Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: Hind Al Harbi

56 Anti-Inflammatory Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N. Ukwuani, M. G. Abubakar, S. W. Hassan

Abstract:

Grewia crenata is used locally in the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanolic extract of G. crenata leaves was investigated using egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema model in albino rat. The extract produced a time-dependent inhibition of egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema at 30th minutes up to 150th minutes in all the groups compared to the control. Significant reduction (p<0.05) of hind paw oedema was observed 150 minutes after egg albumin injection. The percentage inhibition produced by the extract at 200 mg/kg (22.1%) was comparable to that produced by 10 mg/kg indomethacin (24.9%) at the 150th minutes of post-egg albumin injection. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. The results obtained in this study suggest that Grewia crenata can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agent and validates its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: Grewia crenata, anti-inflammatory, hind paw, oedema

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55 Functional Mortality of Anopheles stephensi, the Urban Malaria Vector as Induced by the Sublethal Exposure to Deltamethrin

Authors: P. Aarumugam, N. Krishnamoorthy, K. Gunasekaran

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The mosquitoes with loss of minimum three legs especially the hind legs have the negative impact on the survival hood of mosquitoes. Three days old unfed adult female laboratory strain was selected in each generation against sublethal dosages (0.004%, 0.005%, 0.007% and 0.01%) of deltamethrin upto 40 generations. Impregnated papers with acetone were used for control. Every fourth generation, survived mosquitoes were observed for functional mortality. Hind legs lost were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in treated than the controls up to generation 24, thereafter no significant lost. In contrary, no significant forelegs lost among exposed mosquitoes. Middle legs lost were also not significant in the exposed mosquitoes except first generation (F1). The field strain (Chennai) did not show any significant loss of legs (fore or mid or hind) compared to the control. The selection pressure on mosquito population influences strong natural selection to develop various adaptive mechanisms.

Keywords: Anopheles stephensi, deltamethrin, functional mortality, synthetic pyrethroids

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54 Influence of Dietary Inclusion of Butyric Acids, Calcium Formate, Organic Acids and Its Salts on Rabbits Productive Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Authors: V. Viliene, A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Slausgalvis, R. Gruzauskas, J. Al-Saifi

Abstract:

Animal nutritionists and scientists have searched for alternative measures to improve the production. One of such alternative is use of organic acids as feed additive in animal nutrition. The study was conducted to investigate the impact of butyric acids, calcium formate, organic acids, and its salts (BCOS) additives on rabbit’s productive performance, carcass traits and meat quality. The study was conducted with 14 Californian breed rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to two treatment groups (seven rabbits per each treatment group). The dietary treatments were 1) control diet, 2) diet supplemented with a mixture BCOS - 2 kg/t of feed. Growth performance characteristics (body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality) were evaluated. Rabbits were slaughtered; carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated. Samples loin and hind leg meat were analysed to determine carcass characteristics, pH and colour measurements, cholesterol, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in loin and hind leg meat. Differences between treatments were significant for body weight (1.30 vs. 1.36 kg; P<0.05), daily weight gain (16.60 vs. 17.85 g; P<0.05), and daily feed intake (78.25 vs. 80.58 g; P<0.05) for control and experimental group respectively for the entire experimental period (from 28–77 days old). No significant differences were found in feed conversion ratio and mortality. The feed additives insertion in the diets did not significantly influence the carcass yield or the proportions of the various carcass parts and organs. Differences between treatments were significant for pH value after 48h in loin (5.86 vs. 5.74; P<0.05), hind leg meat (6.62 vs. 6.65; P<0.05), more intense colour b* of loin (5.57 vs. 6.06; P<0.05), less intense colour a* (14.99 vs. 13.15; P<0.05) in hind leg meat. Cholesterol content in hind leg meat decreased by 17.67 mg/100g compared to control group (P<0.05). After storage for three months, MDA concentration decreased in loin and hind leg meat by 0.3 μmol/kg and 0.26 μmol/kg respectively compared to that of the control group (P<0.05). The results of this study suggest that BCOS could potentially be used in rabbit nutrition with consequent benefits on the rabbits’ productivity and nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

Keywords: butyric acids, Ca formate, meat quality, organic acids salts, rabbits, productivity

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53 The Evaluation of Superiority of Foot Local Anesthesia Method in Dairy Cows

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage

Abstract:

Background: Nowadays, bovine limb interventions, especially any claw surgeries, raises selection of the most qualified and appropriate local anesthesia technique applicable for any superficial or deep interventions of the limbs. Currently, two local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA), as well as Nerve Blocks, have been routine to apply. However, the lack of studies investigating the quality and duration as well as quantity and onset of full (complete) local anesthesia, is noticeable. Therefore, the aim of our study was comparing the onset and quality of both IVRA and our modified NBA at the hind limb of dairy cows. For this abstract, only the onset of full local anesthesia would be consider. Materials and Methods: For that reason, we used six healthy non pregnant non lactating Holestein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design. Those cows divided into two groups to receive IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. For IVRA, 20 ml procaine without epinephrine was injected into the vein digitalis dorsalis communis III and for our modified four-point NBA, 10-15 ml procaine without epinephrine preneurally to the nerves, superficial and deep peroneal as well as lateral and medial branches of metatarsal nerves. For pain stimulation, electrical stimulator Grass S48 was applied. Results: The results of electrical stimuli revealed the faster onset of full local anesthesia (p < 0.05) by application of our modified NBA in comparison to IVRA about 10 minutes. Conclusion and discussion: Despite of available references showing faster onset of foot local anesthesia of IVRA, our study demonstrated that our modified four point NBA not only can be well known as a standard foot local anesthesia method applicable to desensitize the hind limb of dairy cows, but also, selection of this modified validated local anesthesia method can lead to have a faster start of complete desensitization of distal hind limb that is remarkable in any bovine limb interventions under time constraint.

Keywords: IVRA, four point NBA, dairy cow, hind limb, full onset

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52 Metastatic Ovarian Tumor Discovered Accidentally during Cesarean Section in a 34 Year Old Woman: A Case Report

Authors: Ghada E. Esheba, Ghufran Kheshaifaty, Kholoud Al-Harbi, Wafa'a Al-Harbi, Ala'a Al-Orabi, Moayad Turkistani

Abstract:

Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic ovarian carcinoma that usually occurs in female between 30 - 40 year old and rarely seen after menopause. Stomach is the most common primary site. Histopathological features of krukenberg tumors appear as diffuse stromal proliferation, mucus-production, and numerous signet-cells and these tumors spread mostly by lymphatic route. Treatment and prognostic factors are not well established. This study describes a 34 year old female with a unilateral ovarian mass discovered accidentally during cesarean section delivery and it was misdiagnosed as luteoma of pregnancy, but histopathological examination showed a diffuse infiltration of the ovary and omentum by signet ring cells. These findings were not correlated with luteoma of pregnancy or any other types of primary ovarian tumors like surface epithelial tumor, sex cord stromal tumor or germ cell tumor. However, after the analysis of immunohistochemical results (negative CK7, positive CK20 and CDX-2), the finding was the diagnostic of metastatic krukenberg tumor. Two weeks later, the patient was evaluated and a large gastric tumor was found in her stomach and she underwent gastrectomy.

Keywords: CK7, CK20, CDX-2, Krukenburg tumor, metastatic ovarian tumor

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51 Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene (HindIII rs320) Polymorphisms with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Secondary to Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Meryem Abi-Ayad, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Daniela Foti, Mohamed Benyoucef, Antonio Brunetti

Abstract:

Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme for lipid metabolism; its genetic polymorphism can be a candidate for modulating lipids parameters in metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to determine whether lipoproteins lipase polymorphisMetS (LPL-HindIII) could be associated with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (secondary to metabolism syndrome). The polymorphism Hind III (rs320) was assessed by PCR-RFLP in 51 MetS patients and 17 healthy controls from the hospital in Tlemcen. The logistic regression analyses showed no significant association with Hind III genotype and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1,5g/l or TG lower treatment) (P=0,455), metabolic syndrome (P=0,455), hypertension (P=0,802) and type 2 diabetes (P=0,144). In terms of plasma biomarkers, although not statistically significant, there was a difference in TG levels (P > 0,05), which was lowest among carriers of the homogenous mutant allele (H-). In this study, there was no association between the rare allele (H-) and disease protection, and between the frequent allele (H+) and disease prevalence (hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Keywords: moderate secondary hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, lipids, polymorphism lipoprotein lipase, HindIII(rs320)

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50 The Preventive Effect of Date Palm (Phoenixdactylifera) Seed and Fruit Hydroalcoholic Extracts on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Male Rat’s Hind Paw

