Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Claire Lockie-Williams

51 Reliability Analysis of Dam under Quicksand Condition

Authors: Manthan Patel, Vinit Ahlawat, Anshh Singh Claire, Pijush Samui

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the analysis of quicksand condition for a dam foundation. The quicksand condition occurs in cohesion less soil when effective stress of soil becomes zero. In a dam, the saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a sudden change in pressure or shock initiates liquefaction. This causes the sand to form a suspension and lose strength hence resulting in failure of dam. A soil profile shows different properties at different points and the values obtained are uncertain thus reliability analysis is performed. The reliability is defined as probability of safety of a system in a given environment and loading condition and it is assessed as Reliability Index. The reliability analysis of dams under quicksand condition is carried by Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). Reliability index and factor of safety relating to liquefaction of soil is analysed using GPR. The results of reliability analysis by GPR is compared to that of conventional method and it is demonstrated that on applying GPR the probabilistic analysis reduces the computational time and efforts.

Keywords: factor of safety, GPR, reliability index, quicksand

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50 Impact of Ecosystem Engineers on Soil Structuration in a Restored Floodplain in Switzerland

Authors: Andreas Schomburg, Claire Le Bayon, Claire Guenat, Philip Brunner

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Numerous river restoration projects have been established in Switzerland in recent years after decades of human activity in floodplains. The success of restoration projects in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem functions largely depend on the development of the floodplain soil system. Plants and earthworms as ecosystem engineers are known to be able to build up a stable soil structure by incorporating soil organic matter into the soil matrix that creates water stable soil aggregates. Their engineering efficiency however largely depends on changing soil properties and frequent floods along an evolutive floodplain transect. This study, therefore, aims to quantify the effect of flood frequency and duration as well as of physico-chemical soil parameters on plants’ and earthworms’ engineering efficiency. It is furthermore predicted that these influences may have a different impact on one of the engineers that leads to a varying contribution to aggregate formation within the floodplain transect. Ecosystem engineers were sampled and described in three different floodplain habitats differentiated according to the evolutionary stages of the vegetation ranging from pioneer to forest vegetation in a floodplain restored 15 years ago. In addition, the same analyses were performed in an embanked adjacent pasture as a reference for the pre-restored state. Soil aggregates were collected and analyzed for their organic matter quantity and quality using Rock Eval pyrolysis. Water level and discharge measurements dating back until 2008 were used to quantify the return period of major floods. Our results show an increasing amount of water stable aggregates in soil with increasing distance to the river and show largest values in the reference site. A decreasing flood frequency and the proportion of silt and clay in the soil texture explain these findings according to F values from one way ANOVA of a fitted mixed effect model. Significantly larger amounts of labile organic matter signatures were found in soil aggregates in the forest habitat and in the reference site that indicates a larger contribution of plants to soil aggregation in these habitats compared to the pioneer vegetation zone. Earthworms’ contribution to soil aggregation does not show significant differences in the floodplain transect, but their effect could be identified even in the pioneer vegetation with its large proportion of coarse sand in the soil texture and frequent inundations. These findings indicate that ecosystem engineers seem to be able to create soil aggregates even under unfavorable soil conditions and under frequent floods. A restoration success can therefore be expected even in ecosystems with harsh soil properties and frequent external disturbances.

Keywords: ecosystem engineers, flood frequency, floodplains, river restoration, rock eval pyrolysis, soil organic matter incorporation, soil structuration

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49 Critical Dialogue: Anti-Racism Teacher Education in Predominantly White Schools

Authors: Claire M. Hollocou, Denise Johnson

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As racism permeates the foundation of America's educational system, educators hold a level of responsibility to address racism and the power of white privilege in the classroom by implementing anti-racist practices. This study aims to discuss the practices of anti-racist education across two predominantly affluent white schools. It offers our perspectives as white and black female teachers committed to implementing and reflecting on our antiracist work. Through communities of practice and the critical dialogue framework, we will provide an environment for one another to share our experiences implementing anti-racist education. We will spend a couple of months engaging in dialogue together to support our praxis. With critical reflection, we will look for themes that emerge through the conversations as well as develop a protocol for building an antiracist community of practice. This study is a work in progress.

Keywords: anti-racism, critical dialogue, race and racism, teacher education

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48 Age Estimation Using Destructive and Non-Destructive Dental Methods on an Archeological Human Sample from the Poor Claire Nunnery in Brussels, Belgium

Authors: Pilar Cornejo Ulloa, Guy Willems, Steffen Fieuws, Kim Quintelier, Wim Van Neer, Patrick Thevissen

Abstract:

Dental age estimation can be performed both in living and deceased individuals. In anthropology, few studies have tested the reliability of dental age estimation methods complementary to the usually applied osteological methods. Objectives: In this study, destructive and non-destructive dental age estimation methods were applied on an archeological sample in order to compare them with the previously obtained anthropological age estimates. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-four teeth from 24 individuals were analyzed using Kvaal, Kvaal and Solheim, Bang and Ramm, Lamendin, Gustafson, Maples, Dalitz and Johanson’s methods. Results: A high variability and wider age ranges than the ones previously obtained by the anthropologist could be observed. Destructive methods had a slightly higher agreement than the non-destructive. Discussion: Due to the heterogeneity of the sample and the lack of the real age at death, the obtained results were not representative, and it was not possible to suggest one dental age estimation method over another.

