Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 234

Search results for: genotype

234 Genetic Variability in Advanced Derivatives of Interspecific Hybrids in Brassica

Authors: Yasir Ali, Farhatullah

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in six parental lines and their 56 genotypes derived from five introgressed brassica populations on the basis of morphological and biochemical traits. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with two replications at The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during growing season of 2015-2016. The ANOVA of all traits of F5:6 populations showed highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) for all morphological and biochemical traits. Among F5:6 populations, the genotype 2(526) was earlier in flowering (108.65 days), and genotype 14(485) was earlier in maturity (170 days). Tallest plants (182.5 cm), largest main raceme (91.5 cm) and maximum number of pods (80.5) on main raceme were recorded for genotype 17(34). Maximum primary branches plant-1(6.2) and longest pods (10.26 cm) were recorded for genotype 15, while genotype 16(171) had more seeds pod⁻¹ (22) and gave maximum yield plant-1 (30.22 g). The maximum 100-seed weight (0.60 g) was observed for genotype 10(506) while high protein content (22.61%) was recorded for genotype 4(99). Maximum oil content (54.08 %) and low linoleic acid (7.07 %) were produced by genotype (12(138) and low glucosinolate (59.01 µMg⁻¹) was recorded for genotype 21(113). The genotype 27(303) having high oleic acid content (51.73 %) and genotype 1(209) gave low erucic acid (35.97 %). Among the F5:6 populations moderate to high heritability observed for all morphological and biochemical traits coupled with high genetic advance. Cluster analysis grouped the 56 F5:6 populations along their parental lines into seven different groups. Each group was different from the other group on the basis of morphological and biochemical traits. Moreover all the F5:6 populations showed sufficient variability. Genotypes 10(506) and 16(171) were superior for high seed yield⁻¹, 100-seeds weight, and seed pod⁻¹ and are recommended for future breeding program.

Keywords: Brassicaceae, biochemical characterization, introgression, morphological characterization

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233 Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds

Authors: S. Petrovska, D. Jonkus, D. Smiltiņa

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κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

Keywords: dairy cows, κ-casein, milk productivity, polymorphism

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232 A Preliminary Report of HBV Full Genome Sequencing Derived from Iranian Intravenous Drug Users

Authors: Maryam Vaezjalali, Koroush Rahimian, Maryam Asli, Tahmineh Kandelouei, Foad Davoodbeglou, Amir H. Kashi

Abstract:

Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the HBV molecular profiles including genotypes, subgenotypes, subtypes & mutations in hepatitis B genes. Materials/Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 229 intravenous drug users who referred to three Drop- in-Centers and a hospital in Tehran. HBV DNA was extracted from HBsAg positive serum samples and amplified by Nested PCR. HBV genotype, subgenotypes, subtype and genes mutation were determined by direct sequencing. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor- joining (NJ) method. Statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS 20. Results: HBV DNA was found in 3 HBsAg positive cases. Phylogenetic tree of derived HBV DNAs showed the existence of genotype D (subgenotype D1, subtype ayw2). Also immune escape mutations were determined in S gene. Conclusion: There were a few variations and genotypes and subtypes among infected intravenous drug users. This study showed the predominance of genotype D among intravenous drug users. Our study concurs with other reports from Iran, that all showing currently only genotype D is the only detectable genotype in Iran.

Keywords: drug users, genotype, HBV, phylogenetic tree

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231 Detection and Distribution Pattern of Prevelant Genotypes of Hepatitis C in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western India

Authors: Upasana Bhumbla

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Background: Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, which can further lead to cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Worldwide the burden of Hepatitis C infection has become a serious threat to the human race. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has population-specific genotypes and provides valuable epidemiological and therapeutic information. Genotyping and assessment of viral load in HCV patients are important for planning the therapeutic strategies. The aim of the study is to study the changing trends of prevalence and genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Methods: It is a retrospective study; blood samples were collected and tested for anti HCV antibodies by ELISA in Dept. of Microbiology. In seropositive Hepatitis C patients, quantification of HCV-RNA was done by real-time PCR and in HCV-RNA positive samples, genotyping was conducted. Results: A total of 114 patients who were seropositive for Anti HCV were recruited in the study, out of which 79 (69.29%) were HCV-RNA positive. Out of these positive samples, 54 were further subjected to genotype determination using real-time PCR. Genotype was not detected in 24 samples due to low viral load; 30 samples were positive for genotype. Conclusion: Knowledge of genotype is crucial for the management of HCV infection and prediction of prognosis. Patients infected with HCV genotype 1 and 4 will have to receive Interferon and Ribavirin for 48 weeks. Patients with these genotypes show a poor sustained viral response when tested 24 weeks after completion of therapy. On the contrary, patients infected with HCV genotype 2 and 3 are reported to have a better response to therapy.

Keywords: hepatocellular, genotype, ribavarin, seropositive

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230 Relationship Salt Sensitivity and с825т Polymorphism of gnb3 Gene in Patients with Essential Hypertension

