Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Reem Alajmi

40 Behavior of Engineering Students in Kuwait University

Authors: Mohammed A. Al-Ajmi, Reem S. Al-Kandari

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the behavior of engineering students in Kuwait University which became a concern due to the global issues of education in all levels. A survey has been conducted to identify academic and societal issues that affect the engineering student performance through. The study is drawing major conclusions with regard to private tutoring and the online availability of textbooks’ solution manuals.

Keywords: solution manual, engineering, textbook, ethics

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39 Molecular Identification of Camel Tick and Investigation of Its Natural Infection by Rickettsia and Borrelia in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reem Alajmi, Hind Al Harbi, Tahany Ayaad, Zainab Al Musawi

Abstract:

Hard ticks Hyalomma spp. (family: Ixodidae) are obligate ectoparasite in their all life stages on some domestic animals mainly camels and cattle. Ticks may lead to many economic and public health problems because of their blood feeding behavior. Also, they act as vectors for many bacterial, viral and protozoan agents which may cause serious diseases such as tick-born encephalitis, Rocky-mountain spotted fever, Q-fever and Lyme disease which can affect human and/or animals. In the present study, molecular identification of ticks that attack camels in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia based on the partial sequence of mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene was applied. Also, the present study aims to detect natural infections of collected camel ticks with Rickessia spp. and Borelia spp. using PCR/hybridization of Citrate synthase encoding gene present in bacterial cells. Hard ticks infesting camels were collected from different camels located in a farm in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Results of the present study showed that the collected specimens belong to two species: Hyalomma dromedari represent 99% of the identified specimens and Hyalomma marginatum which account for 1 % of identified ticks. The molecular identification was made through blasting the obtained sequence of this study with sequences already present and identified in GeneBank. All obtained sequences of H. dromedarii specimens showed 97-100% identity with the same gene sequence of the same species (Accession # L34306.1) which was used as a reference. Meanwhile, no intraspecific variations of H. marginatum mesured because only one specimen was collected. Results also had shown that the intraspecific variability between individuals of H. dromedarii obtained in 92 % of samples ranging from 0.2- 6.6%, while the remaining 7 % of the total samples of H. dromedarii showed about 10.3 % individual differences. However, the interspecific variability between H. dromedarii and H. marginatum was approximately 18.3 %. On the other hand, by using the technique of PCR/hybridization, we could detect natural infection of camel ticks with Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. Results revealed the natural presence of both bacteria in collected ticks. Rickettsial spp. infection present in 29% of collected ticks, while 35% of collected specimen were infected with Borrelia spp. The valuable results obtained from the present study are a new record for the molecular identification of camel ticks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and their natural infection with both Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. These results may help scientists to provide a good and direct control strategy of ticks in order to protect one of the most important economic animals which are camels. Also results of this project spotlight on the disease that might be transmitted by ticks to put out a direct protective plan to prevent spreading of these dangerous agents. Further molecular studies are needed to confirm the results of the present study by using other mitochondrial and nuclear genes for tick identification.

Keywords: Camel ticks, Rickessia spp. , Borelia spp. , mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene

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38 Green, Smooth and Easy Electrochemical Synthesis of N-Protected Indole Derivatives

Authors: Sarah Fahad Alajmi, Tamer Ezzat Youssef

Abstract:

Here, we report a simple method for the direct conversion of 6-Nitro-1H-indole into N-substituted indoles via electrochemical dehydrogenative reaction with halogenated reagents under strongly basic conditions through N–R bond formation. The N-protected indoles have been prepared under moderate and scalable electrolytic conditions. The conduct of the reactions was performed in a simple divided cell under constant current without oxidizing reagents or transition-metal catalysts. The synthesized products have been characterized via UV/Vis spectrophotometry, 1H-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy. A possible reaction mechanism is discussed based on the N-protective products. This methodology could be applied to the synthesis of various biologically active N-substituted indole derivatives.

Keywords: green chemistry, 1H-indole, heteroaromatic, organic electrosynthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
37 Diversity Strands in Library and Information Science Graduate Curricula

Authors: Bibi Alajmi, Israa Alshammari

Abstract:

This study investigates diversity strands covered in courses offered by library and information sciences (LIS) graduate programs. It aims to identify the extent to which these programs prepare students to work in diverse communities. Information was collected from 17 ALA-accredited MLIS programs. Diversity-related topics were identified and categorized. The methodology consisted of content analysis of course syllabi. The findings show that coverage of diversity-related content in LIS graduate curricula is increasing at a slow but significant rate, and is often a low priority. Apart from LIS graduate courses for future librarians and information professionals in public libraries, school libraries, and museums providing services to young adults and children, there is not enough interest in the provision of services to diverse communities.