Keywords: archeology, dental age estimation, forensic anthropology, forensic dentistry

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47 Peace Pact System in Bontoc, Mountain Province

Authors: Claire Kaplaan P. Lafadchan

Abstract:

The study looked into the peace pact system as a customary way of solving cases in Bontoc, Mountain Province. To study the importance of the peace pact system, the study focused on the extent of attainment of the objectives of peace pact system in Bontoc, Mountain Province; the extent of attainment of the procedure; level of satisfaction on the peace pact system; and, the degree of the seriousness of the problems encountered. The study aimed to see the importance of peace pact system as a means of amicable settlement in Bontoc, Mountain Province as the researcher is concerned on the conflicts evolving between natives of Bontoc and people from other municipalities. Questionnaire-checklist was used as the main data-gathering tool. It was found out in the study that the goals and objectives of peace pact is much attained; the procedures is much attained; the level of satisfaction is much satisfied; and the problems encountered is moderately serious. Despite the fact that peace pact participants are all doing their part in the process, still, there are problems they encountered.

Keywords: peace pact, amicable settlement, bontoc, pagta, pechen

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46 The Sound of Getting Closer: A Phenomenological Research of the Senses of Proximity and Touch

Authors: Marcello Lussana

Abstract:

Closer is a wireless system developed by the “Design Research Lab” of the UdK Berlin that is able to detect the proximity and touch between two (or more) persons. We have been using this system for one performance and one installation: in both cases, the proximity and touch events of the two participants have been sonified using the software Supercollider. In this paper, we are going to focus on the actual experience of the participants involved, especially related to the awareness of their body, their level of proprioception and how they felt in their body and in connection with the other person. In order to give value to the lived experience of the participant, a phenomenological method described and developed by Professor Claire Petitmengin has been used. This strategy allowed the interviewees to become aware of their subjective experience, and describe it with great precision. This is essential in order to understand the actual state of consciousness of the users. Our aim is to research the senses of proprioception, touch, and proximity: as they all involve a pre-reflective state of consciousness, they are central for the understanding of human perception. The interviews revealed how this experience could improve and increase proprioception and awareness of your body.

Keywords: interactive sound, phenomenology, pre-reflective, proprioception, subjective experience

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45 An Excellent Adventure: The Stories of National Tertiary Teaching Excellence Award Winners

Authors: Claire Goode

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This paper reports on a doctoral research project using narrative inquiry to investigate the stories of twelve national Tertiary Teaching Excellence Award winners in New Zealand. Preliminary findings highlight awardees’ views on their identity, their professional practice, and on what they consider to be excellence in tertiary teaching. The research also reports on common themes in the personal qualities that awardees describe, and on what these nationally recognised educators would like to see in place around Tertiary Teacher Development. Educators, mentors, trainers, and curriculum designers can gain a deeper understanding of what teaching excellence looks like, and of how teachers perceive their own practice and their impact on others. This may enable different interventions to develop best practice from staff, and to raise standards. It is hoped too that, by reflecting on the stories of teachers who have been recognised for ‘excellence’, educators will relate to and recognise elements of their own practice, and will feel motivated and inspired to share these with their peers and the wider academic community.

Keywords: academic identity, narrative inquiry, teacher development, teaching excellence

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44 A Case Study on the Tourists' Satisfaction: Local Gastronomy in Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte

Authors: Reysand Mae A. Abapial, Christine Claire Z. Agra, Quenna Lyn V. De Guzman, Marielle Arianne Joyce Q. Hojilla, John Joseph A. Tiangco

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The study focused on the assessment of the tourists’ satisfaction on the local gastronomy in Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte as a tourist destination as perceived by 100 tourists visiting the tourist destination, which is determined through convenient random sampling. Mean, percentage frequency and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used in the collection of data. The results revealed that the tourists agree that the local establishments offering local cuisines are accessible in terms of the location, internet visibility and facilities for persons-with-disabilities. The tourist are also willing to pay for the local food because it is attainable, budget-friendly, worthy for an expensive price, satisfies the cravings, reflects the physical appearance of the establishment and its quantity is reasonable based on the price. However, the tourists disagree that the local food completes their overall experience as tourists and it does not have the potential to satisfy all types of tourists. Recommendations for the enhancement of the local cuisine and implications for future research are discussed.