Authors: Aleksandr Nagay, Gulnoz Khamidullayeva

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It is known that an unbalanced intake of salt (NaCI), lifestyle and genetic predisposition to pathology is a key component of the risk and the development of essential hypertension (EH). Purpose: To study the relationship between salt-sensitivity and blood pressure (BP) on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, depending on the C825T polymorphism of GNB3 in individuals of Uzbek nationality with EH. Method: studied 148 healthy and 148 patients with EH with I-II degree (WHO/ISH, 2003) with disease duration 6,5±1,3 years. Investigation of the gene GNB3 was produced by PCR-RFLP method. Determination of salt-sensitivity was performed by the method of R. Henkin. Results: For a comparative analysis of BP, the groups with carriage of CТ and TT genotypes were combined. The analysis showed that carriers of CC genotype and low salt-sensitivity were determined by higher levels of SBP compared with carriers of CT and TT genotypes, and low salt-sensitivity of SBP: 166,2±4,3 against 158,2±9,1 mm Hg (p=0,000). A similar analysis on the values of DBP also showed significantly higher values of blood pressure in carriers of CC genotype DBP: 105,8±10,6 vs. 100,5±7,2 mm Hg, respectively (p=0,001). The average values of SBP and DBP in groups with carriers of CC genotype at medium or high salt-sensitivity in comparison with carriers of CT or TT genotype did not differ statistically SBP: 165,0±0,1 vs. 160,0±8,6 mm Hg (p=0,275) and DBP: 100,1±0,1 vs. 101,6±7,6 mm Hg (p=0,687), respectively. Conclusion: It is revealed that in patients with EH CC genotype of the gene GNB3 given salt-sensitivity has a negative effect on blood pressure profile. Since patients with EH with the CC genotype of GNB3 gene with low-salt taste sensitivity is determined by a higher level of blood pressure, both on SBP and DBP.

Keywords: salt sensitivity, essential hypertension EH, blood pressure BP, genetic predisposition

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229 Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in Assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4

Authors: G. Shiha, S. Seif, W. Samir, K. Zalata

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Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4 FibroTest (FT) is non-invasive score of liver fibrosis that combines the quantitative results of 5 serum biochemical markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and bilirubin) and adjusted with the patient's age and sex in a patented algorithm to generate a measure of fibrosis. FT has been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (Halfon et al., Gastroenterol. Clin Biol.( 2008), 32 6suppl 1, 22-39). The validation of fibro test ( FT) in genotype IV is not well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of FibroTest in an independent prospective cohort of hepatitis C patients with genotype 4. Subject was 122 patients with CHC. All liver biopsies were scored using METAVIR system. Our fibrosis score(FT) were measured, and the performance of the cut-off score were done using ROC curve. Among patients with advanced fibrosis, the FT was identically matched with the liver biopsy in 18.6%, overestimated the stage of fibrosis in 44.2% and underestimated the stage of fibrosis in 37.7% of cases. Also in patients with no/mild fibrosis, identical matching was detected in 39.2% of cases with overestimation in 48.1% and underestimation in 12.7%. So, the overall results of the test were identical matching, overestimation and underestimation in 32%, 46.7% and 21.3% respectively. Using ROC curve it was found that (FT) at the cut-off point of 0.555 could discriminate early from advanced stages of fibrosis with an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.72, sensitivity of 65%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 68%, NPV of 66% and accuracy of 67%. As FibroTest Score overestimates the stage of advanced fibrosis, it should not be considered as a reliable surrogate for liver biopsy in hepatitis C infection with genotype 4.

Keywords: fibrotest, chronic Hepatitis C, genotype 4, liver biopsy

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228 Pegylated Interferon in HCV Genotype 3 Relapser to Conventional Interferon in Pakistani Population

Authors: Saad Khalid Niaz, Arif Mahmood Siddiqui, Afzal Haqi

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Background: Estimated prevalence of Hepatitis C in Pakistan is 5% of which 78 % are Genotype 3, in which Response to conventional interferon is reported to be 70%. Objective: To determine the efficacy of pegylated interferon 20 kDa (Unipeg) plus ribavirin (Ribazole) in HCV genotype 3 patients who relapsed to conventional interferon. Methods: This is an ongoing study of 20 enrolled patients. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a 20 kDa 180 mcg weekly with ribavirin, were administered for a period of 24 weeks. Virological Responses were measured by Qualitative HCV RNA at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48 to determine Rapid Virological Response (RVR), Early Virological Response (EVR), End of Treatment (ETR) and Sustained Virological Response (SVR), respectively. EVR was done for those who didn’t achieve RVR. Results: Males were 12 (60%) and mean age was 38.5 ±7.62 years. Out of 20 recruited patients, all completed 4 weeks therapy; RVR was achieved in 8 (40%) patients. One patient was lost to follow up and one yet to visit at 12 weeks. From 10 patients, 8 (80%) patients achieved EVR. Out of intent-to-treat patients, 15 completed 24 weeks therapy, ETR was achieved in 14 (93%) patients and 9 patients completed post therapy follow-up, of which, 8 (89%) patients achieved SVR. Conclusion: Our interim data demonstrates that Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a 20 kDa 180 mcg (Unipeg) in combination with Ribavirin (Ribazole) has shown promising results in treating HCV Genotype 3 patients who relapsed to conventional interferon. We recommend use of Pegylated Interferon in Relapsers with Genotype 3 when financial constraints limit the use of oral antivirals.

Keywords: pegylated interferon (unipeg), hepatitis c, relapsers, Pakistan

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227 Responses of Grain Yield, Anthocyanin and Antioxidant Capacity to Water Condition in Wetland and Upland Purple Rice Genotypes

Authors: Supaporn Yamuangmorn, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai

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Wetland and upland purple rice are the two major types classified by its original ecotypes in Northern Thailand. Wetland rice is grown under flooded condition from transplanting until the mutuality, while upland rice is naturally grown under well-drained soil known as aerobic cultivations. Both ecotypes can be grown and adapted to the reverse systems but little is known on its responses of grain yield and qualities between the 2 ecotypes. This study evaluated responses of grain yield as well as anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity between the wetland and upland purple rice genotypes grown in the submerged and aerobic conditions. A factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors of rice genotype and water condition were carried out in three replications. The two wetland genotypes (Kum Doi Saket: KDK and Kum Phayao: KPY) and two upland genotypes (Kum Hom CMU: KHCMU and Pieisu1: PES1) were used in this study by growing under submerged and aerobic conditions. Grain yield was affected by the interaction between water condition and rice genotype. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY grown in the submerged condition produced about 2.7 and 0.8 times higher yield than in the aerobic condition, respectively. The 0.4 times higher grain yield of upland genotype (PES1) was found in the submerged condition than in the aerobic condition, but no significant differences in KHCMU. In the submerged condition, all genotypes produced higher yield components of tiller number, panicle number and percent filled grain than in the aerobic condition by 24% and 32% and 11%, respectively. The thousand grain weight and spikelet number were affected by water condition differently among genotypes. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and upland genotype, PES1, grown in the submerged condition produced about 19-22% higher grain weight than in the aerobic condition. The similar effect was found in spikelet number which the submerged condition of wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and the upland genotype, KHCMU, had about 28-30% higher than the aerobic condition. In contrast, the anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant capacity were affected by both the water condition and genotype. Rice grain grown in the aerobic condition had about 0.9 and 2.6 times higher anthocyanin concentration than in the submerged condition was found in the wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU, respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU were 0.5 and 0.6 times higher in aerobic condition than in the submerged condition. There was a negative correlation between grain yield and anthocyanin concentration in wetland genotype KDK and upland genotype KHCMU, but it was not found in the other genotypes. This study indicating that some rice genotype can be adapted in the reverse ecosystem in both grain yield and quality, especially in the wetland genotype KPY and upland genotype PES1. To maximize grain yield and quality of purple rice, proper water management condition is require with a key consideration on difference responses among genotypes. Increasing number of rice genotypes in both ecotypes is needed to confirm their responses on water management.

Keywords: purple rice, water condition, anthocyanin, grain yield

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226 Associations between Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene on Milk Production, Fat and Protein Content in Friesian Holstein Cattle

Authors: Tety Hartatik, Dian Kurniawati, Adiarto

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The aim of the research was to determine the associations between polymorphism of the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene (Leu/Val, L/V) and milk production of Friesian Holstein Cattle. A total of 62 cows which consist of two Friesian Holstein groups (cattle from New Zealand are 19 heads and cattle from Australia are 43 heads). We perform the PCR and RFLP method for analyzing the genotype of the target gene GH 211 bp in the part of intron 4 and exon 5 of GH gene. The frequencies of genotypes LL were higher than genotype LV. The number of genotype LL in New Zealand and Australia groups are 84% and 79%, respectively. The number of genotype LV in New Zealand and Australia groups are 16% and 21%, respectively. The association between Leu/Val polymorphism on milk production, fat and protein content in both groups does not show the significant effect. However base on the groups (cows from New Zealand compare with those from Australia) show the significant effect on fat and protein content.

Keywords: Friesian Holstein, fat content, growth hormone gene, milk production, PCR-RLFP, protein content

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225 Effects of Obesity and Family History of Diabetes on the Association of Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Gene with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Population

Authors: Jae Woong Sull

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Lipid levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) gene is one of the candidate genes of cardiovascular diseases. A total of 2,304 persons were chosen from a Hospital (N=4,294) in South Korea. Female subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 2.03 -fold (p=0.0001) higher risk of having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL) than subjects with the CC genotype. Male subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 1.34 -fold (p=0.0019) higher risk than subjects with the CC genotype. When analyzed by body mass index, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with BMI>=25.69 (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.15-2.07, P=0.0037) than in male lean subjects. When analyzed by family history of diabetes, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with positive family history of low physical activity (OR=4.82, 95% CI: 1.86-12.5, P=0.0012) than in male subjects with negative family history of diabetes. This study clearly demonstrates that genetic variants in CETP influence HDL cholesterol levels in Korean adults.

Keywords: CETP, diabetes, obesity, polymorphisms

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224 Associations of Gene Polymorphism of IL-17 a (C737T) with Its Level in Patients with Erysipelas Kazakh Population

Authors: Nazira B. Bekenova, Lydia A. Mukovozova, Andrej M. Grjibovski, Alma Z. Tokayeva, Yerbol M. Smail, Nurlan E. Aukenov

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Erysipelas is an infectious disease with socio-economic significance and prone to prolonged recurrent course (30%). Contribution of genetic factors, in particular the gene polymorphism of cytokines, can be essential in disease etiology and pathogenesis. Interleukin – 17 A are produced by T helpers of 17 type and plays a key role in development of local inflammation process. Local inflammatory process is a dominant in the clinic of erysipelas. Established that the skin and mucosas are primary areas of migration (homing) Th17-cell and their cytokines are stimulate the barrier function of the epithelium. We studied associations between gene polymorphism of IL-17A (C737T) rs 8193036 and IL-17A level in patients with erysipelas Kazakh population. Altogether, 90 cases with erysipelas and 90 healthy controls from an ethnic Kazakh population comprised the sample. Cases were identified at Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital of Semey (Kazakhstan). The IL-17A (rs8193036) polymorphism was analyzed by a real time polymerase chain reaction. Plasma levels of IL-17 A were assessed by immuneenzyme analysis method using ‘Vector-Best’ test-system (Russia). Differences in levels of IL-17 A between CC, TT, CT groups were studied using Kruskal — Wallis test. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction (New significance level was set to 0.025). We found, that in patients with erysipelas with CC genotype the level of IL-17 A was higher (p= 0, 010) compared to the carriers of CT genotype. When compared the level of IL – 17 A between the patients with TT genotype and patients with CC genotype, also between the patients with CT genotype and patients with TT genotype statistically significant differences are not revealed (p = 0.374 and p = 0.043, respectively). Comparisons of IL-17 A plasma levels between the CC and CT genotypes, between the CC and TT genotypes, and between the TT and CT in healthy patients did not reveal significant differences (p = 0, 291). Therefore, we are determined the associations of gene polymorphism of IL-17 A (C737T) with its level in patients erysipelas carriers CC genotype.