Keywords: diversity, multiculturalism, inclusion, equality, gender

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36 Fluid Flow in Roughened Square Tube for Internal Blade Cooling

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi, Abdulrahman Almutairi, Ayedh Alajmi

Abstract:

A computational investigation has been undertaken to study fluid flow through roughened tube with turbulators. Such flows are of particular interest in cooling internally high pressure turbine blades. Turbulators are fixed in each side of the passage (tube) to promote turbulence and enhance heat transfer. The tube had an aspect ratio of 1 and the position of the ribs closest to the bend are at 0.45d from the entrance and exit of the bend. The aim of this study is to examine the tube roughened by turbulator by studying some flow parameters upstream and downstream of the turbulator. It is cleared that the eddies sizes are decreased downstream in the first two turbulators and increased after the turbulators increases the turbulence in the tube and enhanced the heat transfer in the blade.

Keywords: fluid flow, turbulator, computation, blade

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35 Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Porous Cylinder Flow in In-Line Arrangement

Authors: Hamad Alhajeri, Abdulrahman Almutairi, A. H. Alenezi, M. H. Alhajeri, Ayedh Alajmi

Abstract:

The flow around three porous cylinders in inline arrangement is investigated in this paper computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. The arrangement generally operates with the dirty gases passing through the porous cylinders, the particulate material being deposited on the outside of the cylinders. However, in a combined cycle power plant, filtration is required to allow the hot exhaust gases to be fed to a turbine without causing any physical damage to the turbine blades. Three cylinder elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the cylinder.

Keywords: porous cylinders, CFD, fluid flow, filtration

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34 Challenges and Proposed Solutions Toward Successful Dealing with E-Waste in Kuwait

Authors: Salem Alajmi, Bader Altaweel

Abstract:

Kuwait, like many parts of the world, has started facing the dangerous growth of electrical and electronic wastes. This growth has been noted last two decades, coming along with the development of mobile phones, computers, TVs, as well as other electronic devices and electrical equipment. Kuwait is already among the highest global producers of electronic waste (E-waste) in kg per capita. Furthermore, Kuwait is among the global countries that set high-level future targets in renewable energy projects. Accumulation of this electronic waste, as well as accelerated renewable energy projects, will lead to the increase of future threats to the country. In this research, factors that lead to the increase the e-waste in Kuwait are presented. Also, the current situations of dealing with e-waste in the country as well as current challenges are examined. The impact of renewable energy projects on future E-wastes accumulation is considered. Moreover, this research proposes the best strategies and practices toward successfully dealing with the waste of electronic devices and renewable energy technologies.

Keywords: Kuwait, e-waste, extended producer responsibility, environment, recycle, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
33 Digitalized Public Sector Practices: Opportunities for Open Innovation in Rwanda

Authors: Reem Abou Refaie, Christoph Meinel

Abstract:

The paper explores the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the internal as well as external digitalized work practices of public service providers as part of a Public-Private Partnership Model. It focuses on the effect of uncertainty on generating Open Innovation practices. Our inquiry relies on semi-structured interviews (n=14) from a case study of Rwanda’s Public Service Delivery System in the context of research cooperation with IremboGov, the country’s One-Stop-Shop Platform for public services. It presents four propositions on harnessing opportunities for OI in the context of the public sector beyond the pandemic response. Practitioners can find characterizations of OI opportunities and gain insights on fostering OI in Public Sector Organizations.

Keywords: open innovation, digital transformation, public sector, Rwanda

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32 Knowledge Management (KM) Practices: A Study of KM Adoption among Doctors in Kuwait

Authors: B. Alajmi, L. Marouf, A. S. Chaudhry

Abstract:

In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed upon issues concerning the evaluation of health care. In this regard, knowledge management has also been considered an important component of the evaluation process. KM facilitates the transfer of existing knowledge or the development of new knowledge among healthcare staff and patients. This research aimed to examine how hospitals in Kuwait employ knowledge management practices, including capturing, sharing, and generating, and the perceived impact of KM practices on performance of hospitals in Kuwait. Through adopting a quantitative survey method with 277 sample of doctors, the study found that in terms of the three major knowledge management practices – knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating – the adoption of KM practices were rated very low in the sampled hospitals in Kuwait. Hospitals paid little attention to the main activities that support the transfer of expertise among doctors in hospitals. However, as predicted by previous studies, knowledge management practices were perceived to have an impact on hospitals’ performance. Through knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating, hospitals could improve the services they provide through documenting best practices, transforming their hospitals into learning organizations in which lessons learned are captured, stored, and made available for others to learn from.