Keywords: gastronomy, local gastronomy, tourist satisfaction, Pagudpud

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43 The Twelfth Rib as a Landmark for Surgery

Authors: Jake Tempo, Georgina Williams, Iain Robertson, Claire Pascoe, Darren Rama, Richard Cetti

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Introduction: The twelfth rib is commonly used as a landmark for surgery; however, its variability in length has not been formally studied. The highly variable rib length provides a challenge for urologists seeking a consistent landmark for percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retroperitoneoscopic surgery. Methods and materials: We analysed CT scans of 100 adults who had imaging between 23rd March and twelfth April 2020 at an Australian Hospital. We measured the distance from the mid-sagittal line to the twelfth rib tip in the axial plane as a surrogate for true rib length. We also measured the distance from the twelfth rib tip to the kidney, spleen, and liver. Results: Length from the mid-sagittal line to the right twelfth rib tip varied from 46 (percentile 95%CI 40 to 57) to 136mm (percentile 95%CI 133 to 138). On the left, the distances varied from 55 (percentile 95%CI 50 to 64) to 134mm (percentile 95%CI 131 to 135). Twenty-three percent of people had an organ lying between the tip of the twelfth rib and the kidney on the right, and 11% of people had the same finding on the left. Conclusion: The twelfth rib is highly variable in its length. Similar variability was recorded in the distance from the tip to intra-abdominal organs. Due to the frequency of organs lying between the tip of the rib and the kidney, it should not be used as a landmark for accessing the kidney without prior knowledge of an individual patient’s anatomy, as seen on imaging.

Keywords: PCNL, rib, anatomy, nephrolithotomy

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42 Cu Nanoparticle Embedded-Zno Nanoplate Thin Films for Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production

Authors: Premrudee Promdet, Fan Cui, Gi Byoung Hwang, Ka Chuen To, Sanjayan Sathasivam, Claire J. Carmalt, Ivan P. Parkin

Abstract:

A novel single-step fabrication of Cu nanoparticle embedded ZnO (Cu.ZnO) thin films was developed by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition for stable and efficient hydrogen production in Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell. In this approach, the Cu.ZnO nanoplate thin films were grown by using acetic acid to promote preferential growth and enhance surface active sites, where Cu nanoparticles can be formed under chemical deposition by reduction of Cu salt. Studies using photoluminescence spectroscopy indicate the enhanced photocatalytic performance is attributed to hot electron generated from SPR. The Cu metal in the composite material is functioning as a sensitizer to supply electrons to the semiconductor resulting in enhanced electron density for redox reaction. This work not only describes a way to obtain photoanodes with high photocatalytic activity but also suggests a low-cost route towards production of photocatalysts for hydrogen production. This work also supports a vital need to understand electron transfer between photoexcited semiconductor materials and metals, a requirement for tailoring the properties of semiconductor/metal composites.

Keywords: photocatalysis, photoelectrochemical cell (PEC), aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD), surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

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41 Integrated Machine Learning Framework for At-Home Patients Personalized Risk Prediction Using Activities, Biometric, and Demographic Features

Authors: Claire Xu, Welton Wang, Manasvi Pinnaka, Anqi Pan, Michael Han

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Hospitalizations account for one-third of the total health care spending in the US. Early risk detection and intervention can reduce this high cost and increase the satisfaction of both patients and physicians. Due to the lack of awareness of the potential arising risks in home environment, the opportunities for patients to seek early actions of clinical visits are dramatically reduced. This research aims to offer a highly personalized remote patients monitoring and risk assessment AI framework to identify the potentially preventable hospitalization for both acute as well as chronic diseases. A hybrid-AI framework is trained with data from clinical setting, patients surveys, as well as online databases. 20+ risk factors are analyzed ranging from activities, biometric info, demographic info, socio-economic info, hospitalization history, medication info, lifestyle info, etc. The AI model yields high performance of 87% accuracy and 88 sensitivity with 20+ features. This hybrid-AI framework is proven to be effective in identifying the potentially preventable hospitalization. Further, the high indicative features are identified by the models which guide us to a healthy lifestyle and early intervention suggestions.

Keywords: hospitalization prevention, machine learning, remote patient monitoring, risk prediction

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40 Restructuring the College Classroom: Scaffolding Student Learning and Engagement in Higher Education

Authors: Claire Griffin

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Recent years have witnessed a surge in the use of innovative teaching approaches to support student engagement and higher-order learning within higher education. This paper seeks to explore the use of collaborative, interactive teaching and learning strategies to support student engagement in a final year undergraduate Developmental Psychology module. In particular, the use of the jigsaw method, in-class presentations and online discussion fora were adopted in a ‘lectorial’ style teaching approach, aimed at scaffolding learning, fostering social interdependence and supporting various levels of student engagement in higher education. Using the ‘Student Course Engagement Questionnaire’, the impact of such teaching strategies on students’ college classroom experience was measured, with additional qualitative student feedback gathered. Results illustrate the positive impact of the teaching methodologies on students’ levels of engagement, with positive implications emerging across the four engagement factors: skills engagement, emotional engagement, participation/interaction engagement and performance engagement. Thematic analysis on students’ qualitative comments also provided greater insight into the positive impact of the ‘lectorial’ teaching approach on students’ classroom experience within higher level education. Implications of the findings are presented in terms of informing effective teaching practices within higher education. Additional avenues for future research and strategy usage will also be discussed, in light of evolving practice and cutting edge literature within the field.