Authors: Siavash Azarbani

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Background and Objective: The side effects of NSAIDs drugs have caused the increasing interest of scientists in herbal medicines as an alternative treatment. In this study, the effect of anti-inflammatory of seed and fruit of date palm hydroalcoholic extracts, due to having antioxidants, was studied. Materials and Methods: In this study, the extract of date palm seed and fruit were prepared by the maceration method in 70% alcohol. Eighty male rats Wistar, divided into 10 groups of eight in each, 4 groups received different doses (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) of seed extract and four other groups different doses (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) of fruits extract of the palm, and the positive control aspirin (300mg/kg) and the negative control group saline (5ml/kg) via injection intraperitoneally. Half an hour later, all animals received 100 µl of 1% carrageenan into the rats hind paw subcutaneous. The changes in rats paw edema were measured by plethysmometer every hour for five hours. Results: The effect of all of the doses of date palm seed extract on edema was less than aspirin (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference between the group that received 400 and 600 mg/kg of date palm fruit extract when compared with the aspirin group. The Dose 400 mg/kg of fruit extract showed the most anti-inflammatory effect and it was assigned as the best dose. Conclusion: It is likely that with further studies on a different models of animals and also on a human models the palm fruit extract could be used for pain treatment.

Keywords: extract, date, inflammatory, carrageenan, palm

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49 Enhancement of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Solubility via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Tamer M. Shehata, Heba S. Elsewedy, Mashel Al Dosary, Alaa Elshehry, Mohamed A. Khedr, Maged E. Mohamed

Abstract:

Objective: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is a well-known herbicide widely used as a weed killer. Recently, 2,4-D was rediscovered as a new anti-inflammatory agent through in silico as well as in-vivo experiments. However, poor solubility of 2,4-D could represent a problems during pharmaceutical development in addition to lower bioavailability. Solid dispersion (SD) refers to a group of solid products consisting of at least two different components, usually a hydrophobic drug and hydrophilic matrix. It is well known technique for enhancing drug solubility. Therefore, selecting SD as a tool for enhancing 2,4-D could be of great interest to the formulator. Method: In our project, several polymers were investigated (such as PEG, HPMC, citric acid and others) in addition to drug polymer ratios and its effect on solubility. Evaluation of drug polymer interaction was investigated through both Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, in-vivo evaluation was performed for the best selected preparation through inflammatory response of rat induce hind paw. Results: Results indicated that, citric acid 2,4-D and in ratio of 0.75 : 1 showed modified the dissolution profile of the drug. The FTIR resltes indicated no significant chemical interaction, however DSC showed shifting of the drug melting point. Finally, Carragenan induced rat hind paw edema showed significant reduction of the drug solid dispersion in comparison to the pure drug, indicating rapid and complete absorption of the drug in solid dispersion form. Conclusion: Solid dispersion technology can be utilized efficiently to enhance the solubility of 2,4-D.

Keywords: solid dispersion, 2, 4-D solubility, carragenan induced edema

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48 Assessment of the Electrical, Mechanical, and Thermal Nociceptive Thresholds for Stimulation and Pain Measurements at the Bovine Hind Limb

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage

Abstract:

Background: Three nociceptive thresholds of thermal, electrical, and mechanical thresholds commonly use to evaluate the local anesthesia in many species, for instance, cow, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, and so on. Due to the lack of investigations to evaluate and/or validate such those nociceptive thresholds, our plan was the comparison of two-foot local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA) and our modified four-point Nerve Block Anesthesia (NBA). Materials and Methods: Eight healthy nonpregnant nondairy Holstein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design were selected for this study. All cows divided into two different groups to receive two local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. Three thermal, electrical, and mechanical force and pinpricks were applied to evaluate the quality of local anesthesia methods before and after local anesthesia application. Results: The statistical evaluation demonstrated that our four-point NBA has a qualification to select as a standard foot local anesthesia. However, the recorded results of our study revealed no significant difference between two groups of local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and modified four-point NBA related to quality and duration of anesthesia stimulated by electrical, mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conclusion and discussion: All three nociceptive threshold stimuli of electrical, mechanical and heat nociceptive thresholds can be applied to measure and evaluate the efficacy of foot local anesthesia of dairy cows. However, our study revealed no superiority of those three nociceptive methods to evaluate the duration and quality of bovine foot local anesthesia methods. Veterinarians to investigate the duration and quality of their selected anesthesia method can use any of those heat, mechanical, and electrical methods.

Keywords: mechanical, thermal, electrical threshold, IVRA, NBA, hind limb, dairy cow

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47 The Relational Approach under the Angle of the CSR

Authors: Fatima El Kandoussi, Hind Benouakrim, Afafe El Amrani El Hassani

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CSR in the relational approach is imposed today as a matter of concerns lighthouses in the academic environment and managerial. This study presents the issues of the CSR dimension in the field of relationship marketing. This exploratory research was conducted with two groups of Moroccan enterprises having the label of the CSR /CGEM. It presents a better understanding of the approaches taken by the companies interviewed in a CSR and contributed to understand the reasons that lead them to adopt the process of CSR and also allows explaining how these enterprises maintain their relationship with the most important customers in a context of CSR.