Keywords: knowledge management, hospitals, knowledge management practices, knowledge management tools, performance

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31 HelpMeBreathe: A Web-Based System for Asthma Management

Authors: Alia Al Rayssi, Mahra Al Marar, Alyazia Alkhaili, Reem Al Dhaheri, Shayma Alkobaisi, Hoda Amer

Abstract:

We present in this paper a web-based system called “HelpMeBreathe” for managing asthma. The proposed system provides analytical tools, which allow better understanding of environmental triggers of asthma, hence better support of data-driven decision making. The developed system provides warning messages to a specific asthma patient if the weather in his/her area might cause any difficulty in breathing or could trigger an asthma attack. HelpMeBreathe collects, stores, and analyzes individuals’ moving trajectories and health conditions as well as environmental data. It then processes and displays the patients’ data through an analytical tool that leads to an effective decision making by physicians and other decision makers.

Keywords: asthma, environmental triggers, map interface, web-based systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
30 Optimization of Hydrogel Conductive Nanocomposite as Solar Cell

Authors: Shimaa M. Elsaeed, Reem K. Farag, Ibrahim M. Nassar

Abstract:

Hydrogel conductive polymer nanocomposite fabricated via in-situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) inside thermosensitive hydrogels based on hydroxy ethyl meth acrylate (HEMA) copolymer with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS). SEM micrographs show the nanometric size of the conductive material (polyaniline, PANI) dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The swelling parameters of hydrogel are measured. The incorporation of PANI improves the mechanical properties and swelling up to 30,000% without breaking. X-ray diffraction shows that typical polyaniline crystallization is formed in composite, which is advantageous to increase the electrical conductivity of the composite hydrogel. Open-circuit voltage (I-V) curve fill factor of the highest photo-conversion efficiency and enhanced to use in solar cell.

Keywords: hydrogel, solar cell, conductive polymer, nanocomposite

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29 Social Work Students’ Reflection of Their Field Internship: A Study of Dhofar Region in Oman

Authors: Reem Abuiyada

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to review the pursuance of social-work field practice run by the department of social work, Dhofar University, situated in Dhofar region, Sultanate of Oman. It assesses the students’ engagement in social work in local community training that equips them to practice their allocated tasks and management skills that in turn made them more educated in fieldwork concepts, and especially in helping to overcome the challenges experienced by the Omani community to bring them positive changes. Besides, this paper evaluates the efficacy of fieldwork practice from the students' standpoints in higher education. And, it assumes the fact that this practice helped the students in giving equal significance to academic instruction, preparing for them to face the futuristic professions in an effective way.

Keywords: social work field training, students, Dhofar University, Oman, education

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28 Maximum Initial Input Allowed to Iterative Learning Control Set-up Using Singular Values

Authors: Naser Alajmi, Ali Alobaidly, Mubarak Alhajri, Salem Salamah, Muhammad Alsubaie

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Iterative Learning Control (ILC) known to be a controlling tool to overcome periodic disturbances for repetitive systems. This technique is required to let the error signal tends to zero as the number of operation increases. The learning process that lies within this context is strongly dependent on the initial input which if selected properly tends to let the learning process be more effective compared to the case where a system starts from blind. ILC uses previous recorded execution data to update the following execution/trial input such that a reference trajectory is followed to a high accuracy. Error convergence in ILC is generally highly dependent on the input applied to a plant for trial $1$, thus a good choice of initial starting input signal would make learning faster and as a consequence the error tends to zero faster as well. In the work presented within, an upper limit based on the Singular Values Principle (SV) is derived for the initial input signal applied at trial $1$ such that the system follow the reference in less number of trials without responding aggressively or exceeding the working envelope where a system is required to move within in a robot arm, for example. Simulation results presented illustrate the theory introduced within this paper.