Keywords: learning, higher education, scaffolding, student engagement

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39 Short and Long Term Effects of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Behaviors

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

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Over the last fifty years, maternal sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families have been a priority for researchers. For this reason, attachment-based interventions have been implemented and been shown to be effective in enhancing child development. Most of the time, child outcomes are measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child development shortly after the intervention ended and one-year post-intervention. Methods: Over the seventy-two mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, forty-two were included in this study: 24 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 18 dyads who did not. Intervention and none intervention dyads were matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, the reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex, and family status. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured 3 and 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children were respectively 45 and 54 months old. Findings: Independent-sample t-tests were conducted to compare scores between the two groups and the two data collection times. In general, on differences observed between the two groups three months after the intervention ended, just a few of them were still present nine months later. Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggests that the effects of attachment-based intervention observed three months following the intervention are not lasting for most of them. Those results inform us of the importance of considering the possibility to offer more attachment-based intervention sessions for those highly vulnerable families.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child behaviors, child protective services, highly vulnerable families

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38 The Relationship between Hot and Cool Executive Function and Theory of Mind in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P. Monks

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Executive function (EF) refers to a set of future-oriented and goal-directed cognitive skills that are crucial for problem solving and social behaviour, as well as the ability to organise oneself. It has been suggested that EF could be conceptualised as two distinct but interrelated constructs, one emotional (hot) and one cognitive (cool), as it facilitates both affective and cognitive regulation. Cool EF has been found to be strongly related to Theory of Mind (ToM) that is the ability to infer mental states, but research has not taken into account the association between hot EF and ToM in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to date. The present study investigates the associations between both hot and cool EF and ToM in school-aged children with ASD. This cross-sectional study assesses 79 school-aged children with ASD (7-15 years) and 91 controls matched for age and IQ, on tasks tapping cool EF (working memory, inhibition, planning), hot EF (effective decision making, delay discounting), and ToM (emotional understanding and false/no false belief). Significant group differences in each EF measure support a global executive dysfunction in ASD. Strong associations between hot EF and ToM in ASD are reported for the first time (i.e. ToM emotional understanding and delay discounting). These findings highlight that hot EF also makes a unique contribution to the developmental profile of ASD. Considering the role of both hot and cool EF in association with ToM in individuals with ASD may aid in gaining a greater understanding not just of how these complex multifaceted cognitive abilities relate to one another, but their joint role in the distinct developmental pathway followed in ASD.

Keywords: ASD, executive function, school age, theory of mind

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37 Measuring the Effect of Continuous Performance Test-3 Administration on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow with Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Adult ADHD

Authors: Claire Stafford, Charles Golden, Daniel Amen, Kristen Willeumier

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The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the administration of the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT-3) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in adults with ADHD. The data for this study was derived from a large SPECT database. Participants in the ADHD group (n=81, Mage=37.97) were similar to those in the healthy control group (n=8503, Mage=41.86). All participants were assessed for cerebral blood flow levels before and after CPT-3 administration. Both age and gender were considered covariates. Multiple 2-by-2 ANCOVAs with repeated measures were conducted with sphericity assumed. The main effects of CPT-3 administration on CBF levels were significant in the left and right side of the frontal and occipital, and right temporal lobe. The main effects of ADHD diagnosis were significant in all brain areas assessed. The interaction between CPT-3 administration and ADHD diagnosis was significant in the left and right side of the limbic system, basal ganglia, the frontal lobe, and occipital lobe. Post hoc tests with a Bonferroni adjustment revealed that CBF levels increased following CPT-3 administration but less so in the ADHD group. Individuals had higher levels of CBF following the administration of CPT-3. Due to a significant interaction, we can infer that ADHD diagnosis changes the effect of CPT-3 administration on CBF levels. This is consistent with our hypothesis considering that CPT-3 is a test of sustained attention, a common challenge for children with ADHD. The aforementioned interaction was not found to be significant in the parietal lobe. This may be due to the nature of CPT- 3 which does not require an integration of sensory information.

Keywords: SPECT, ADHD, conners continuous performance test, cerebral blood flow

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36 COVID-19, The Black Lives Matter Movement, and Race-Based Traumatic Stress

Authors: Claire Stafford, John Lewis, Ashley Stripling

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The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between both the independent effects and intersection between COVID-19 and the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement simultaneously to investigate how the two events have coincided with impacting race-based traumatic stress in Black Americans. Four groups will be surveyed: Black Americans who participated in BLM-related activism, Black Americans who did not participate in BLM-related activism, White Americans who participated in BLM-related activism, and White Americans who did not participate in BLM-related activism. Participants are between the ages of 30 and 50. All participants will be administered a Brief Trauma Questionnaire with an additional question asking whether or not they have ever tested positive for COVID-19. Based on prior findings, it is expected that Black Americans will have significantly higher levels of COVID-19 contraction, with Black Americans who participated in BLM-related activism having the highest levels of contractions. Additionally, Black Americans who participated in BLM-related activism will likely have the highest self-reported rates of traumatic experiences due to the compounding effect of both the pandemic and the BLM movement. With the development of the COVID-19 pandemic, stark racial disparities between Black and White Americans have become more defined. Compared to White Americans, Black Americans have more COVID-19-related cases and hospitalizations. Researchers must investigate and attempt to mitigate these disparities while simultaneously critically questioning the structure of our national health care system and how it serves our marginalized communities. Further, a critical gaze must be directed at the geopolitical climate of the United States in order to holistically look at how both the COVID-19 pandemic and the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement have interacted and impacted race-based stress and trauma in African Americans.