Keywords: relationship marketing, CSR, stakeholders, business

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46 Expression of Somatostatin and Neuropeptide Y in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Hind Paw Incision in Rats

Authors: Anshu Bahl, Saroj Kaler, Shivani Gupta, S B Ray

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Background: Somatostatin is an endogenous regulatory neuropeptide. Somatostatin and its analogues play an important role in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Neuropeptide Y is extensively distributed in the mammalian nervous system. NPY has an important role in blood pressure, circadian rhythm, obesity, appetite and memory. The purpose was to investigate somatostatin and NPY expression in dorsal root ganglia during pain. The plantar incision model in rats is similar to postoperative pain in humans. Methods: 24 adult male Sprague dawley rats were distributed randomly into two groups – Control (n=6) and incision (n=18) groups. Using Hargreaves apparatus, thermal hyperalgesia behavioural test for nociception was done under basal condition and after surgical incision in right hind paw at different time periods (day 1, 3 and 5). The plantar incision was performed as per standard protocol. Perfusion was done using 4% paraformaldehyde followed by extraction of dorsal root ganglia at L4 level. The tissue was processed for immunohistochemical localisation for somatostatin and neuropeptide Y. Results: Post incisional groups (day 1, 3 and 5) exhibited significant decrease of paw withdrawal latency as compared to control groups. Somatostatin expression was noted under basal conditions. It decreased on day 1, but again gradually increased on day 3 and further on day five post incision. The expression of Neuropeptide Y was noted in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia under basal conditions. Compared to control group, expression of neuropeptide Y decreased on day one after incision, but again gradually increased on day 3. Maximum expression was noted on day five post incision. Conclusion: Decrease in paw withdrawal latency indicated nociception, particularly on day 1. In comparison to control, somatostatin and NPY expression was decreased on day one post incision. This could be correlated with increased axoplasmic flow towards the spinal cord. Somatostatin and NPY expression was maximum on day five post incision. This could be due to decreased migration from the site of synthesis towards the spinal cord.

Keywords: dorsal root ganglia, neuropeptide y, postoperative pain, somatostatin

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45 Molecular Identification of Camel Tick and Investigation of Its Natural Infection by Rickettsia and Borrelia in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reem Alajmi, Hind Al Harbi, Tahany Ayaad, Zainab Al Musawi

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Hard ticks Hyalomma spp. (family: Ixodidae) are obligate ectoparasite in their all life stages on some domestic animals mainly camels and cattle. Ticks may lead to many economic and public health problems because of their blood feeding behavior. Also, they act as vectors for many bacterial, viral and protozoan agents which may cause serious diseases such as tick-born encephalitis, Rocky-mountain spotted fever, Q-fever and Lyme disease which can affect human and/or animals. In the present study, molecular identification of ticks that attack camels in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia based on the partial sequence of mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene was applied. Also, the present study aims to detect natural infections of collected camel ticks with Rickessia spp. and Borelia spp. using PCR/hybridization of Citrate synthase encoding gene present in bacterial cells. Hard ticks infesting camels were collected from different camels located in a farm in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Results of the present study showed that the collected specimens belong to two species: Hyalomma dromedari represent 99% of the identified specimens and Hyalomma marginatum which account for 1 % of identified ticks. The molecular identification was made through blasting the obtained sequence of this study with sequences already present and identified in GeneBank. All obtained sequences of H. dromedarii specimens showed 97-100% identity with the same gene sequence of the same species (Accession # L34306.1) which was used as a reference. Meanwhile, no intraspecific variations of H. marginatum mesured because only one specimen was collected. Results also had shown that the intraspecific variability between individuals of H. dromedarii obtained in 92 % of samples ranging from 0.2- 6.6%, while the remaining 7 % of the total samples of H. dromedarii showed about 10.3 % individual differences. However, the interspecific variability between H. dromedarii and H. marginatum was approximately 18.3 %. On the other hand, by using the technique of PCR/hybridization, we could detect natural infection of camel ticks with Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. Results revealed the natural presence of both bacteria in collected ticks. Rickettsial spp. infection present in 29% of collected ticks, while 35% of collected specimen were infected with Borrelia spp. The valuable results obtained from the present study are a new record for the molecular identification of camel ticks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and their natural infection with both Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. These results may help scientists to provide a good and direct control strategy of ticks in order to protect one of the most important economic animals which are camels. Also results of this project spotlight on the disease that might be transmitted by ticks to put out a direct protective plan to prevent spreading of these dangerous agents. Further molecular studies are needed to confirm the results of the present study by using other mitochondrial and nuclear genes for tick identification.

