Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Suhee Kim

3 Molecular Clustering and Velocity Increase in Converging-Diverging Nozzle in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Jeoungsu Na, Jaehawn Lee, Changil Hong, Suhee Kim

Abstract:

A molecular dynamics simulation in a converging-diverging nozzle was performed to study molecular collisions and their influence to average flow velocity according to a variety of vacuum levels. The static pressures and the dynamic pressure exerted by the molecule collision on the selected walls were compared to figure out the intensity variances of the directional flows. With pressure differences constant between the entrance and the exit of the nozzle, the numerical experiment was performed for molecular velocities and directional flows. The result shows that the velocities increased at the nozzle exit as the vacuum level gets higher in that area because less molecular collisions.

Keywords: cavitation, Vacuum, nozzle, molecular collision, velocity increase

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2 Blood Analysis of Diarrheal Calves Using Portable Blood Analyzer: Analysis of Calves by Age

Authors: Suhee Kim, Kwangman Park, Jinhee Kang, Dohyeon Yu, Kyoungseong Choi, Jinho Park

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Diarrhea is a major cause of death in young calves. This causes great economic damage to the livestock industry. These diarrhea cause dehydration, decrease blood flow, lower the pH and degrade enzyme function. In the past, serum screening was not possible in the field. However, now with the spread of portable serum testing devices, it is now possible to conduct tests directly on field. Thus, accurate serological changes can be identified and used in the field of large animals. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The test groups were calves from 1 to 44 days old. The status of the feces was divided into four grade to determine the severity of diarrhea (grade 0,1,2,3). Grade 0, 1 is considered to have no diarrhea. Grade 2, 3 is considered to diarrhea positive group. One or more viruses were detected in this group. Diarrhea negasitive group consisted of 57 calves (Asan=30, Samrye=27). Diarrhea positive group consisted of 34 calves (Kimje=27, Geochang=7). The feces of all calves were analyzed by PCR Test. Blood sample was measured using an automatic blood analyzer(i-STAT, Abbott inc. Illinois, US). Calves were divided into 3 groups according to age. Group 1 is 1 to 14 days old. Group 2 is 15 to 28 days old. Group 3 is more than 28 days old. Findings: Diarrhea caused an increase in HCT due to dehydration. The difference from normal was highest in 15 to 28 days old (p < 0.01). At all ages, bicarbonate decreased compared to normal, and therefore pH decreased. Similar to HCT, the largest difference was observed between 15 and 28 days (p < 0.01). The pCO₂ decreases to compensate for the decrease in pH. Conclusion and Significance: At all ages, HCT increases, and bicarbonate, pH, and pCO₂ decrease in diarrhea calves. The calf from 15 days to 28 days shows the most difference from normal. Over 28 days of age, weight gain and homeostasis ability increase, diarrhea is seen in the stool, there are fewer hematologic changes than groups below 28 days of age.

Keywords: Diarrhea, calves, hematological changes, i-STAT

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1 Comparison of Serum Protein Fraction between Healthy and Diarrhea Calf by Electrophoretogram

Authors: Suhee Kim, Kwangman Park, Jinhee Kang, Kyoungseong Choi, Jinho Park, Ruhee Song, Do-Hyeon Yu

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Animal blood components maintain homeostasis when animals are healthy, and changes in chemical composition of the blood and body fluids can be observed if animals have a disease. In particular, newborn calves are susceptible to disease and therefore hematologic tests and serum chemistry tests could become an important guideline to the diagnosis and the treatment of diseases. Diarrhea in newborn calves is the most damaging to cattle ranch, whether dairy or cattle fattening, and is a large part of calf atrophy and death. However, since the study on calf electrophoresis was not carried out, a survey analysis was conducted on it. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The calves were divided into healthy calves and disease (diarrhea) calves, and calves were classified by 1-14d, 15-28d, and more than 28d, respectively. The fecal state was classified by solid (0-value), semi-solid (1-value), loose (2-value) and watery (3-value). In the solid (0-value) and semi-solid (1-value) feces valuable pathogen was not detected, but loose (2-value) and watery (3-value) feces were detected. Findings: ALB, α-1, α-2, α-SUM, β and γ (Gamma) were examined by electrophoresis analysis of healthy calves and diarrhea calves. Test results showed that there were age differences between healthy calves and diarrheic calves. When we look at the γ-globulin at 1-14 days of age, we can see that the average calf of healthy calves is 16.8% and the average of diarrheal calves is 7.7%, when we look at the figures for the α-2 at 1-14 days, we found that healthy calves average 5.2% and diarrheal calves 8.7% higher than healthy cows. On α-1, 15-28 days, and after 28 days, healthy calves average 10.4% and diarrheal calves average 7.5% diarrhea calves were 12.6% and 12.4% higher than healthy calves. In the α-SUM, the healthy calves were 21.6%, 16.8%, and 14.5%, respectively, after 1-14 days, 15-28 days and 28 days. diarrheal calves were 23.1%, 19.5%, and 19.8%. Conclusion and Significance: In this study, we examined the electrophoresis results of healthy calves and diseased (diarrhea) calves, gamma globulin at 1-14 days of age were lower than those of healthy calves (diarrhea), indicating that the calf was unable to consume colostrum from the mother when it was a new calf. α-1, α-2, α-SUM may be associated with an acute inflammatory response as a result of increased levels of calves with diarrhea (diarrhea). Further research is needed to investigate the effects of acute inflammatory responses on additional calf-forming proteins. Information on the results of the electrophoresis test will be provided where necessary according to the item.

Keywords: Gamma, Alpha, electrophoretogram, serum protein

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