Keywords: COVID-19, black lives matter movement, race-based traumatic stress, activism

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35 An Evaluation of Education Provision for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland: The Role of the Special Needs Assistant

Authors: Claire P. Griffin

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The education provision for students with special educational needs, including students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has undergone significant national and international changes in recent years. In particular, an increase in resource-based provision has occurred across educational settings in an effort to support inclusive practices. This paper seeks to explore the role of the Special Needs Assistant (SNA) in supporting children with ASD in Irish schools. This research stems from the second national evaluation of ‘Education Provision for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland’ (NCSE, 2016). This research was commissioned by the National Council for Special Education (NCSE) in Ireland and conducted by a team of researchers from Mary Immaculate College, Limerick from February to July 2014. This study involved a multiple case study research strategy across 24 educational sites, as selected through a stratified sampling process. Research strategies included semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, documentary review and child conversations. Data analysis was conducted electronically using Nvivo software, with use of an additional quantitative recording mechanism based on scaled weighting criteria for collected data. Based on such information, key findings from the NCSE national evaluation will be presented and critically reviewed, with particular reference to the role of the SNA in supporting pupils with ASD. Examples of positive practice inherent within the SNA role will be outlined and contrasted with discrete areas for development. Based on such findings, recommendations for the evolving role of the SNA will be presented, with the aim of informing both policy and best practice within the field.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, inclusive education , paraprofessional, special needs assistant

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34 Effect of Probiotic Feeding on Weight Gain, Blood Biochemical and Hematological Indices of Crossbred Dairy Goat Kids

Authors: Claire B. Salvedia, Enrico P. Supangco, Francisco B. Eligado, Renato Sa Vega, Antonio A. Rayos

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The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feeding on weight gain, blood biochemical and hematological indices of crossbred dairy goat kids. Sixteen (16) crossbred Anglo-Nubian x Saanen dairy goat kids, 3 to 4 months old, ranging from 19 to 23kg were randomly assigned into four treatments fed with 5x109 cfu/ml probiotic supplements; Treatment 1 – control; Treatment 2 – lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum BS and P. acidilactici 3G3); treatment 3 – S. cerevisiae 2030; Treatment 4 – multi-strain probiotics (L. plantarum BS, P. acidilactici 3G3, and S.cerevisiae 2030). Feed ration provided daily for each of the experimental animals were composed of 1kg mixed concentrate feed ((Leucaena leucocephala dried leaves and pollard), and 4 kg fresh Pennisetum purpureum and Gliciridia sepium leaves (50:50). The experimental feeding trial lasted for 9 weeks. Result revealed that treatments fed with probiotics had significantly (P≤0.05) higher weight gain compared to the control. Significant effect on plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and triglyceride were noted during 30th and 60th day of probiotic feeding. White blood cell counts were significantly affected by probiotic feeding during the 60th day. Concentrations of glucose and cholesterol remained unchanged throughout the experimental period. The findings suggests, under the condition of the experiment, that live probiotic feeding could have a significant role in improving weight gain and metabolism of crossbred dairy goat kids.

Keywords: probiotics, weight gain, blood biochemical indices, crossbred dairy goat kids

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33 Service Provision in 'the Jungle': Describing Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Offered to Residents of the Calais Camp

Authors: Amy Darwin, Claire Blacklock

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Background: Existing literature about delivering evidence-based mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in emergency settings is limited. It is difficult to monitor and evaluate the approach to MHPSS in informal refugee camps such as ‘The Jungle’ in Calais, where there are multiple service providers and where the majority of providers are volunteers. AIM: To identify experiences of MHPSS delivery by service providers in an informal camp environment in Calais, France and describe MHPSS barriers and opportunities in this type of setting. Method: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 individuals from different organisations offering MHPSS in Calais and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results: Unsafe, uncertain and unsanitary conditions in the camp meant MHPSS was difficult to implement, and such conditions contributed to the poor mental health of the residents. The majority of MHPSS was offered by volunteers who lacked resources and training, and there was no overall official camp leadership which meant care was poorly coordinated and monitored. Strong relationships existed between volunteers and camp residents, but volunteers felt frustrated that they could not deliver the kind of MHPSS that they felt residents required. Conclusion: While long-term volunteers had built supportive relationships with camp residents, lack of central coordination and leadership of MHPSS services and limited access to trained professionals made implementation of MHPSS problematic. Similarly, the camp lacked the necessary infrastructure to meet residents’ basic needs. Formal recognition of the camp, and clear central leadership were identified as necessary steps to improving MHPSS delivery.