Keywords: Camel ticks, Rickessia spp. , Borelia spp. , mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene

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44 Bismuth-Inhibitory Effects on Bacteria and Stimulation of Fungal Growth In vitro

Authors: Sulaiman B. Ali Alharbi, Bassam H. Mashat, Naif Abdullah Al-Harbi, Milton Wainwright, Abeer S. Aloufi, Sulamain Alnaimat

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Bismuth salicylate was found to inhibit the growth of a range of bacteria and yeast, Candida albican. In general the growth of bacteria did not result in the increase in bismuth solubilisation, in contrast, bismuth solubilisation increased following the growth of C. albicans. A significant increase in the biomass (dry weight) of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae occurred in vitro when these fungi were grown in the presence of bismuth salicylate. Biomass increase occurred over a range of bismuth compound additions, which in the case of A. oryzae was associated with the increase in the solubilisation of the insoluble bismuth compounds.

Keywords: bacterial inhibition, fungal growth stimulation, medical uses of bismuth, yeast inhibition

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43 Measurement and Prediction of Speed of Sound in Petroleum Fluids

Authors: S. Ghafoori, A. Al-Harbi, B. Al-Ajmi, A. Al-Shaalan, A. Al-Ajmi, M. Ali Juma

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Seismic methods play an important role in the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, the success of the method depends strongly on the reliability of the measured or predicted information regarding the velocity of sound in the media. Speed of sound has been used to study the thermodynamic properties of fluids. In this study, experimental data are reported and analyzed on the speed of sound in toluene and octane binary mixture. Three-factor three-level Box-Benhkam design is used to determine the significance of each factor, the synergetic effects of the factors, and the most significant factors on speed of sound. The developed mathematical model and statistical analysis provided a critical analysis of the simultaneous interactive effects of the independent variables indicating that the developed quadratic models were highly accurate and predictive.

Keywords: experimental design, octane, speed of sound, toluene

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42 The Relationship between Military Expenditure, Military Personnel, Economic Growth, and the Environment

Authors: El Harbi Sana, Ben Afia Neila

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In this paper, we study the relationship between the military effort and pollution. A distinction is drawn between the direct and indirect impact of the military effort (military expenditure and military personnel) on pollution, which operates through the impact of military effort on per capita income and the resultant impact of income on pollution. Using the data of 121 countries covering the period 1980–2011, both the direct and indirect impacts of military effort on air pollution emissions are estimated. Our results show that the military effort is estimated to have a positive direct impact on per capita emissions. Indirect effects are found to be positive, the total effect of military effort on emissions is positive for all countries.

Keywords: military endeavor, income, emissions of CO2, panel data

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41 Simultaneous Determination of Cefazolin and Cefotaxime in Urine by HPLC

Authors: Rafika Bibi, Khaled Khaladi, Hind Mokran, Mohamed Salah Boukhechem

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A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 264nm was developed and validate for quantitative determination and separation of cefazolin and cefotaxime in urine, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH4,2(15 :85) (v/v) pumped through ODB 250× 4,6 mm, 5um column at a flow rate of 1ml/min, loop of 20ul. In this condition, the validation of this technique showed that it is linear in a range of 0,01 to 10ug/ml with a good correlation coefficient ( R>0,9997), retention time of cefotaxime, cefazolin was 9.0, 10.1 respectively, the statistical evaluation of the method was examined by means of within day (n=6) and day to day (n=5) and was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy and precision.

Keywords: cefazolin, cefotaxime, HPLC, bioscience, biochemistry, pharmaceutical

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40 Determination of Benzatropine in Hair by GC/MS after Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE)

Authors: Abdulsallam A. Bakdash, Aiyshah M. Alshehri, Hind M. Alenzi

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Benzatropine (benztropine) is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease or involuntary movements due to the side effects of certain psychiatric drugs. We report in this study, results of a procedure for the determination of benzatropine in hair using LLE, once with methanol and second with phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), followed by filtration and then re-extraction with dichloromethane. A GC/MS method was developed and validated for this determination using selected ion monitoring (SIM) detection without derivatization. Linearity established over the concentration range 0.1-20.0 ng/mg hair, and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99. Recoveries were 52.2% and 21.1% using methanol and phosphate buffer extraction, respectively. Detection limits of benzatropine in hair were between 0.65 and 3.0 ng/mg hair, while the accuracy were 10.4% and 18.5% (RSD), respectively. We also applied this method to the analysis of soaked hair samples and demonstrated that the LLE using methanol meets the requirement for the analysis of benzatropine in hair.

Keywords: hair analysis, benzatropine, liquid-liquid extraction, GC/MS

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39 Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance

Authors: Benmalek M. Larbi, R. Harbi, S. Boukor

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This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.

