Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Dirofilaria repens

10 Zoonotic Dirofilaria Repens: Geographic Spread and New Avenues for Control

Authors: Francesco La Torre, Angela Di Cesare, Donato Traversa

Abstract:

The mosquito-transmitted nematode Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous filariosis in dogs, other animals and humans. Adults and circulating microfilariae may cause different forms of skin conditions, and various allergic reactions. The infection is distributed in several countries and spreading in several areas of Europe. The control of D. repens is pivotal to reduce the transmission in dogs and to minimize the risk of infection in humans, but only few information is available for the chemoprevention of subcutaneous filariosis of dogs. A recent clinical field study showed the efficacy and safety of a monthly administration of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of D. repens infection in dogs. Most recent and focused insights into epidemiology and control of zoonotic canine subcutaneous filariosis are here discussed.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, epidemiology, zoonosis, control

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9 Molecular Characterization of Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Karnataka, India

Authors: D. S. Malatesh, K. J. Ananda, C. Ansar Kamran, K. Ganesh Udupa

Abstract:

Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode of dogs and other carnivores and accidentally affects humans. D. repens is reported in many countries, including India. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is a zoonotic disease, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, with higher prevalence reported in dogs from Sri Lanka (30-60%), Iran (61%) and Italy (21-25%). Dirofilariasis in dogs was diagnosed by detection of microfilariae in blood. Identification of different Dirofilaria species was done by using molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though many researchers reported molecular evidence of D. repens across India, to our best knowledge there is no data available on molecular diagnosis of D. repens in dogs and its zoonotic implication in Karnataka state a southern state in India. The aim of the present study was to identify the Dirofilaria species occurring in dogs from Karnataka, India. Out of 310 samples screened for the presence of microfilariae using traditional diagnostic methods, 99 (31.93%) were positive for the presence of microfilariae. Based on the morphometry, the microfilariae were identified as D. repens. For confirmation of species, the samples were subjected to PCR using pan filarial primers (DIDR-F1, DIDR-R1) for amplification of internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. The PCR product of 484 base pairs on agarose gel was indicative of D. repens. Hence, a single PCR reaction using pan filarial primers can be used to differentiate filarial species found in dogs. The present study confirms that dirofilarial species occurring in dogs from Karnataka is D. repens and further sequencing studies are needed for genotypic characterization of D. repens.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, molecular characterization, polymerase chain reaction, Karnataka, India

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8 Current Status of Mosquitoes Vector Research and Control in Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Hassan Vatandoost

Abstract:

Malaria, Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm), and D. repens (dirofilariasis), which are transmitted by mosquitoes, have been reported in Iran. The Iranian mosquito fauna includes seven genera, 65 species, and three subspecies. Aedes albopictus has been reported since. West Nile, Sindbis, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and the nematode Setaria (setariasis) has been reported in the country but there are no information about their vectors in Iran. Iran is malaria elimination phase. Insecticides residual spraying (IRS), distributed of insecticides long lasting treated nets (ITNs), fogging, release of larvivours fishes and Bacillus thuringiensis, chemical larviciding, as well as case finding and manipulation and modification of breeding places carried out thought the IVM program in the country. Prolonged exposure to insecticides over several generations of the vectors, develop resistance, a capacity to survive contact with insecticides. However, use of insecticides in agriculture has often been implicated as contributing to resistance in mosquito’s vectors. Resistance of mosquitoes to some insecticides has been documented just within a few years after the insecticides were introduced. Some enzymes such as monooxygenases, esterases and glutathione S-transferases have been considered as a reason for resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. In conclusion, regarding to documented resistance and tolerance of mosquitoes vectors to some insecticides, resistance management is suggested by using new insecticide with novel mode of action.

Keywords: control, Iran, resistance, vector

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7 Allelopathic Effect of Duranta Repens on Salinity-Stressed Solanum Lycopersicum Seedlings

Authors: Olusola Nafisat Omoniyi

Abstract:

Aqueous extract of Duranta repens leaves was investigated for its allelopathic effect on Solanum lycopersicum Seedlings germinated and grown under salinity condition. The study was carried out using both laboratory petri dish and pot assays to simulate the plant’s natural environmental conditions. The experiment consisted of 5 groups (1-5), each containing 5 replicates (of 10 seeds). Group 1 was treated with distilled water; Group 2 was treated with 5 mM NaCl; Group 3 was treated with the Extract, Group 4 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (2:1 v/v), and Group 5 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (1:2 v/v). The results showed that treatment with NaCl caused significant reductions in germination, growth parameters (plumule and radicle lengths), and chlorophyll concentration of S. lycopersicum seedlings when compared to those treated with D. rupens aqueous leaf extract. Salinity also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and proline concentrations and lowered the activity of superoxide dismutase. However, in the presence of the extract, the adverse effects of the NaCl were attenuated, implying that the extract improved tolerance of S. lycopersicum seedlings. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that the extract is very important in the optimal growth of the plant in saline soil, which has become useful for the management of soil salinity problems.