Keywords: calais, mental health, refugees, the jungle, MHPSS

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32 Illness Experience Without Illness: A Qualitative Study on the Lived Experience of Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Gemma Postil, Claire Zanin, Michael Halpin, Caroline Ritter

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Illness experience research typically focuses on people that are living with a medical condition; however, the broad consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are impacting those without the virus itself, as many experienced extensive lockdowns, social isolation, and distress. Drawing on conceptual work in the illness experience literature, we argue that policy and social changes tied to COVID-19 produce biographical disruptions. In this sense, we argue that the COVID-19 pandemic produces illness experience without illness, as the pandemic comprehensively impacts health and biography. This paper draws on 30 in-depth interviews with young adults living in Prince Edward Island (PEI), which were conducted as part of a larger project to understand how young adults navigate compliance with the COVID-19 pandemic. We then inductively analyzed the interviews with a constructivist grounded theory approach. Specifically, we demonstrate that young adults living in PEI during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced biographical disruptions throughout the pandemic despite not contracting the virus. First, we detail how some participants experience biographical acceleration, with the pandemic accelerating relationships, home buying, and career planning. Second, we demonstrate biographical stagnation, wherein participants report being unable to pursue major life milestones. Lastly, we describe biographical regression, wherein participants feel they are losing ground during the pandemic and are actively falling behind their peers. These findings provide the novel application of illness experience concepts to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, contribute to work on illness experience and ambiguity, and extend Bury’s conceptualization of biographical disruption. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young adults experienced the biographical disruption expected from having COVID-19 without having an illness, highlighting the depth to which the pandemic affected young adults.

Keywords: illness experience, lived experience, biographical disruption, COVID-19, young adults

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31 Examination of the Occupational Health and Safety Training for New Immigrant Workers in Alberta, Canada

Authors: Shu-Ping Chen, Janki Shankar, Alexa Adams, Claire Joe, Nathalie Klinger, Erika Laforest

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Background: New immigrants are over-represented in workplaces that are hazardous to their safety and well-being. Workplace injury and/or illness can be minimized if sufficient Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) training is provided prior to entering the workforce. This study aims to understand the current status of OH&S training for new immigrant workers in Alberta, Canada. Methods: A Qualitative Description approach was implemented with inductive data analysis methods. Sixteen participants were recruited – seven new immigrant workers (NIWs), and nine providers from agencies that provide settlement and employment services for immigrants. All participants took part in a semi-structured interview with a set of predetermined questions regarding their understanding of (1) OH&S issues specific to new immigrant workers, (2) current Alberta OH&S rules and regulations, and (3) current and ideal OH&S training for NIWs. Thematic content analysis guided the data analysis. Results: Four main themes emerged from the data which impact the current status of OH&S for NIWs: (1) attitudes towards OH&S and the logistics of training, (2) personal barriers, (3) Canadian workplace culture, and (4) macro-level interconnected systems. Three main themes emerged from the data that described what is needed for OH&S training to help NIWs: (1) increasing accessibility, (2) ensuring understanding of content and application, and (3) building confidence. Conclusions: OH&S training practices do not currently mitigate safety risks in places of work for NIWs, and NIWs do not feel empowered to exercise their worker’s rights. New OH&S training protocols and practices would be beneficial to equip this population to enter the Alberta workforce.

Keywords: employment services, occupational health and safety, empowerment, Canadian workforce, new immigrant workers

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30 Speech Anxiety in Higher Education Students-Retention of an Ancestral Trait: A Study into the Students' Perspective of Communication Anxiety with Suggestions on How to Minimise Student Distress

Authors: Paul D. Facey, Claire Morgan

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Speech anxiety is thought to be deep-seated within the human evolutionary lineage.As a result, almost all people display high levels of anxiety when asked to communicate in front of an audience.However, proficiency in oral communication is considered as an essential skill for a graduate career and significant emphasis is placed on developing these skills in many degree programs.Because of this, many degree schemes incorporate some form of assessed dialogic presentation. Yet, a student’s anxiety over public speaking, especially if severe, can be so great that at worst it can cause the student to withdraw from their study. This study investigated how students perceive their own levels of anxiety when faced with public speaking using the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) questionnaire developed by McCroskey. Additionally, students were asked to provide examples of adjustments that could be implemented that they felt would alleviate some/all of their anxiety. The results of the study indicated that the majority of the students experienced a moderate level of anxiety. However, further analysis showed that of those who were in the moderate anxiety’ group, 43% fell into the higher range suggesting that overall more students experience higher levels of anxiety when faced with public speaking than maybe first envisaged. Thus, it is essential that steps are taken to address student anxiety in order that students engage with presentations, are motivated and encouraged and do not avoid such assignments. The feedback from our students indicated a need to implement systematic desensitization programs where students learn to overcome their anxiety through a series of sessions that gradually increase their anxiety levels. Furthermore, these sessions should be run in parallel with skills sessions in order for students to be better prepared and allow self-reflection and self-analysis.This study highlights the paucity of these sessions on many degree schemes and suggests that they should form an integral part of a students’ early academic learning.