Keywords: clay brick waste, mortar, properties, quarry sand

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38 Perception of Aerospace Engineering Students in Saudi Arabia on Aviation Sustainability

Authors: Badr A. Al-Harbi, Fahd T. Abdullah, Mazen T. Wali, Mohammed W. Al-Obaidi, Reda M. Bakhdlg

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Over the past few years, the aviation society had demonstrated a huge concern for securing the sustainability of commercial aviation. Future aerospace engineers in Saudi Arabia are expected to play a major role in dealing with these aspects, taking into consideration the expected growth in both traffic, passenger mileage, and fleet expansions in the region. In the present work, the authors investigate the perception of engineering students in the two undergraduate aerospace engineering programs in the Kingdom. A questionnaire was distributed using google forms and targeted approximately 300 students in both programs on several WhatsApp groups. Data collection was stopped after one week when a response rate above 35% was reached. The questionnaire aimed at assessing the students’ awareness of sustainable aviation and associated obstacles. The results obtained from the study indicate the necessity of introducing curricular modifications to address the subject with more targeted extracurricular activities and better use of social media, which is becoming a main source of students’ awareness.

Keywords: aviation, engineering education, students’ perception, sustainable aviation

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37 High-Speed LIF-OH Imaging of H2-Air Turbulent Premixed Flames

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Harbi

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This paper presents a comparative study of effects of the repeated solid obstacles on the propagation of H2-Air premixed flames. Pressure, speed of the flame front as well as structure of reaction zones are studied for hydrogen. Two equivalence ratios are examined for different configurations of three baffle plates and two obstacles with a square cross-section having blockage ratios of either 0.24 or 0.5. Hydrogen fuel mixtures with two equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.8 are studied and this is limited by the excessive overpressures. The results show that the peak pressure and its rate of change can be increased by increasing the blockage ratio or by decreasing the space between successive baffles. As illustrated by the high speed images of LIF-OH, the degree of wrinkling and contortion in the flame front increase as the blockages increase. The images also show how the flame front relaminarises with increasing distances between obstacles, which accounts for the pressure decrease with increasing separation. It is also found that more than one obstacle is needed to achieve a turbulent flame structure with intense corrugations.

Keywords: premixed propagating flames, flame-obstacle interaction, turbulent premixed flames, overpressure, transient flames

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36 Observations of Conformity in the Health Professions

Authors: Tanya Beran, Michelle Drefs, Ghazwan Altabbaa, Nouf Al Harbi, Noof Al Baz, Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci

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Although research shows that interprofessional practice has desirable effects on patient care, its implementation can present challenges to its team members. In particular, they may feel pressured to agree with or conform to other members who share information that is contrary to their own understanding. Obtaining evidence of this phenomenon is challenging, as team members may underreport their conformity behaviors due to reasons such as social desirability. In this paper, a series of studies are reviewed in which several approaches to assessing conformity in the health care professions are tested. Simulations, questionnaires, and behavior checklists were developed to measure conformity behaviors. Insights from these studies show that a significant proportion of people conform either in the presence or absence of others, express a variety of verbal and nonverbal behaviors when considering whether to conform to others, may shift between conforming and moments later not conforming (and vice versa), and may not accurately report whether they conformed. A new method of measuring conformity using the implicit bias test is also discussed. People at all levels in the healthcare system are encouraged to develop both formal and informal.

Keywords: conformity, decision-making, inter-professional teams, simulation

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35 Use RP-HPLC To Investigate Factors Influencing Sorghum Protein Extraction

Authors: Khaled Khaladi, Rafika Bibi, Hind Mokrane, Boubekeur Nadjemi

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Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important cereal crop grown in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia due to its drought tolerance. Sorghum grain has protein content varying from 6 to 18%, with an average of 11%, Sorghum proteins can be broadly classified into prolamin and non-prolamin proteins. Kafirins, the major storage proteins, are classified as prolamins, and as such, they contain high levels of proline and glutamine and are soluble in non-polar solvents such as aqueous alcohols. Kafirins account for 77 to 82% of the protein in the endosperm, whereas non-prolamin proteins (namely, albumins, globulins, and glutelins) make up about 30% of the proteins. To optimize the extraction of sorghum proteins, several variables were examined: detergent type and concentration, reducing agent type and concentration, and buffer pH and concentration. Samples were quantified and characterized by RP-HPLC.