Keywords: erysipelas, interleukin – 17 A, Kazakh, polymorphism

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223 The Effects of Different Sowing Times on Seed Yield and Quality of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Authors: Lale Efe, Zeynep Gokce

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In this study carried out in 2013-14 growing season in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey, it was aimed to investigate the effects of different sowing times on the seed yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum L.). Three fenugreek genotypes (Gürarslan, Candidate Line-1 and Genotype-1) were sown on 13.11.2013 and 07.03.2014 according to factorial randomized block design with 3 replications. Plant height (cm), branch number per plant, first pod height (cm), pod length (mm), seed number per pod (g), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per decar (kg), thousand seed weight (g), mucilage rate (%), seed protein ratio (%), seed oil ratio (%), oleic acid (%), linoleic acid (%), palmitic acid (%) and stearic acid (%) were investigated. Among genotypes, while the highest seed yield per plant was obtained from Genotype-1 (5 g/plant), the lowest seed yield per plant was obtained from cv. Gürarslan (3.4 g/plant). According to genotype x sowing date interactions, it can be said that the highest seed yield per plant was taken in autumn sowing from Genotype-1 (6.6 g/plant) and the lowest seed yield per plant was taken in spring sowing from cv. Gürarslan (2.9 g/plant). Genotype-1 had the highest linoleic acid ratio (41.6 %). Cv. Gürarslan and Candidate Line-1 had the highest oleic acid ratio (respectively 17.8 % and 17.6%).

Keywords: fenugreek, seed yield and quality, sowing times, Trigonella foenum graecum L.

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222 Molecular Epidemiologic Distribution of HDV Genotypes among Different Ethnic Groups in Iran: A Systematic Review

Authors: Khabat Barkhordari

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Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg among different ethnic groups of Iran. This systematic review study reviews the results of different studies which examined 2000 Iranian patients with HBV infection from 2010 to 2015. Among 2000 patients in this study, 16.75 % were containing anti-HDV antibody and HDV RNA was found in just 1.75% cases. All of positive cases also have genotype I.

Keywords: HDV, genotype, epidemiology, distribution

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221 Bulking Rate of Cassava Genotypes and Their Root Yield Relationship at Guinea Savannah and Forest Transition Agroecological Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Olusegun D. Badewa, E. K. Tsado, A. S. Gana, K. D. Tolorunse, R. U. Okechukwu, P. Iluebbey, S. Ibrahim

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Farmers are faced with varying production challenges ranging from unstable weather due to climate change, low yield, malnutrition, cattle invasion, and bush fires that have always affected their livelihood. Research effort must therefore be centered on improving farmers’ livelihood, nutrition, and health by providing early bulking biofortified cassava varieties that could be harvested earlier with reasonable root yield and thereby preventing long stay of the crop on their farmland. This study evaluated cassava genotypes at different harvesting months of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after planting in order to evaluate their bulking rate at different agroecology of Mokwa and Ubiaja. Data were collected on fresh storage root yield, Harvest index, and Dry matter content. It was shown from the study that traits FSRY, HI, and DM were significant for genotype and months after planting and variable among the genotype while location had no effect on the yield traits. Early bulking genotypes were not high yielding and showed discontinuity at some point across the months. The retrogression in yield performance across months had no effect on the highest yielding. Also, for all the genotypes and across evaluated months, FSRY reduces at 9 MAP due to a reduction in dry matter content during the same month, and the best performing genotype was the genotype IBA90581, followed by IBA120036, IBA130896, and IBA980581 while the least performing was genotype IBA130818.

Keywords: early bulking, dry mater, harvest index, high yielding, root yield

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220 Macronutrient Accumulation and Partitioning for Six Wheat Genotypes Grown at Contrasting Nitrogen Supply

Authors: E. Chakwizira, D. J. Moot, M. Andrews, E. Teixeira

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Partitioning of macro-nutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant organs have not been extensively studied, particularly for modern genotypes grown under contrasting N supply. Nutrient accumulation and partitioning of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (P, K, Ca, Mg and S) were determined for six wheat genotypes [12S2-2021, 12S3-3019, 13S3-2026, Discovery, Duchess and Reliance] grown with (200 kg/ha) or without (0 kg/ha) nitrogen (N), in a fully irrigated field experiment in 2017-18 season at Lincoln, New Zealand. Data were collected at three growth stages (GS): tillering (GS21), anthesis (GS60) and grain maturity (GS92). Grain yield varied with both N and genotype; from 6-7.5 t/ha for the 0 kg N/ha crops and 8.1-9.3 t/ha for the 200 kg N/ha treatments. Plant nutrient uptake at maturity responded to both N supply and genotype for all nutrients, except S which did not differ among the genotypes. For example, total P uptake averaged 13.5 (12.4-14.3) kg/ha for the 0 kg N/ha treatments and 17.8 (15.1-19.7) kg/ha when 200 kg N/ha was applied. Similarly, K uptake increased from an average of 23 (21.6-25.3) for the 0 kg N/ha treatments to 34.3 (32.4-40.8) kg/ha when 200 kg N/ha was applied. Similar trends were observed for Ca and Mg. The S content only responded to N supply but not to genotype, increasing from 7.9 kg/ha for the 0 kg N treatments to 12.8 kg/ha when 200 kg N was applied. Relative nutrient content at anthesis compared with those at maturity were 30% for P, 100% for both K and Ca and 34% of Mg. Sulphur content at anthesis decreased 29% with N supply and was highest for genotypes 12S2-2021 compared with the other five genotype. At grain maturity, the ratio of nutrients in grain to total plant nutrient, defined as the nutrient harvest index (NHI) varied with both N supply and genotype. Averaged across treatments, the NHI was 0.96 for P, 0.53 for K, 0.58 for Ca, 0.90 for Mg and 0.85 for S. These results suggest that Ca and K should be provided earlier in the season as there is limited or no uptake after anthesis. These results also show that Ca and K are important for structural functions, while P, Mg and S are remobilised to the grains and become important for quality.