Keywords: initial input, iterative learning control, maximum input, singular values

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27 E-Government Websites Accessibility for People with Disabilities (PWD): In Depth Evaluation of Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Reem AlKabbi, Hayat Ali, Mariam Yasser

Abstract:

Nowadays, eGovernment websites are becoming indispensable for public, business, personal efficiency or even improvement of livelihoods. Using these websites, citizens undertake number of tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. However, many of these websites are not accessible to all people' types including People with Disabilities (PWDs). Through Web Accessibility Guidelines, Web developers can develop Web applications that are accessible to PWDs. This research is to investigate the Accessibility of eGovernment websites in Kingdom of Bahrain. The accessibility was measured using Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and section 508. For the evaluation purpose, some automatic tools were used. Samples of 43 eGovernment websites were selected. The accessibility of the websites was analyzed by using several automatic evaluation tools such as Total Validator and Functional Accessibility Evaluator (FAE). The evaluation process revealed several errors according to the accessibility guidelines. This research provides few recommendations for further improvement of accessibility features of eGovernment websites based on the highlighted issues and key findings reported in this research.

Keywords: website accessibility, W3C, PWD, e-government

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26 Evaluation and Analysis of the Secure E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Reem A. Al-Saidi, Ahmed H. Alsswey

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In this paper, we presented an evaluation and analysis of E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme (EV-APS). EV-APS applies some modified security aspects that enhance the security measures and adds a strong wall of protection, confidentiality, non-repudiation and authentication requirements. Some of these modified security aspects are Kerberos authentication protocol, PVID scheme, responder certificate validation, and the converted Ferguson e-cash protocol. Authentication and privacy requirements have been evaluated and proved. Authentication guaranteed only eligible and authorized voters were permitted to vote. Also, the privacy guaranteed that all votes will be kept secret. Evaluation and analysis of some of these security requirements have been given. These modified aspects will help in filtering the counter buffer from unauthorized votes by ensuring that only authorized voters are permitted to vote.

Keywords: e-voting preparation stage, blind signature protocol, Nonce based authentication scheme, Kerberos Authentication Protocol, pseudo voter identity scheme PVID

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
25 Job Satisfaction among Public and Private Universities in Egypt Related to Organizational and Personal Aspects

Authors: Reem Alkadeem

Abstract:

This study aims at evaluating the overall satisfaction of faculty members and relating it to organizational and personal aspects in Egyptian public and private universities. These aspects are identified through an extensive study of all factors that might affect job satisfaction. The most influencing parameters selected are academics’ demographics, human resource management, organizational profile, workload, teamwork skills, recognition, autonomy, teaching activity, research activity, and motivation. A questionnaire of 94 questions was used to assess job satisfaction and the previously mentioned parameters. It was distributed among seven hundred members of different universities in Egypt. Two hundred and twenty-seven faculty members responded. This sample was gathered from twelve universities and The Supreme Council of Universities. The ANOVA showed a significant relationship (p < 0.05) between eight of the selected parameters and job satisfaction. These parameters are age, rank, human resource management, profile of organizational characteristics, workload, recognition, teaching activity, and motivation.

Keywords: job satisfaction, higher education, organizational profile, Egyptian universities

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24 Protecting the Privacy and Trust of VIP Users on Social Network Sites

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Sameh T. Khuffash, Mohammad H. Allymoun, Reem Al-Saidi

Abstract:

There is a real threat on the VIPs personal pages on the Social Network Sites (SNS). The real threats to these pages is violation of privacy and theft of identity through creating fake pages that exploit their names and pictures to attract the victims and spread of lies. In this paper, we propose a new secure architecture that improves the trusting and finds an effective solution to reduce fake pages and possibility of recognizing VIP pages on SNS. The proposed architecture works as a third party that is added to Facebook to provide the trust service to personal pages for VIPs. Through this mechanism, it works to ensure the real identity of the applicant through the electronic authentication of personal information by storing this information within content of their website. As a result, the significance of the proposed architecture is that it secures and provides trust to the VIPs personal pages. Furthermore, it can help to discover fake page, protect the privacy, reduce crimes of personality-theft, and increase the sense of trust and satisfaction by friends and admirers in interacting with SNS.

Keywords: social network sites, online social network, privacy, trust, security and authentication

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23 Some Trends in Analysis of Two-Way Solid Slabs

Authors: Reem I. Al-Ya' Goub, Nasim Shatarat

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of analytical and comparative study among software programs' outputs in analysis of some two way solid slabs; flat plate, flat slab with beams and flat slab with drop panels problems that already been analyzed using Classical Equivalent Frame Method (CEFM) by several reinforced concrete book authors. The primary objective of this research is to determine the moment results using various software programs. Then, a summary of the results and differences percentages were obtained to show how analysis procedure effects the outputs of calculations that vary from software program to another when comparing them with the results of CEFM. Moment values were obtained using either the Equivalent Frame Method (EFM) or Finite Element Method (FEM) that's used among many software programs. The results of the analyses demonstrate that software programs vary markedly in terms of the information they provide to the structural designer regarding values of the model insertion, stiffness, effective moment of inertia used and specially the moment values.