Keywords: sorghum, protein extraction, detergent, food science

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34 Exploring Transitions between Communal- and Market-Based Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Benbya Hind, Belbaly Nassim

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Markets and communities are often cast as alternative forms of knowledge sharing, but an open question is how and why people dynamically transition between them. To study these transitions, we design a technology that allows geographically distributed participants to either buy knowledge (using virtual points) or request it for free. We use a data-driven, inductive approach, studying 550 members in over 5000 interactions, during nine months. Because the technology offered participants choices between market or community forms, we can document both individual and collective transitions that emerge as people cycle between these forms. Our inductive analysis revealed that uncertainties endemic to knowledge sharing were the impetus for these transitions. Communities evoke uncertainties about knowledge sharing’s costs and benefits, which markets resolve by quantifying explicit prices. However, if people manipulate markets, they create uncertainties about the validity of those prices, allowing communities to reemerge to establish certainty via identity-based validation.

Keywords: knowledge sharing, communities, information technology design, transitions, markets

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33 The Effect of PM10 Dispersion from Industrial, Residential and Commercial Areas in Arid Environment

Authors: Meshari Al-Harbi

Abstract:

A comparative area-season-elemental-wise time series analysis by Dust Track monitor (2012-2013) revealed high PM10 dispersion in the outdoor environment in the sequence of industrial> express highways>residential>open areas. Time series analysis from 7AM-6AM (until next day), 30d (monthly), 3600sec. (for any given period of a month), and 12 months (yearly) showed peak PM10 dispersion during 1AM-7AM, 1d-4d and 25d-31d of every month, 1500-3600 with the exception in PM10 dispersion in residential areas, and in the months-March to June, respectively. This time-bound PM10 dispersion suggests the primary influence of human activities (peak mobility and productivity period for a given time frame) besides the secondary influence of meteorological parameters (high temperature and wind action) and, occasional dust storms. Whereas, gravimetric analysis reveals the influence of precipitation, low temperature and low volatility resulting high trace metals in PM10 during winter than in summer and primarily attributes to the influence of nature besides, the secondary attributes of smoke stack emission from various industries and automobiles. Furthermore, our study recommends residents to limit outdoor air pollution exposures and take precautionary measures to inhale PM10 pollutants from the atmosphere.

Keywords: aerosol, pollution, respirable particulates, trace-metals

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32 Reproductive Behavior of Caspian Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus Maral) in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari

Authors: Behrang Ekrami, Amin Tamadon

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Caspian red deer or maral (Cervus elaphus maral) is a ruminant from the family of Cervidae. Maintenance and protection of maral requires knowing the behavioral, physiological, environmental characteristics and factors harmful to this species. In this article, reproductive and behavioral traits of this species in both sexes are presented based on observations and the available records of protected deer in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari (one of the sites that preserve the maral in the Free Zones of Hyrcanian forest) from 2006 to 2011. Hart characteristics including sexual behavior, apparent changes during reproductive season and reproductive physiology; and hind characteristics including of ovulation, reproductive cycle, mating, pregnancy and parturition, have been evaluated. Identification of maral reproductive characteristics in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari is one of the most important information requirements to preserve and breed this species and will open up new routes for performing new methods of reproduction of this species in Iran wildlife parks or other refuge areas.

Keywords: caspian red deer, reproduction, behavior, Iran

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31 Towards a Distributed Computation Platform Tailored for Educational Process Discovery and Analysis

Authors: Awatef Hicheur Cairns, Billel Gueni, Hind Hafdi, Christian Joubert, Nasser Khelifa

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Given the ever changing needs of the job markets, education and training centers are increasingly held accountable for student success. Therefore, education and training centers have to focus on ways to streamline their offers and educational processes in order to achieve the highest level of quality in curriculum contents and managerial decisions. Educational process mining is an emerging field in the educational data mining (EDM) discipline, concerned with developing methods to discover, analyze and provide a visual representation of complete educational processes. In this paper, we present our distributed computation platform which allows different education centers and institutions to load their data and access to advanced data mining and process mining services. To achieve this, we present also a comparative study of the different clustering techniques developed in the context of process mining to partition efficiently educational traces. Our goal is to find the best strategy for distributing heavy analysis computations on many processing nodes of our platform.

