spatial planning policy of densification, more people face the prospect of living in less green residential environments. In this research analyzes the importance of available Green Space at Bodakdev Park, Ahmedabad, using remote sensing and GIS technologies. High resolution IKONOS image and LISS IV data has been used in this project. This research answers the questions like: • Temporal changes in urban green space area. • Proximity to heavy traffic or roads or any recreational facilities. • Importance in terms of health. • Availability of quality infrastructure. • Available green space per area, per sq. km and per total population. This projects incorporates softwares like ArcGIS, Ecognition and ERDAS Imagine, GPS technologies etc. Methodology includes the field work and collection of other relevant data while preparation of land use maps using the IKONOS imagery which is corrected using GPS.

Keywords: urban green space, ecocity, IKONOS, LISS IV

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36 Metabolome-based Profiling of African Baobab Fruit (Adansonia Digitata L.) Using a Multiplex Approach of MS and NMR Techniques in Relation to Its Biological Activity

Authors: Marwa T. Badawy, Alaa F. Bakr, Nesrine Hegazi, Mohamed A. Farag, Ahmed Abdellatif

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease affecting a large population worldwide. Africa is rich in native medicinal plants with myriad health benefits, though less explored towards the development of specific drug therapy as in diabetes. This study aims to determine the in vivo antidiabetic potential of the well-reported and traditionally used fruits of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) using STZ induced diabetic model. The in-vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant properties were examined using MTT assay on L-929 fibroblast cells and DPPH antioxidant assays, respectively. The extract showed minimal cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 105.7 µg/mL. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations showed the hepatoprotective and the renoprotective effects of A. digitata fruits’ extract, implying its protective effects against diabetes complications. These findings were further supported by biochemical assays, which showed that i.p., injection of a low dose (150 mg/kg) of A. digitata twice a week lowered the fasting blood glucose levels, lipid profile, hepatic and renal markers. For a comprehensive overview of extract metabolites composition, ultrahigh performance (UHPLC) analysis coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) in synchronization with molecular networks led to the annotation of 77 metabolites, among which 50% are reported for the first time in A. digitata fruits.

Keywords: adansonia digital, diabetes mellitus, metabolomics, streptozotocin, Sprague, dawley rats

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35 Evaluation of DNA Microarray System in the Identification of Microorganisms Isolated from Blood

Authors: Merih Şimşek, Recep Keşli, Özgül Çetinkaya, Cengiz Demir, Adem Aslan

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Bacteremia is a clinical entity with high morbidity and mortality rates when immediate diagnose, or treatment cannot be achieved. Microorganisms which can cause sepsis or bacteremia are easily isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-five positive blood cultures were included in this study. Microorganisms in 55 blood cultures were isolated by conventional microbiological methods; afterwards, microorganisms were defined in terms of the phenotypic aspects by the Vitek-2 system. The same microorganisms in all blood culture samples were defined in terms of genotypic aspects again by Multiplex-PCR DNA Low-Density Microarray System. At the end of the identification process, the DNA microarray system’s success in identification was evaluated based on the Vitek-2 system. The Vitek-2 system and DNA Microarray system were able to identify the same microorganisms in 53 samples; on the other hand, different microorganisms were identified in the 2 blood cultures by DNA Microarray system. The microorganisms identified by Vitek-2 system were found to be identical to 96.4 % of microorganisms identified by DNA Microarrays system. In addition to bacteria identified by Vitek-2, the presence of a second bacterium has been detected in 5 blood cultures by the DNA Microarray system. It was identified 18 of 55 positive blood culture as E.coli strains with both Vitek 2 and DNA microarray systems. The same identification numbers were found 6 and 8 for Acinetobacter baumanii, 10 and 10 for K.pneumoniae, 5 and 5 for S.aureus, 7 and 11 for Enterococcus spp, 5 and 5 for P.aeruginosa, 2 and 2 for C.albicans respectively. According to these results, DNA Microarray system requires both a technical device and experienced staff support; besides, it requires more expensive kits than Vitek-2. However, this method should be used in conjunction with conventional microbiological methods. Thus, large microbiology laboratories will produce faster, more sensitive and more successful results in the identification of cultured microorganisms.