Keywords: anthesis, genotype, nutrient harvests index, NHI, Triticum aestivum L.

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219 Polymorphism of Candidate Genes for Meat Production in Lori Sheep

Authors: Shahram Nanekarania, Majid Goodarzia

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Calpastatin and callipyge have been known as one of the candidate genes in meat quality and quantity. Calpastatin gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep and callipyge gene has been localized in the telomeric region on ovine chromosome 18. The objective of this study was identification of calpastatin and callipyge genes polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Lori sheep kept in Iran. Blood samples were taken from 120 Lori sheep breed and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. Polymorphism was identified using the PCR-RFLP technique. The PCR products were digested with MspI and FaqI restriction enzymes for calpastatin gene and callipyge gene, respectively. In this population, three patterns were observed and AA, AB, BB genotype have been identified with the 0.32, 0.63, 0.05 frequencies for calpastatin gene. The results obtained for the callipyge gene revealed that only the wild-type allele A was observed, indicating that only genotype AA was present in the population under consideration.

Keywords: polymorphism, calpastatin, callipyge, PCR-RFLP, Lori sheep

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218 TNF-α, TNF-β and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism and Association with Oral Lichen Planus Risk in Saudi Patients

Authors: Maha Ali Al-Mohaya, Lubna Majed Al-Otaibi, Ebtissam Nassir Al-Bakr, Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

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Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease. Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of OLP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF-β and interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Material and Methods: Forty-two unrelated patients with OLP and 211 healthy volunteers were genotyped for TNF-α (-308 G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), IL-10 (-1082G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T), and IL-10 (-592C/A) polymorphisms. Results: The frequencies of allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) were significantly higher while allele G and GG genotypes were lower in OLP patients as compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The frequency of GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) was significantly higher in patients than in controls while the AA genotype was completely absent in OLP patients. These results indicated that allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) as well as the GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms are associated with OLP risk. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of -1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms in IL-10 gene did not differ significantly between OLP patients and controls (P > 0.05). However, haplotype ATA extracted from 1082G/A, -819C/T, -592C/A polymorphisms of IL-10 were more prevalent in OLP patients when compared to controls indicating its possible association with OLP susceptibility. Conclusion: It is concluded that TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G) and IL-10 (-1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A) polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility of OLP, thus giving additional support for the genetic basis of this disease. Further studies are required using a larger sample size to confirm this association and determine the prognostic values of these findings.

Keywords: oral lichen planus, cytokines, polymorphism, genetic

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217 A Diagnostic Accuracy Study: Comparison of Two Different Molecular-Based Tests (Genotype HelicoDR and Seeplex Clar-H. pylori ACE Detection), in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

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Aim: The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of two different molecular-based tests (GenoType® HelicoDR ve Seeplex® H. pylori-ClaR- ACE Detection) in detection presence of the H. pylori from gastric biopsy specimens. In addition to this also was aimed to determine resistance ratios of H. pylori strains against to clarytromycine and quinolone isolated from gastric biopsy material cultures by using both the genotypic (GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection) and phenotypic (gradient strip, E-test) methods. Material and methods: A total of 266 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-June 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in all the biopsy samples was investigated by five differnt dignostic methods together: culture (C) (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (H) (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), rapid urease test (RUT) (CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA), and two different molecular tests; GenoType® HelicoDR, Hain, Germany, based on DNA strip assay, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, Seegene, South Korea, based on multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates against clarithromycin and levofloxacin was determined by GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, and gradient strip (E-test, bioMerieux, France) methods. Culture positivity alone or positivities of both histology and RUT together was accepted as the gold standard for H. pylori positivity. Sensitivity and specificity rates of two molecular methods used in the study were calculated by taking the two gold standards previously mentioned. Results: A total of 266 patients between 16-83 years old who 144 (54.1 %) were female, 122 (45.9 %) were male were included in the study. 144 patients were found as culture positive, and 157 were H and RUT were positive together. 179 patients were found as positive with GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection together. Sensitivity and specificity rates of studied five different methods were found as follows: C were 80.9 % and 84.4 %, H + RUT were 88.2 % and 75.4 %, GenoType® HelicoDR were 100 % and 71.3 %, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection were, 100 % and 71.3 %. A strong correlation was found between C and H+RUT, C and GenoType® HelicoDR, and C and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection (r:0.644 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, respectively). Of all the isolated 144 H. pylori strains 24 (16.6 %) were detected as resistant to claritromycine, and 18 (12.5 %) were levofloxacin. Genotypic claritromycine resistance was detected only in 15 cases with GenoType® HelicoDR, and 6 cases with Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection. Conclusion: In our study, it was concluded that; GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection was found as the most sensitive diagnostic methods when comparing all the investigated other ones (C, H, and RUT).

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, antimicrobial resistance

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216 ACTN3 Genotype Association with Motoric Performance of Roma Children

Authors: J. Bernasovska, I. Boronova, J. Poracova, M. Mydlarova Blascakova, V. Szabadosova, P. Ruzbarsky, E. Petrejcikova, I. Bernasovsky

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of the molecular genetics analysis in sports research, with special emphasis to use genetic information in diagnosing of motoric predispositions in Roma boys from East Slovakia. The ability and move are the basic characteristics of all living organisms. The phenotypes are influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic tests differ in principle from the traditional motoric tests, because the DNA of an individual does not change during life. The aim of the presented study was to examine motion abilities and to determine the frequency of ACTN3 (R577X) gene in Roma children. Genotype data were obtained from 138 Roma and 155 Slovak boys from 7 to 15 years old. Children were investigated on physical performance level in association with their genotype. Biological material for genetic analyses comprised samples of buccal swabs. Genotypes were determined using Real Time High resolution melting PCR method (Rotor-Gene 6000 Corbett and Light Cycler 480 Roche). The software allows creating reports of any analysis, where information of the specific analysis, normalized and differential graphs and many information of the samples are shown. Roma children of analyzed group legged to non-Romany children at the same age in all the compared tests. The % distribution of R and X alleles in Roma children was different from controls. The frequency of XX genotype was 9.26%, RX 46.33% and RR was 44.41%. The frequency of XX genotype was 9.26% which is comparable to a frequency of an Indian population. Data were analyzed with the ANOVA test.