Keywords: educational process mining, distributed process mining, clustering, distributed platform, educational data mining, ProM

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30 Acute Intraperitoneal Toxicity of Sesbania grandiflora (Katuray) Methanolic Flower Extract in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Levylee Bautista, Dawn Grace Santos, Aishwarya Veluchamy, Jesusa Santos, Ghafoor Haque, Jr. I, Rodolfo Rafael

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Sesbania grandiflora is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. Assessment of its toxic properties is hence crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts may pose adverse effects on consumers. This study aimed to investigate the acute intraperitoneal toxicity of S. grandiflora flower methanolic extract (SGFME) in Swiss albino mice. Four different concentrations (11.25, 22.5, 40, and 90 mg/kg) of SGFME were administered intraperitoneally and immediate behavioral and clinical signs were observed. All concentrations of SGFME-treated mice exhibited gasping and faster respiratory rate, writhing, reddening and fanning of the ears, paralysis of the hind leg, and mortality. Such reactions may be attributed to the histamine and saponin content of S. grandiflora. Results of this study suggests that intraperitoneal administration of SGFME produced significant adverse effect in mice, therefore, caution should be exercised in using it as herbal remedy since there is little control over its quality.

Keywords: acute toxicity test, histamine, medicinal plants, Sesbania grandiflora

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29 Hemostasis Poly Vinyl Alcohol Gauze Coated with Chitosan Encapsulated with Polymer and Drug

Authors: Abhishekkumar Ramasamy, Parameshwari

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Chitosan is the deacyelitated derivative of chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer just after cellulose. Without doubt, its biomedical usages have gained more importance among the vast variety of chitosan applications owing to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In recent years, particular interest has been devoted to chitosan hydrogels as a promising alternative in competition with conventional sutures or bioadhesives. Different parameters such as acid type and concentration, and degree of deacetylation (DD%) of chitosan, were altered to modify hydrogel properties including viscosity, pH, cohesive strength, and tissue bioadhesiveness. In the current work, we have investigated the effectiveness of chitosan hydrogel encapsulated with tanexamic acid to stop bleeding. Chitosan film was obtained with solubilization of chitosan powder in aqueous acidic media. In vivo experiments have been conducted on rat and rabbit models that provide a convenient way to evaluate the efficacy of prepared samples. The arteries vein was punctured on the hind limb of the rat and the gauze was been applied on the punchered area. Bioadhesive strength as well as irritant effects were discussed. Samples with higher degree of deacetylation, including Chs-16 and Chs-19 that were dissolved in lactic media showed best sealing effect.

Keywords: chitosan, biocomaptibility, biodegradability, bioadhersive, deacetylation

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28 Schiff Bases of Isatin and Admantane-1-Carbohydrazide: Synthesis, Characterization, and Anticonvulsant Activity

Authors: Hind O. Osman, Tilal Elsaman, Bashir A. Yousef, Esraa Elhadi, Aimun A. E. Ahmed, Eyman Mohamed Eltayib, Malik Suliman Mohamed, Magdi Awadalla Mohamed

Abstract:

Epilepsy is the most common neurological condition and cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. In the present study, the molecular hybridization tool was adopted to obtain six Schiff bases of isatin and adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (18–23). Then, their anticonvulsant activity was evaluated using a pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ-) induced seizure model using phenobarbitone as a positive control. Our findings showed that compounds 18–23 provided significant protection against PTZ-induced seizure, and maximum activities were associated with compound 23. Moreover, all investigated compounds increased the latency of induced convulsion and reduced the duration of epilepsy, with compound 23 being the best. Interestingly, most of the synthesized molecules showed a reduction in neurological symptoms and severity of the seizure. Molecular docking studies suggest GABA-A receptor as a potential target, and in silico ADME screening revealed that the pharmaceutical properties of compound 23 are within the specified limit. Thus, compound 23 was identified as a promising candidate that warrants further drug discovery processes.

Keywords: isatin and adamantane, anticonvulsant activity, PTZ-induced seizure, molecular docking

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27 Tibyan Automated Arabic Correction Using Machine-Learning in Detecting Syntactical Mistakes

Authors: Ashwag O. Maghraby, Nida N. Khan, Hosnia A. Ahmed, Ghufran N. Brohi, Hind F. Assouli, Jawaher S. Melibari

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The Arabic language is one of the most important languages. Learning it is so important for many people around the world because of its religious and economic importance and the real challenge lies in practicing it without grammatical or syntactical mistakes. This research focused on detecting and correcting the syntactic mistakes of Arabic syntax according to their position in the sentence and focused on two of the main syntactical rules in Arabic: Dual and Plural. It analyzes each sentence in the text, using Stanford CoreNLP morphological analyzer and machine-learning approach in order to detect the syntactical mistakes and then correct it. A prototype of the proposed system was implemented and evaluated. It uses support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to detect Arabic grammatical errors and correct them using the rule-based approach. The prototype system has a far accuracy 81%. In general, it shows a set of useful grammatical suggestions that the user may forget about while writing due to lack of familiarity with grammar or as a result of the speed of writing such as alerting the user when using a plural term to indicate one person.

Keywords: Arabic language acquisition and learning, natural language processing, morphological analyzer, part-of-speech

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