Keywords: two-way solid slabs, flat plate, flat slab with beams, flat slab with drop panels, analysis, modeling, EFM, CEFM, FEM

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22 Validation of Contemporary Physical Activity Tracking Technologies through Exercise in a Controlled Environment

Authors: Reem I. Altamimi, Geoff D. Skinner

Abstract:

Extended periods engaged in sedentary behavior increases the risk of becoming overweight and/or obese which is linked to other health problems. Adding technology to the term ‘active living’ permits its inclusion in promoting and facilitating habitual physical activity. Technology can either act as a barrier to, or facilitate this lifestyle, depending on the chosen technology. Physical Activity Monitoring Technologies (PAMTs) are a popular example of such technologies. Different contemporary PAMTs have been evaluated based on customer reviews; however, there is a lack of published experimental research into the efficacy of PAMTs. This research aims to investigate the reliability of four PAMTs: two wristbands (Fitbit Flex and Jawbone UP), a waist-clip (Fitbit One), and a mobile application (iPhone Health Application) for recording a specific distance walked on a treadmill (1.5km) at constant speed. Physical activity tracking technologies are varied in their recordings, even while performing the same activity. This research demonstrates that Jawbone UP band recorded the most accurate distance compared to Fitbit One, Fitbit Flex, and iPhone Health Application.

Keywords: Fitbit, jawbone up, mobile tracking applications, physical activity tracking technologies

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21 The Important of Nutritional Status in Rehabilitation of Children with CP: Saudi Perspective

Authors: Reem Al-Garni

Abstract:

Malnutrition is a global epidemic, but the under-weight or Failure-To-Thrive risk is increasing in rehabilitation setting and considered one of the contribution factor for developmental delay. Beside the consequences of malnutrition on children growth and development, there are other side-effects that might delay or hold the progress of rehabilitation. The awareness for malnutrition must be raised and discussed by the rehabilitation team, to promote the treatment and to optimize the client care. The solution can start from food supplements intake and / or Enteral Nutrition plan, depending on the malnutrition level and to reach the goal, the medical team should to work together in order to provide comprehensive treatment and to help the family to be able to manage their child condition. We have explore the outcomes of rehabilitation between the children with CP whose diagnosed with malnutrition and children with normal body Wight Over a period of 4 months who received 4-6 weeks of rehabilitation two hours daily by using WeeFIM score to measure rehabilitation outcomes. WeeFIM measures and covers various domains, such as: self-care, mobility, locomotion, communication and other psycho-social aspects. Our findings reported that children with normal body Wight has better outcomes and improvement comparing with children with malnutrition for the entire study sample.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy (CP), pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), rehabilitation, malnutrition

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20 Atypical Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Secondary to Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Mutation With Coexistent Axonal Polyneuropathy: A Challenging Diagnosis

Authors: Seraj Makkawi, Abdulaziz A. Alqarni, Himyan Alghaythee, Suzan Y. Alharbi, Anmar Fatani, Reem Adas, Ahmad R. Abuzinadah

Abstract:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disease that involves both the upper and lower motor neurons. Familial ALS, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation, accounts for 5-10% of all cases of ALS. Typically, the symptoms of ALS are purely motor, though coexistent sensory symptoms have been reported in rare cases. In this report, we describe the case of a 47- year-old man who presented with progressive bilateral lower limb weakness and numbness for the last four years. A nerve conduction study (NCS) showed evidence of coexistent axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in addition to the typical findings of ALS in needle electromyography. Genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis of familial ALS secondary to the SOD1 genetic mutation. This report highlights that the presence of sensory symptoms should not exclude the possibility of ALS in an appropriate clinical setting.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, polyneuropathy, SOD1 gene mutation, familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
19 Jordanian Men’s and Women’s Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence and Its Correlates with Family Functioning and Demographics