Keywords: ACTN3 gene, R577X polymorphism, Roma children, sport performance, Slovakia

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215 The Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Xbai Gg Genotype and Severe Preeclampsia

Authors: Saeedeh Salimi, Farzaneh Farajian- Mashhadi, Ehsan Tabatabaei, Mahnaz Shahrakipoor, Minoo Yaghmaei, Mojgan Mokhtari

Abstract:

Purpose: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays an essential role in the adaptation of increased uterine blood flow during gestation. Therefore ERα gene could be a possible candidate for preeclampsia(PE) susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the association of the ERα gene polymorphisms and PE in an Iranian population. Methods: One hundred ninety-two pregnant women with PE and 186 normotensive women were genotyped for ERα gene (PvuII and XbaI) polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Results: The frequency of alleles and genotypes of ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were not different between PE and normotensive control women. However, higher frequency of GG genotype was observed in women with severe PE compared to mild PE (OR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3]; P = 0.02) and in severe PE compared to normotensive women [OR= 1.8(1.1-3), P=0.02] after adjusting for age, ethnicity and primiparity. Conclusions: The GG genotype of ERα XbaI polymorphism could be a genetic risk factor for PE predisposition.

Keywords: estrogen receptor-α, polymorphism, gene, preeclampsia

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
214 Various Body Measurements of Hair, Boer x Hair F1 Crossbred Kids and Effects of Some Environmental Factors on These Traits

Authors: M. Bolacalı, Y. Öztürk, O. Yılmaz, M. Küçük, M. A. Karslı

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The aim of the study was to determine various body measurements from the birth to the 30-day age of Boer x Hair goats F1 crossbred kids and pure Hair goat kids raised in Van in Eastern Anatolia region, and reveal factors such as the effects of year, dame body weight, genotype, dame age, birth type and sex on this parameter. 49 kids born in 2012 and 76 kids born in 2014 were utilized in the study. In the statistical analysis of various body measurements data was performed using the General Lineer Model procedure in SPSS software. Duncan's multiple range test was used for multiple comparisons. Boer x Hair goats F1 crossbred kids and pure Hair goat kids from various body measurements cidago height, body length, chest length, chest depth, chest circumference, circumference of leg, cannon bone circumference, chest width were determinated in general respectively 29.90 and 27.88 cm; 29.49 and 27.93 cm; 17.28 and 16.68 cm; 13.34 and 12.82 cm; 31.74 and 29.85 cm; 28.43 and 23.95 cm; 5.41 and 5.15 cm; 8.71 and 7.63 cm at birth, respectively; 35.01 and 32.98 cm; 35.20 and 33.30 cm; 18.82 and 18.17 cm; 15.64 and 14.83 cm; 39.08 and 37.30 cm; 34.29 and 29.25 cm; 5.80 and 5.42 cm; 9.87 and 8.85 cm at 30 days age, respectively. Among factors affecting cidago height in this study, the effect of dame body weight and sex were not significant, but genotype, dame age and birth type were significant (P < 0,05 and P < 0,01) at birth; dame body weight effect of the cidago height was not significant, but the effect of genotype, birth type, of dame age and sex were significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P<0.001) at 30-day age. The effect of genotype and sex of body length were not significant, but dam age, dame body weight and birth type were significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P<0.001, respectively) at birth; the effect of sex to body length was not significant, but genotype, dame age, dame body weight and birth type were significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) at 30-day age. While circumference of leg was insignificant the effect of dame age and sex, genotype, dame body weight and type of the birth were significant (P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) at birth; the circumstance of leg at 30-day age was found to be important the effect of examined other factors except for sex (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). The obtained results, when considered in terms of a variety of body sizes, from birth to 30-day age growth period, showed that the kids of Boer x Hair Goat F1 hybrids have higher values than the kids of Hair Goats.

Keywords: Boer x hair goat F1 crossbred, hair goat, body measurements, cidago height

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213 Mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA Genes: The Association with Resistance to Rifampicin and Isoniazid in Egyptian Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates

Authors: Ayman K. El Essawy, Amal M. Hosny, Hala M. Abu Shady

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The rapid detection of TB and drug resistance, both optimizes treatment and improves outcomes. In the current study, respiratory specimens were collected from 155 patients. Conventional susceptibility testing and MIC determination were performed for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Genotype MTBDRplus assay, which is a molecular genetic assay based on the DNA-STRIP technology and specific gene sequencing with primers for rpoB, KatG, and mab-inhA genes were used to detect mutations associated with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid. In comparison to other categories, most of rifampicin resistant (61.5%) and isoniazid resistant isolates (47.1%) were from patients relapsed in treatment. The genotypic profile (using Genotype MTBDRplus assay) of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates showed missing of katG wild type 1 (WT1) band and appearance of mutation band katG MUT2. For isoniazid mono-resistant isolates, 80% showed katG MUT1, 20% showed katG MUT1, and inhA MUT1, 20% showed only inhA MUT1. Accordingly, 100% of isoniazid resistant strains were detected by this assay. Out of 17 resistant strains, 16 had mutation bands for katG distinguished high resistance to isoniazid. The assay could clearly detect rifampicin resistance among 66.7% of MDR isolates that showed mutation band rpoB MUT3 while 33.3% of them were considered as unknown. One mono-resistant rifampicin isolate did not show rifampicin mutation bands by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, but it showed an unexpected mutation in Codon 531 of rpoB by DNA sequence analysis. Rifampicin resistance in this strain could be associated with a mutation in codon 531 of rpoB (based on molecular sequencing), and Genotype MTBDRplus assay could not detect the associated mutation. If the results of Genotype MTBDRplus assay and sequencing were combined, this strain shows hetero-resistance pattern. Gene sequencing of eight selected isolates, previously tested by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, could detect resistance mutations mainly in codon 315 (katG gene), position -15 in inhA promotes gene for isoniazid resistance and codon 531 (rpoB gene) for rifampicin resistance. Genotyping techniques allow distinguishing between recurrent cases of reinfection or reactivation and supports epidemiological studies.