Keywords: agriculture, allelopathic, salinity, soil, tomato, production, photosynthesis

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6 Retrospective Evaluation of Vector-borne Infections in Cats Living in Germany (2012-2019)

Authors: I. Schäfer, B. Kohn, M. Volkmann, E. Müller

Abstract:

Introduction: Blood-feeding arthropods transmit parasitic, bacterial, or viral pathogens to domestic animals and wildlife. Vector-borne infections are gaining significance due to the increase of travel, import of domestic animals from abroad, and the changing climate in Europe. Aims of the study: The main objective of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of vector-borne infections in cats in which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ had been conducted. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included test results from cats for which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ established by LABOKLIN had been requested by veterinarians between April 2012 and December 2019. This profile contains direct detection methods via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Hepatozoon spp. and Dirofilaria spp. as well as indirect detection methods via immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for Ehrlichia spp. and Leishmania spp. This profile was expanded to include an IFAT for Rickettsia spp. from July 2015 onwards. The prevalence of the different vector-borne infectious agents was calculated. Results: A total of 602 cats were tested using the ‘Feline Travel Profile’. Positive test results were as follows: Rickettsia spp. IFAT 54/442 (12.2%), Ehrlichia spp. IFAT 68/602 (11.3%), Leishmania spp. IFAT 21/602 (3.5%), Hepatozoon spp. PCR 51/595 (8.6%), and Dirofilaria spp. PCR 1/595 cats (0.2%). Co-infections with more than one pathogen could be detected in 22/602 cats. Conclusions: 170/602 cats (28.2%) were tested positive for at least one vector-borne pathogen. Infections with multiple pathogens could be detected in 3.7% of the cats. The data emphasizes the importance of considering vector-borne infections as potential differential diagnoses in cats.

Keywords: arthopod-transmitted infections, feline vector-borne infections, Germany, laboratory diagnostics

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5 White Clover Trifolium repens L. Genetic Diversity and Salt Tolerance in Urban Area of Riga

Authors: Dace Grauda, Gunta Cekstere, Inta Belogrudova, Andis Karlsons, Isaak Rashal

Abstract:

Trifolium repens L. (white or Dutch clover) is a perennial herb, belongs to legume family (Leguminosae Juss.), spread extensively by stolons and seeds. The species is cultivated worldwide and was naturalized in many countries in meadows, yards, gardens, along roads and streets etc., especially in temperate regions. It is widespread also in grasslands throughout Riga, the capital of Latvia. The goal of this study was to investigate genetic structure of white clover population in Riga and to evaluate influence of different salt concentration on plants. For this purpose universal retrotranspozone based IRAP (Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism) method was used. The plant material was collected in different regions of Riga and in several urban areas of Latvia. Plant DNA was isolated from in silicogel dried leaves of using 1% CTAB (cetyltrimet-ammonium bromide) buffer DNA extraction procedure. Genetic structure of city population and wild populations were compared. Soil salinization is an important issue associated with low water resources and highly urbanized areas in aride and semi-aride climate conditions, as well as de-icing salt application to prevent ice formation on roads in winter. The T. repens variety ‘Daile’ (form giganteum), one of the often used component of urban greeneries, was studied in this investigation. Plants were grown from seeds and cultivated in the light conditions (18-25 C, 16h/8h of day/night, light intensity 3000 lx) in plastic pots (200 ml), filled with commercial neutralized (pH 5.9 ± 0.3) peat substrate with mineral nutrients. To analyse the impact of increased soil salinity treatments with gradually rising NaCl (0; 20; 40; 60; 80; 100 mM) levels were arranged. Plants were watered when necessary with deionised water to provide optimum substrate moisture 60-70%. The experiment was terminated six weeks after establishment. For analysis of mineral nutrients, dry plant material (above ground part and roots) was used. Decrease of Na content can be significant under elevated salinity till 20 mM NaCl. High NaCl concentrations in the substrate increase Na, Cl, Cu, Fe, and Mn accumulation, but reduce S, Mg, K content in the plant above ground parts. Abiotic stresses generally changes the levels of DNA metilation. Several candidate gene for salt tolerance will be analysed for DNA metilation level using Pyromark-Q24 advanced.