Authors: Fatmeh Alzoubi, Reem Ali

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Jordan is a developing country in the Middle East and, much like other countries in the world, has high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Little information is available on Jordanian men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV. The purpose of this study is to examine men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV in Jordan and its relationship with some demographics and family functioning. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 401 men and women was used. Descriptive statistics (M, SD), Pearson r, t test, and ANOVA were used. The results indicated that Jordanian men and women have a lower score of IPVAS, 40.06 (SD = 8.20), indicating lower acceptance of IPV compared with the literature. Family functioning was 3.12 (SD = 0.46), indicating more healthy families. Family functioning was negatively correlated with IPVAS scores (r = –.22, p = .00). All demographic variables showed small to moderate correlations with IPVAS. Education for both study participants and their spouses had a negative correlation with IPVAS (r = –.27, p = .00) and (r = –.20, p = .00), respectively. Male participants, individuals who were living with extended family, and those living in rural areas had significantly high IPVAS scores, indicating more accepting attitudes toward IPV. Practitioners should provide families with education on the methods of conflict resolution, effective communication within the family, problem-solving approaches, equal role distribution, and appropriate styles of establishing a family.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, Jordanian men and women’s health, attitudes, family functioning

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18 Perception and Attitudes of Medical Students towards Dermatology as a Future Specialty.

Authors: Rakan Alajmi, Rahaf Alnazzawi, Yara Aljefri, Abdullah Alafif, Ali Alraddadi, Awadh Alamri

Abstract:

Background: The distribution of physicians in different specialties across Saudi Arabia is determined by the career choices of medical students. Dermatology residency program is one of the highly competitive programs here in Saudi Arabia. Assessing and understanding the factors perceived to be attractive in choosing dermatology will aid the directors of the specialty programs to plan for a more balanced workforce distribution to better suit the needs of the specialties. Aim: The aim of our study is to determine and assess the factors perceived to be significantly attractive when choosing dermatology as a future specialty. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional study conducted in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A validated questionnaire was sent electronically to clinical year medical students. In addition to the questionnaire, gender, grade point average, preferred specialty, and other socio-demographic data were assessed. Results: A total of 121 clinical years medical students completed the questionnaire, 8 (6.6%) preferred dermatology as a specialty. 76 (62.8%) of the participants score a grade point average of more than 4.5 and 83 students (68.6%) chose their specialty during clinical years. The appeal of being a dermatologist (P= 0.047), the portrayal of different specialities in the media (P= 0.005), and the likelihood that dermatologists can influence patients’ lives (P=0.010) were shown to be significantly attractive factors. Conclusion: There are many factors that are affecting students’ choices when choosing a medical specialty. The appeal of being a dermatologist, the portrayal of different specialities in the media, and the likelihood that dermatologists can influence patients’ lives were shown to be significantly attractive factors when choosing dermatology as a future specialty. Recognizing medical students’ specialty perception will lead them to a proper specialty tailored to their needs.

Keywords: dermatology, career choice, medical specialties, student's perception

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17 Q-Methodology to Identify Perceptions of Deceased Organ Donation in the UK

Authors: Reem Muaid, Thomas Chesney

Abstract:

Background: Attitude towards organ donation is predominantly positive in the UK; however, the donation rate remains low. To develop more effective interventions, this research aims to examine the behavioural barriers in organ donations using Q methodology to elicit patterns of overlap among different barriers and motivators. Method: A Q methodology study was conducted with 40 participants aged 19-64 who were asked to rank 47 statements on issues that are associated with organ donation. By-person factor analysis using Centroid method and Varimax rotation was conducted to bring out patterns in the way statements were ranked to obtain groupings of participants who had arranged the statements in similar fashion. Results: Four viewpoints were extracted: The Realist, the Optimist Hesitant, the Pessimist Determinant, and the Empathetic. Salient barriers to organ donation presented in each viewpoint suggest that perceived lack of knowledge, anxiety, mistrust in the healthcare system, and lack of cue to action are the main barriers to organ donation. Consensus statements suggest that religion and family agreement are inconsequential if the attitude to organ donation is well-formed. Conclusion: There are different attitudes around deceased organ donation that were uncovered using Q methodology. These results suggest that people respond to behavioural change campaigns differently depending on their own perceptions of organ donation. We argue that a paradigm shift in behavioural interventions is underpinned by understanding the overlapping yet distinctive nature of perceived perspectives.