Keywords: M. tuberculosis, rpoB, KatG, inhA, genotype MTBDRplus

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212 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensinogen (AGT) Gene Variants in Pakistani Patients of Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Rozeena Shaikh, Syed M Shahid, Jamil Ahmad, Qaisar Mansoor, Muhammad Ismail, Abid Azhar

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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide. In most high-income countries as well as middle-income and low- income countries. DM is among the top causes of deaths. DM may lead to many vascular complications like hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and foot. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) characterized by persistent albuminuria is a leading cause of end stage renal failure (ESRF). Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is implicated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding the components of reninangiotensin- aldosteron system (RAAS) which include angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-II receptor and particularly angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene. Method: Study subjects include 110 control, 110 patients with DM without hypertension, 110 patients with DM with hypertension and 110 patients with DN. Blood samples were collected for Biochemical analysis and PCR and sequencing for the specific region of both genes. Results: The frequency of DD genotype and D allele of ACE (I/D) was significantly (p<0.05) high in DM normotensive, DM hypertensive and DN patients when compared to control. The ACE G2350A genotypes and allele frequencies were significantly different (p<0.05) in DM hypertensive patients as compared to control and DN, while no difference was observed between DM normotensive and DN when compared to control. The genotypes and alleles of AGT (M268T) polymorphism were significantly different (p<0.05) in DM normotensive, DM hypertensive and DN when compared to control. Conclusion: The DD genotype and D allele of ACE (I/D), GG genotype and G allele of ACE (G2350A) and the TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) polymorphism have shown a significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies between controls and patients.

Keywords: genetic variations, ACE, AGT, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, Pakistan

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211 Qualitative Detection of HCV and GBV-C Co-infection in Cirrhotic Patients Using a SYBR Green Multiplex Real Time RT-PCR Technique

Authors: Shahzamani Kiana, Esmaeil Lashgarian Hamed, Merat Shahin

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HCV and GBV-C belong to the Flaviviridae family of viruses and GBV-C is the closest virus to HCV genetically. Accumulative research is in progress all over the world to clarify clinical aspects of GBV-C. Possibility of interaction between HCV and GBV-C and also its consequence with other liver diseases are the most important clinical aspects which encourage researchers to develop a technique for simultaneous detection of these viruses. In this study a SYBR Green multiplex real time RT-PCR technique as a new economical and sensitive method was optimized for simultaneous detection of HCV/GBV-C in HCV positive plasma samples. After designing and selection of two pairs of specific primers for HCV and GBV-C, SYBR Green Real time RT-PCR technique optimization was performed separately for each virus. Establishment of multiplex PCR was the next step. Finally our technique was performed on positive and negative plasma samples. 89 cirrhotic HCV positive plasma samples (29 of genotype 3 a and 27 of genotype 1a) were collected from patients before receiving treatment. 14% of genotype 3a and 17.1% of genotype 1a showed HCV/GBV-C co-infection. As a result, 13.48% of 89 samples had HCV/GBV-C co-infection that was compatible with other results from all over the world. Data showed no apparent influence of HGV co-infection on the either clinical or virological aspect of HCV infection. Furthermore, with application of multiplex Real time RT-PCR technique, more time and cost could be saved in clinical-research settings.

Keywords: HCV, GBV-C, cirrhotic patients, multiplex real time RT- PCR

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210 Genetic Characterization of Acanthamoeba Isolates from Amoebic Keratitis Patients

Authors: Sumeeta Khurana, Kirti Megha, Amit Gupta, Rakesh Sehgal

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Background: Amoebic keratitis is a painful vision threatening infection caused by a free living pathogenic amoeba Acanthamoeba. It can be misdiagnosed and very difficult to treat if not suspected early. The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba genotypes causing infection in our geographical area is not yet known to the best of our knowledge. Objective: To characterize Acanthamoeba isolates from amoebic keratitis patients. Methods: A total of 19 isolates obtained from patients with amoebic keratitis presenting to the Advanced Eye Centre at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, a tertiary care centre of North India over a period of last 10 years were included. Their corneal scrapings, lens solution and lens case (in case of lens wearer) were collected for microscopic examination, culture and molecular diagnosis. All the isolates were maintained in the Non Nutrient agar culture medium overlaid with E.coli and 13 strains were axenised and maintained in modified Peptone Yeast Dextrose Agar. Identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes was based on amplification of diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18srRNA gene followed by sequencing. Nucleotide similarity search was performed by BLAST search of sequenced amplicons in GenBank database (http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast). Multiple Sequence alignments were determined by using CLUSTAL X. Results: Nine out of 19 Acanthamoeba isolates were found to belong to Genotype T4 followed by 6 isolates of genotype T11, 3 T5 and 1 T3 genotype. Conclusion: T4 is the predominant Acanthamoeba genotype in our geographical area. Further studies should focus on differences in pathogenicity of these genotypes and their clinical significance.