Keywords: DNA metilation, IRAP, soil salinization, white clover

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4 Metabolic and Phylogenetic Profiling of Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains Isolated from NZ Soils of Varying pH

Authors: Anish Shah, Steve A. Wakelin, Derrick Moot, Aurélie Laugraud, Hayley J. Ridgway

Abstract:

A mixed pasture system of ryegrass-clover is used in New Zealand, where clovers are generally inoculated with commercially available strains of rhizobia. The community of rhizobia living in the soil and the way in which they interact with the plant are affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. In general, bacterial richness and diversity in soil varies by soil pH. pH also affects cell physiology and acts as a master variable that controls the wider soil physiochemical conditions such as P availability, Al release and micronutrient availability. As such, pH can have both primary and secondary effects on soil biology and processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil pH on the genetic diversity and metabolic profile of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating clover. Soils were collected from 12 farms across New Zealand which had a pH(water) range of between 4.9 and 7.5, with four acidic (pH 4.9 – 5.5), four ‘neutral’ (5.8 – 6.1) and four alkaline (6.5 – 7.5) soils. Bacteria were recovered from nodules of Trifolium repens (white clover) and T. subterraneum (subterranean clover) grown in the soils. The strains were cultured and screened against a range of pH-amended media to demonstrate whether they were adapted to pH levels similar to their native soils. The strains which showed high relative growth at a given pH (~20% of those isolated) were selected for metabolic and taxonomic profiling. The Omnilog (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) phenotype array was used to perform assays on carbon (C) utilisation for selected strains. DNA was extracted from the strains which had differing C utilisation profiles and PCR products for both forward and reverse primers were sequenced for the following genes: 16S rRNA, recA, nodC, nodD and nifH (symbiotic).

Keywords: bacterial diversity, clover, metabolic and taxonomic profiling, pH adaptation, rhizobia

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3 Introducing Two Species of Parastagonospora (Phaeosphaeriaceae) on Grasses from Italy and Russia, Based on Morphology and Phylogeny

Authors: Ishani D. Goonasekara, Erio Camporesi, Timur Bulgakov, Rungtiwa Phookamsak, Kevin D. Hyde

Abstract:

Phaeosphaeriaceae comprises a large number of species occurring mainly on grasses and cereal crops as endophytes, saprobes and especially pathogens. Parastagonospora is an important genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae that includes pathogens causing leaf and glume blotch on cereal crops. Currently, there are fifteen Parastagonospora species described, including both pathogens and saprobes. In this study, one sexual morph species and an asexual morph species, occurring as saprobes on members of Poaceae are introduced based on morphology and a combined molecular analysis of the LSU, SSU, ITS, and RPB2 gene sequence data. The sexual morph species Parastagonospora elymi was isolated from a Russian sample of Elymus repens, a grass commonly known as couch grass, and important for grazing animals, as a weed and used in traditional Austrian medicine. P. elymi is similar to the sexual morph of P. avenae in having cylindrical asci, bearing 8, overlapping biseriate, fusiform ascospores but can be distinguished by its subglobose to conical shaped, wider ascomata. In addition, no sheath was observed surrounding the ascospores. The asexual morph species was isolated from a specimen from Italy, on Dactylis glomerata, a commonly found grass distributed in temperate regions. It is introduced as Parastagonospora macrouniseptata, a coelomycete, and bears a close resemblance to P. allouniseptata and P. uniseptata in having globose to subglobose, pycnidial conidiomata and hyaline, cylindrical, 1-septate conidia. However, the new species could be distinguished in having much larger conidiomata. In the phylogenetic analysis which consisted of a maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis P. elymi showed low bootstrap support, but well segregated from other strains within the Parastagonospora clade. P. neoallouniseptata formed a sister clade with P. allouniseptata with high statistical support.

Keywords: dothideomycetes, multi-gene analysis, Poaceae, saprobes, taxonomy

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2 Impact of Water Courses Lining on Water Quality and Distribution of Aquatic Vegetations in Two Egyptian Governorates

Authors: Nahed M. M. Ismail, Bayoumy B. Mostafa, Ahmed Abdel-Kader, Khalil M. El-Said, Asmaa Abdel-Motleb, Hoda M. Abu Taleb

Abstract:

This study was carried out in lined and unlined watercourses in Beheira and Giza governorates to investigate the effect of water canals lining on water quality and aquatic vegetations. Samples of water and aquatic plants were collected from the examining sites during four seasons in two successive years. The main ecological parameters were recorded and water quality was measured. Results showed that the mean value of water conductivity and total dissolved salts in lined sites was significantly lower than those of unlined ones (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). In Beheira, the dissolved oxygen concentrations during autumn and winter were higher in lined sites (3.93±1.3 and 9.6±1.1 ppm, respectively) than those of unlined ones (the same values of 1.2±0.6 ppm). However, it represented by lower values of 5.77±6.05 and 4.9±1.8 ppm in lined watercourses in spring and summer, respectively, comparing with those in unlined ones (14.05±5.59 and 5.83±0.8 ppm, respectively). Generally, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cd were higher in both lined and unlined sites during summer than the other seasons. However, Zn and Fe were higher in lined sites (0.78±0.37 and 17.4±4.3 ppb, respectively) during summer than that of unlined ones (0.4±0.1 and 10.95±1.93 ppb, respectively). Cu was absent during summer in lined and unlined sites and only in unlined ones during spring. Regarding to Giza sites, Cu and Pb were absent in both lined and unlined sites during summer and only in unlined ones during spring. Whereas, Fe recorded higher values in autumn in both lined (8.8±20.1 ppb) and unlined sites (15.16±3 ppb) than the other seasons. Present survey study revealed that 13 species of aquatic plants were collected from lined and unlined sites in Beheira and Giza governorates. Eichhornia crassipes, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Potamogeton sp. were the only plant species infested the examined sites during autumn and winter in Beheira. In autumn C. demersum was the only plant found in lined sites represented by highly lower significant percentage (12.5% of the all examined sites) compared to the unlined sites (50%). E. crassipes was completely absent in the lined sites during the two seasons. In spring, there is only 3 plant species in lined sites compared to 6 ones in unlined. Also, in summer, there is only 2 species in lined sites comparing with 5 in unlined. The percentage of occurrence and density of these plants was highly significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.001) higher in unlined sites compared to the lined ones during all seasons. A diversity of plant species, E. crassipes, C. demersum, Jussias repens, Lemma giba, and Polygonum serr were the most abundant in many examined sites during all seasons in Giza. In summer, the percentage of sites containing the two plants E. crassipes (83.3%) and C. demersum (50%) was highly significant (p < 0.001) higher in unlined sites compared to the lined ones (50% and 0.0%, respectively). It concluded from the results that watercourses lining may play a significant role in preserving water with a good quality and reduces the distribution of aquatic vegetation which rendered the current of water.

Keywords: aquatic plants, lining of watercourses, physicochemical parameters, water quality

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1 The Application of Whole-Cell Luminescent Biosensors for Assessing Bactericidal Properties of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Yuliya Y. Gavrichenko

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The increasing bacterial resistance to almost all the available antibiotics has encouraged scientists to search for alternative sources of antibacterial agents. Nowadays, it is known that many plant secondary metabolites have diverse biological activity. These compounds can be potentially active against human bacterial and viral infections. Extended research has been carried out to explore the use of the luminescent bacterial test as a rapid, accurate and inexpensive method to assess the antibacterial properties and to predict the biological activity spectra for plant origin substances. Method: Botanical material of fifteen species was collected from their natural and cultural habitats on the Crimean peninsula. The aqueous extracts of following plants were tested: Robinia pseudoacacia L., Sideritis comosa, Cotinus coggygria Scop., Thymus serpyllum L., Juglans regia L., Securigera varia L., Achillea millefolium L., Phlomis taurica, Corylus avellana L., Sambucus nigra L., Helichrysum arenarium L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Elytrigia repens L., Echium vulgare L., Conium maculatum L. The test was carried out using luminous strains of marine bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, which was isolated from the Sea of Azov as well as four Escherichia coli MG1655 recombinant strains harbouring Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE genes. Results: The bactericidal capacity of plant extracts showed significant differences in the study. Cotinus coggygria, Phlomis taurica, Juglans regia L. proved to be the most toxic to P. leiognathi. (EC50 = 0.33 g dried plant/l). Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Sideritis comosa and Helichrysum arenarium L. had moderate inhibitory effects (EC50 = 3.3 g dried plant/l). The rest of the aqueous extracts have decreased the luminescence of no more than 50% at the lowest concentration (16.5 g dried plant/l). Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against constitutively luminescent E. coli MG1655 (pXen7-lux) strain was observed at approximately the same level as for P. leiognathi. Cotinus coggygria and Conium maculatum L. extracts have increased light emission in the mutant E. coli MG1655 (pFabA-lux) strain which is associated with cell membranes damage. Sideritis comosa, Phlomis taurica, Juglans regia induced SOS response in E. coli (pColD-lux) strain. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. induced protein damage response in E. coli MG1655 (pIbpA-lux) strain. Conclusion: The received results have shown that the plants’ extracts had nonspecific antimicrobial effects against both E. coli (pXen7-lux) and P. leiognathi biosensors. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and protein damage effects have been observed. In general, the bioluminescent inhibition test result correlated with the traditional use of screened plants. It leads to the following conclusion that whole-cell luminescent biosensors could be the indicator of overall plants antibacterial capacity. The results of the investigation have shown a possibility of bioluminescent method in medicine and pharmacy as an approach to research the antibacterial properties of medicinal plants.

Keywords: antibacterial property, bioluminescence, medicinal plants, whole-cell biosensors

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