Keywords: microarray, Vitek-2, blood culture, bacteremia

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34 Phenotypic Characterization of Listeria Spp Isolated from Chicken Carcasses Marketed in Northeast of Iran

Authors: Abdollah Jamshidi, Tayebeh Zeinali, Mehrnaz Rad, Jamshid Razmyar

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Listeria infections occur worldwide in variety of animals and man. Listeriae are widely distributed in nature. The organism has been isolated from the feces of humans and several animals, different soils, plants, aquatic environments and food of animal and vegetable origin. Listeria monocytogenes is recognized as important food-borne pathogens due to its high mortality rate. This organism is able to growth at refrigeration temperature, and high osmotic pressure. Poultry can become contaminated environmentally or through healthy carrier birds. In recent decades, prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents may be lead to emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms, which can be transmitted to human through consumption of contaminated foods. In this study, from 200 fresh chicken carcasses samples which were collected randomly from different supermarkets and butcheries, 80 samples were detected as contaminate with Listeria spp. and 19% of the isolates identified as Listeria monocytogene using multiplex PCR assay. Conventional methods were used to differentiate other species of the listeria genus. The results showed the most prevalent isolates as L. monocytogenes (48.75%). Other isolates were detected as Listeria innocua (28.75%), Listeria murrayi (20%), Listeria grayi (3.75%) and Listeria welshimeri (2.5%).The Majority of the isolates had multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Most of them were resistant to erythromycin (50%), followed by Tetracycline (44.44%), Clindamycin (41.66%), and Trimethoprim (25%). Some of them showed resistance to chloramphenicol (17.65%). The results indicate the resistance of the isolates to antimicrobials commonly used to treat human listeriosis, which could be a potential health hazard for consumers.

Keywords: listeria species, L. monocytogenes, antibiotic resistance, chicken carcass

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33 Prenatal Diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Intermedia in Vietnamese Family: Case Report

Authors: Ha T. T. Ly, Truc B. Truc, Hai N. Truong, Mai P. T. Nguyen, Ngoc D. Ngo, Khanh V. Tran, Hai T. Le

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Beta thalassemia is one of the most common inherited blood disorders, which is characterized by decreased or absent in beta globin expression. Patients with Beta thalassemia whose anemia is not so severe as to necessitate transfusions are said to have thalassemia intermedia. Objective: The goal of this study is prenatal diagnosis for pregnancy woman with Beta thalassemia intermedia and her husband with Beta thalassemia carrier at high risk of Beta thalassemia major in Northern of Vietnam. Material and method: The family has a 6 years-old compound heterozygous thalassemia major for CD71/72(+A) and Hbb:c. -78A>G/nt-28(A>G) male child. The father was heterozygous for CD71/72(+A) mutation which is Beta plus type and the mother was compound heterozygosity of two different variants, namely, Hbb: c. -78A>G/nt-28(A>G) and CD26(A-G) HbE. Prenatal Beta thalassemia mutation detection in fetal DNA was carried out using multiplex Amplification-refractory mutation system ARMS-PCR and confirmed by direct Sanger-sequencing Hbb gene. Prenatal diagnoses were perfomed by amniotic fluid sampling from pregnant woman in the 16-18th week of pregnancy after the genotypes of parents of the probands were identified. Result: When amniotic fluid sample was analyzed for Beta globin gene (Hbb), we found that the genotype is heterozygous for CD71/72(+A) and CD26(A-G) HbE. This genotype is different from the 1st child of this family. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis helps the parents to know the genotype and the thalassemia status of the fetus, so they can have early decision on their pregnancy. Genetic diagnosis provided a useful method in diagnosis for familial members in pedigree, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

Keywords: beta thalassemia intermedia, Hbb gene, pedigree, prenatal diagnosis

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