Keywords: Acanthamoeba, free living amoeba, keratitis, genotype, ocular

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209 Genotyping of G/P No Typable Group a Rotavirus Strains Revealed G2 and G9 Genotype Circulations in Moroccan Children Fully Vaccinated with Rotarix™

Authors: H. Boulahyaoui, S. Alaoui Amine, C. Loutfi, H. El Annaz, N. Touil, El M. El Fahim, S. Mrani

Abstract:

Three Moroccan children fully vaccinated with Rotarix™ have been hospitalized for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE) in the pediatric division of the Farabi Hospital, Oujda. Rotavirus G/P genotypes could not be typed because of their delayed crossing threshold (Ct) resolute with a group A rotavirus (RVA) real time RT-PCR. These strains were adapted to cell culture. All viruses replicated and caused extensive cytopathic effects after four or five passages in MA104 cell lines. Significant improvements have been obtained in the amount of viral particles. Each virus multiplied to a high titer (7.5 TCID50/ml). VP7 and VP4 partial gene sequencing revealed distinct genotypes compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Two strains were of G2P[4] genotype whereas the third was G9P[8] genotype. Virus isolation while labor intensive, is recommended as a second test, especially when higher sensitivity for conventional RVA genotyping RT-PCR is needed. VP7 antigenic similarities between these strains and Rotarix were determined.

Keywords: esacpe-vaccine, Morocco, Rotarix, G2P[4], G9P[8]

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208 Polymorphisms of STAT5A and DGAT1 Genes and Their Associations with Milk Trait in Egyptian Goats

Authors: Othman Elmahdy Othman

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The objectives of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the STAT5A using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and DGAT1 using Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism genes among three Egyptian goat breeds (Barki, Zaraibi, and Damascus) as well as investigate the effect of their genotypes on milk composition traits of Zaraibi goats. One hundred and fifty blood samples were collected for DNA extraction, 60 from Zaraibi, 40 from Damascus and 50 from Barki breeds. Fat, protein and lactose percentages were determined in Zaraibi goat milk using an automatic milk analyzer. Two genotypes, CC and CT (for STAT5A) and C-C- and C-C+ (for DGAT1), were identified in the three Egyptian goat breeds with different frequencies. The associations between these genotypes and milk fat, protein and lactose were determined in Zaraibi breed. The results showed that the STAT5A genotypes had significant effects on milk yield, protein, fat and lactose with the superiority of CT genotype over CC. Regarding DGAT1 polymorphism, the result showed the only association between it with milk fat where the animals with C-C+ genotype had greater milk fat than animals possess C-C- genotype. The association of combined genotypes with milk trait declared that the does with heterozygous genotypes for both genes are preferred than does with homozygous genotypes where the animals with CTC-C+ have more milk yield, fat and protein than those with CCC-C- genotype. In conclusion, the result showed that C/T and C-/C+ SNPs of STAT5A and DGAT1 genes respectively may be useful markers for assisted selection programs to improve goat milk composition

Keywords: DGAT1, genetic polymorphism, milk trait, STAT5A

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207 Investigation p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and miR-146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Breast Cancer

Authors: Marjan Moradi Fard, Hossein Rassi, Masoud Houshmand

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Aim: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting the morbidity and mortality of Iranian women. This disease is a result of collective alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of several cancers; therefore, a research was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 45 archival breast cancer samples from khatam hospital and 40 healthy samples were collected. Verification of each cancer reported in a relative was sought through the pathology reports of the hospital records. Then, DNA extracted from all samples by standard methods and p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes were analyzed using multiplex PCR. The tubules, mitotic activity, necrosis, polymorphism and grade of breast cancer were staged by Nottingham histological grading and immunohistochemical staining of the sections from the paraffin wax embedded tissues for the expression of ER, PR and p53 was carried out using a standard method. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer in the study population. In this study, we established that tumors of p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype exhibited higher mitotic activity, higher polymorphism, lower necrosis, lower tubules, higher ER- and PR-negatives and lower TP53-positives than the other genotypes. Conclusion: The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype may effect breast cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with clinical parameters can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of breast cancers.

Keywords: breast cancer, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, genotypes

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
206 Human Intelligence: A Corollary of Genotype and Habitat

Authors: Tripureshwari Paul

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We are born with nature molded by nurture. Studies have confirmed the productive role of genes and environment on an individual. This study examines the relationship of parental genotype values on the intellectual ability of their children. Keeping in mind that academic achievement-learning capacity of student through normative education, a function of exposure to family environment and pathology with intellectual quotient of the individual. Purposive sampling was used and children between ages 11 and 12 years and their respective parents were involved. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM), Family Pathology Scale (FPS) and Family Environment Scale (FES) were administered. The results found significant relationship of Offspring IQ to Parental IQ, maternal IQ demonstrating higher values of correlation. Female IQ was significant to maternal IQ and male IQ was significant to paternal IQ. With Academic Achievement not significantly correlated to IQ, it was determined that Competitive framework, freedom to expression and Recreational Orientation in family affect a child’s intellectual performance.

Keywords: academic achievement, environment, family environment, family pathology, genotype, intelligence quotient, maternal IQ, paternal IQ

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205 Antioxidant Defence Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Photosynthetic Variables in Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Soybean Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan

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We have investigated the effects of salt stress on the stability of plant growth, water relations, photosynthetic variables, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant (PK-327) and salt-sensitive (PK-471) soybean genotypes. Ten-day-old salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean plants were subjected to 0-150 mM NaCl for 15 days. While the growth of genotype PK-327 was not affected significantly up to 75 mM NaCl treatment, the growth of the PK-471 was reduced significantly beyond 25 mM NaCl treatments. Salt stress caused severe impairments in photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, being more pronounced in salt-sensitive genotype than in salt-tolerant.The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were higher in PK-327 than in PK-471 at various levels of salt treatments.It is concluded that tolerance capacity of PK-327 against salinity can be associated with the ability of this genotype in keeping an active photosynthetic system and strong antioxidant defence system.

Keywords: salt stress, soybean, antioxidant, photosynthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 257