Keywords: organ donation, Q methodology, behavioural interventions, post Q Survey

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16 DNAJB6 Chaperone Prevents the Aggregation of Intracellular but not Extracellular Aβ Peptides Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Rasha M. Hussein, Reem M. Hashem, Laila A. Rashed

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Alzheimer’s disease is the most common dementia disease in the elderly. It is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. In addition, recent evidence indicates that accumulation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. This suggests that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain the protein quality control in the cell might be potential candidates for disease amelioration. DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of HSP, effectively prevented the aggregation of poly glutamines stretches associated with Huntington’s disease both in vitro and in cells. In addition, DNAJB6 was found recently to delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of both intracellular and extracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of HEK293 cells with Aβ-GFP and recombinant Aβ42 peptides respectively. We performed western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 can prevent Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not the seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Moreover, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of Aβ-GFP protein and its J-domain was essential for this anti-aggregation activity. Interestingly, overexpression of other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPB1 suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that DNAJB6 is a promising candidate for the inhibition of Aβ-GFP mediated aggregation through a canonical HSP70 dependent mechanism.

Keywords: , Alzheimer’s disease, chaperone, DNAJB6, aggregation

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15 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Uranium in Ceramic Tiles Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Authors: Reem M. Altuwirqi, Mohja S. Summan, Entesar A. Ganash, Safia H. Hamidalddin, Tamer E. Youssef, Mohammed A. Gondal

Abstract:

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique using 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser was optimized and applied for investigating the existence of radioactive elements (uranium) in twenty-six different ceramic tiles. These tiles were collected from the local Saudi market. Qualitative and quantitative analysis for trace radioactive elements like uranium in these samples was achieved using LIBS. The plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density were calculated to confirm that the plasma generated by the tile samples under laser irradiation can be related to analyte concentrations. In order to perform a quantitative analysis, calibration curves were constructed for two uranium lines (U II (424.166 nm) and U II (424.437 nm)). The Uranium activity concentration in Bq/kg for each sample was measured. Cross-validation of LIBS results with a conventional technique such as Gamma-Ray spectroscopy was also carried out for five ceramic samples. The results show that the LIBS method is an effective way of determining radioactive elements such as uranium in ceramic tiles. Moreover, the uranium concentrations of the investigated samples were below the permissible safe limit for building materials in the majority of samples. Such LIBS system could be applied to determine the presence of natural radioactive elements in ceramic tiles and their radioactivity level rapidly to ensure that they are under the safe allowed limit.

Keywords: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy, natural radioactivity, uranium, ceramic tiles

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14 Prevalence of Lupus Glomerulonephritis in Renal Biopsies in an Eastern Region of the Arab World

Authors: M. Fayez Al Homsi, Reem Al Homsi

Abstract:

Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Glomerular diseases make a small portion of the renal disease. Lupus glomerulonephritis (GN) is the commonest among the GN of systemic diseases. More than a hundred and eighty-eight consecutive renal biopsies are performed and evaluated for clinically suspected glomerular diseases over a period of two years. As in a standard practice after receiving the ultrasound-guided renal biopsies, the fresh biopsy is divided to three parts, one part is frozen for immunofluorescence evaluation, the second part is placed in 4% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic evaluation, and the third part is placed in 10% buffered formalin for light microscopic evaluation. Primary glomerular diseases are detected in 83 biopsies; glomerulonephritis (GN) of systemic diseases are identified in 88, glomerular lesions in vascular diseases in 3, glomerular lesions in metabolic diseases in 7, hereditary nephropathies in 2, end-stage kidney in 2, and glomerular lesions in transplantation in 3 biopsies. Among the primary lesions, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28) and mesangial proliferative GN (26) were the most common. Lupus GN (67) and Ig A nephropathy (20) were the most common of the GN of systemic diseases. Lupus nephritis biopsies included one biopsy diagnosed as class 1 (normal), 17 biopsies class 2 (mesangial proliferation), 5 biopsies class 3 (focal proliferative GN), 39 biopsies class 4 diffuse proliferative GN), 3 biopsies class 5 (membranous GN), and 2 biopsies class 6 (crescentic GN). Lupus GN is the most common among GN of systemic diseases. While diabetes is very common here, diabetic GN (3 biopsies) is not as common as might one expects. Most likely this is due to sampling and reluctance on part of nephrologists and patients in sampling the kidney in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, glomerulonephritis, lupus, mesangial proliferation, nephropathy

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13 Study on the Relationship between Obesity Indicators and Mineral Status in Qatari Adults

Authors: Alaa A. H. Shehada, Eman Abdelnasser Abouhassanein, Reem Mohsen Ali, Joyce J. Moawad, Hiba Bawadi, Abdelhamid Kerkadi

Abstract:

Background: The association between obesity and micronutrient deficiencies is well documented. Among minerals that have been widely studied: zinc, iron and magnesium. Objectives: This study aims to determine the association between obesity indices and mineral status among Qatari adults. Methods: Secondary data was obtained from Qatar Biobank. 414 healthy Qatari aged 20-50 years old were randomly selected from the database. Anthropometric measurements (WC, Weight, and height), body fat, and mineral status (Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na) were obtained for all selected participants. Differences in anthropometric measurements and mineral status were analyzed by t-test or ANOVA. Spearman correlation coefficients were determined to assess the association between minerals and anthropometric variables. Statistical significance for the hypothesis tests was set at p <0.05. All statistical analysis was preformed using SPSS software version 23.0. Results: Iron, calcium, and sodium levels decreased with an increase in body mass index. Moreover, only iron showed a significant correlation with waist circumference, and waist to height ratio increased. Additionally, calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium had a statistically significant negative correlation with total body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage. There were statistically significant negative correlations of anthropometrics with minerals. Conclusion: Body fat and trunk fat percentage had a significant inverse relationship with iron, calcium, sodium, and magnesium, while there was no correlation between body fat or trunk fat percentage with potassium.

Keywords: Qatar biobank, body fat distribution, mineral status, Qatari adults

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12 Anti-Aging Effects of Retinol and Alpha Hydroxy Acid on Elastin Fibers of Artificially Photo-Aged Human Dermal Fibroblast Cell Lines

Authors: Mohammed Jarrar, Shalini Behl, Nadia Shaheen, Abeer Fatima, Reem Nasab

Abstract:

Skin aging is a slow multifactorial process influenced by both internal as well as external factors. Ultra-violet radiations (UV), diet, smoking and personal habits are the most common environmental factors that affect skin aging. Fat contents and fibrous proteins as collagen and elastin are core internal structural components. The direct influence of UV on elastin integrity and health is crucial on aging of skin by time. The deposition of abnormal elastic material is a major marker in a photo-aged skin. Searching for compounds that may protect against cutaneous photo-damage is highly valued. Retinoids and Alpha Hydroxy Acids protective and or repairing effects of UV have been endorsed by some researchers. For consolidating a better understanding of anti and protective effects of such anti-aging agents, we evaluated the combinatory effects of various dosages of lactic acid and retinol on the dermal fibroblasts elastin levels exposed to UV. The UV exposed cells showed significant reduction in the elastin levels. A combination of drugs with a higher concentration of lactic acid (30-35 mM) and a lower concentration of retinol (10-15mg/mL) showed to work better in enhancing elastin concentration in UV exposed cells. We assume this enhancement could be the result of increased tropo-elastin gene expression stimulated by retinol and lactic acid probably repaired the UV irradiated damage by enhancing the amount and integrity of the elastin fibers.

Keywords: alpha hydroxy acid, elastin, retinol, ultraviolet radiations

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11 Compliance of Systematic Reviews in Ophthalmology with the PRISMA Statement

Authors: Seon-Young Lee, Harkiran Sagoo, Reem Farwana, Katharine Whitehurst, Alex Fowler, Riaz Agha

Abstract:

Background/Aims: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are becoming increasingly important way of summarizing research evidence. Researches in ophthalmology may represent further challenges, due to their potential complexity in study design. The aim of our study was to determine the reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in ophthalmology with the PRISMA statement, by assessing the articles published between 2010 and 2015 from five major journals with the highest impact factor. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were used to search systematic reviews published between January 2010 and December 2015, in 5 major ophthalmology journals: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Ophthalmology, Archives of Ophthalmology, American Journal of Ophthalmology, Journal of the American Optometric Association. Screening, identification, and scoring of articles were performed independently by two teams, followed by statistical analysis including the median, range, and 95% CIs. Results: 115 articles were involved. The median PRISMA score was 15 of 27 items (56%), with a range of 5-26 (19-96%) and 95% CI 13.9-16.1 (51-60%). Compliance was highest in items related to the description of rationale (item 3,100%) and inclusion of a structured summary in the abstract (item 2, 90%), while poorest in indication of review protocol and registration (item 5, 9%), specification of risk of bias affecting the cumulative evidence (item 15, 24%) and description of clear objectives in introduction (item 4, 26%). Conclusion: The reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in ophthalmology need significant improvement. While the use of PRISMA criteria as a guideline before journal submission is recommended, additional research identifying potential barriers may be required to improve the compliance to the PRISMA guidelines.

Keywords: systematic reviews, meta-analysis, research methodology, reporting quality, PRISMA, ophthalmology

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