Keywords: student anxiety, communication anxiety, public speaking, higher education, desensitisation

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29 Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition Indicators in Miagao, Iloilo and Sibunag, Guimaras, Philippines

Authors: Franco Miguel Nodado, Adrienne Marie Bugayong Janagap, Allen Claire Arances, Kirsten Anne Gerez, Frances Catherine Rosario, Charise Alvyne Samaniego, Matt Andrew Secular, Rommel Gestuveo, Marilyn Sumayo, Joseph Arbizo, Philip Ian Padilla

Abstract:

COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected the delivery of health care services, but its impacts on Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) programs in rural municipalities in the Philippines remains understudied. Thus, this study explored the effects of the pandemic on MNCHN indicators in the municipalities of Miagao, Iloilo and Sibunag, Guimaras. A cross-sectional design was employed to compare the MNCHN indicators before and during the pandemic, and between Miagao and Sibunag. Key informant interviews (KII) were performed to identify the factors affecting access to MNCHN programs. During the pandemic, Miagao had a significant increase in positive outcomes of eight out of ten maternal health indicators, while Sibunag showed a significant decrease in six indicators. For child health and nutrition, Miagao obtained significant improvements in five of seven indicators, while Sibunag showed a significant increase in positive outcomes for six. KII data showed that the primary concern of mothers in Miagao is accessibility, while mothers in Sibunag raised concerns on accessibility, availability, and affordability of these MNCHN services. Miagao MHO employed various strategies such as telemedicine, activation of barangay health workers, and decentralization of health services to Barangay Health Centers, which can explain the improvements in MNCHN indicators. Sibunag also decentralized its health services, but its limited resources might have led them to prioritize child health and nutrition services. The findings suggest that the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on MNCHN depend on local health measures employed by the municipality, while telemedicine is a very useful tool in mitigating the negative effects of disrupted health services.

Keywords: maternal, child, COVID-19, Miagao, Sibunag, nutrition

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28 Effects of Artificial Nectar Feeders on Bird Distribution and Erica Visitation Rate in the Cape Fynbos

Authors: Monique Du Plessis, Anina Coetzee, Colleen L. Seymour, Claire N. Spottiswoode

Abstract:

Artificial nectar feeders are used to attract nectarivorous birds to gardens and are increasing in popularity. The costs and benefits of these feeders remain controversial, however. Nectar feeders may have positive effects by attracting nectarivorous birds towards suburbia, facilitating their urban adaptation, and supplementing bird diets when floral resources are scarce. However, this may come at the cost of luring them away from the plants they pollinate in neighboring indigenous vegetation. This study investigated the effect of nectar feeders on an African pollinator-plant mutualism. Given that birds are important pollinators to many fynbos plant species, this study was conducted in gardens and natural vegetation along the urban edge of the Cape Peninsula. Feeding experiments were carried out to compare relative bird abundance and local distribution patterns for nectarivorous birds (i.e., sunbirds and sugarbirds) between feeder and control treatments. Resultant changes in their visitation rates to Erica flowers in the natural vegetation were tested by inspection of their anther ring status. Nectar feeders attracted higher densities of nectarivores to gardens relative to natural vegetation and decreased their densities in the neighboring fynbos, even when floral abundance in the neighboring vegetation was high. The consequent changes to their distribution patterns and foraging behavior decreased their visitation to at least Erica plukenetii flowers (but not to Erica abietina). This study provides evidence that nectar feeders may have positive effects for birds themselves by reducing their urban sensitivity but also highlights the unintended negative effects feeders may have on the surrounding fynbos ecosystem. Given that nectar feeders appear to compete with the flowers of Erica plukenetii, and perhaps those of other Erica species, artificial feeding may inadvertently threaten bird-plant pollination networks.

Keywords: avian nectarivores, bird feeders, bird pollination, indirect effects in human-wildlife interactions, sugar water feeders, supplementary feeding

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27 Urban Ethical Fashion Networks of Design, Production and Retail in Taiwan

Authors: WenYing Claire Shih, Konstantinos Agrafiotis

Abstract:

The circular economy has become one of the seven fundamental pillars of Taiwan’s economic development, as this is promulgated by the government. The model of the circular economy, with its fundamental premise of waste elimination, can transform the textile and clothing sectors from major pollutant industries to a much cleaner alternative for a better quality of all citizens’ lives. In a related vein, the notion of the creative economy and more specifically the fashion industry can prompt similar results in terms of jobs and wealth creation. The combining forces of the circular and creative economies and their beneficial output have resulted in the configuration of ethical urban networks which potentially may lead to sources of competitive advantage. All actors involved in the configuration of this urban ethical fashion network from public authorities to private enterprise can bring about positive changes in the urban setting. Preliminary results through action research show that this configuration is an attainable task in terms of circularity by reducing fabric waste produced from local textile mills and through innovative methods of design, production and retail around urban spaces where the network has managed to generate a stream of jobs and financial revenues for all participants. The municipal authorities as the facilitating platform have been of paramount importance in this public-private partnership. In the explorative pilot study conducted about a network of production, consumption in terms of circularity of fashion products, we have experienced a positive disposition. As the network will be fully functional by attracting more participant firms from the textile and clothing sectors, it can be beneficial to Taiwan’s soft power in the region and simultaneously elevate citizens’ awareness on circular methods of fashion production, consumption and disposal which can also lead to the betterment of urban lifestyle and may open export horizons for the firms.

Keywords: the circular economy, the creative economy, ethical urban networks, action research

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26 Effectiveness of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Cognitive Development: Preliminary Analyses of a 12-Month Follow-Up

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

Abstract:

Introduction: Over the last decade, researchers have implemented attachment-based interventions to promote parental interactive sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families. In the context of the present study, these interventions have been shown to be effective to enhance cognitive development when child outcome was measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child cognitive development one year post-intervention. Methods: Thirty-five mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, were included in this study: 21 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 14 dyads not exposed to the intervention and matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex and family status. Child cognitive development was measured using the WPPSI-IV, 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children was 54 months old. Findings: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the scores obtained on the WPPSI-IV for the two groups. In general, no differences were observed between the two groups. There was a significant difference on the fluid reasoning scale between children exposed to the intervention (M = 95,13, SD = 16,67) and children not exposed (M = 81, SD = 9,90). T (23) = -2,657; p= .014 (IC :-25.13;3.12). This difference was found only for children aged between 48 and 92 months old. Other results did not show any significant difference between the two groups (Global IQ or subscales). Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggest that relatively little effects of attachment-based intervention remain on the level of cognitive functioning 12-months post-intervention. It is possible that the significant findings concerning fluid reasoning may be pertinent in that fluid reasoning is linked to the capacity to analyse, to solve problems, and remember information, which may be important for promoting school readiness. As the study is completed and as more information is gained from other assessments of cognitive and socioemotional outcome, a clearer picture of the potential moderate-term impact of attachment-based intervention will emerge.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child development, child protective services, cognitive development

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25 Postpartum Depression Screening and Referrals for Lower-Income Women in North Carolina, USA

Authors: Maren J. Coffman, Victoria C. Scott, J. Claire Schuch, Ashley N. Kelley, Jeri L. Ryan

Abstract:

Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a leading cause of postpartum morbidity. PPD affects 7.1% of postpartum women and 19.2% of postpartum women when including minor depression. Lower-income women and ethnic minorities are more at risk for developing PPD and face multiple attitudinal and institutional barriers to receiving care. This study aims to identify PPD among low-income women and connect them to appropriate services in order to reduce the illness burden and enhance access to care. Screenings were conducted in two Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, from April 2017 to April 2018. WIC is a supplemental nutrition program that provides healthcare and nutrition to low-income pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and children under the age of 5. Additionally, a qualitative study was conducted to better understand the PPD continuum of care in order to identify opportunities for improvement. Mothers with infants were screened for depression risk using the PHQ-2. Mothers who scored ≥ 2 completed two additional standardized screening tools (PHQ-7, to complete the PHQ-9, and the Edinburgh) to assess depressive symptomatology. If indicated they may be suffering from depression, women were referred for case management services. Open-ended questions were used to understand treatment barriers. Four weeks after the initial survey, a follow-up telephone call was made to see if women had received care. Seven focus groups with WIC staff and managers, referral agency staff, local behavioral health professionals, and students examining the screenings, are being conducted March - April, 2018 to gather information related to current screening practices, referrals, follow up and treatment. Mothers (n = 231 as of February, 2018) were screened in English (65%) or Spanish (35%). According to preliminary results, 29% of mothers screened were at risk for postpartum depression (PHQ-2 ≥ 2). There were significant differences in preliminary screening results based on survey language (

Keywords: health disparities, maternal health, mental health, postpartum depression

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24 Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mina Kalantarzadeh, Claire Lockie-Williams, Caroline Howard

Abstract:

DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.

Keywords: degradation, DNA extraction, nucleic acid reference material, trnH-psbA

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23 In Vitro Digestibility of Grains and Straw of Seventeen Ecotypes of Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia) in the North of Morocco

Authors: Boukrouh Soumaya, Cabaraux Jean-François, Avril Claire, Noutfia Ali, Chentouf Mouad

Abstract:

The introduction of marginal leguminous forage species in the diet of ruminants are of great importance. Bitter vetch is a good source of proteins, highly resistant against drought and poor soil conditions. Accordingly; two years field trials (2018/2019 and 2019-2020) were conducted to determine the digestibility of straw and grains of 17 promising bitter vetch ecotypes(Vicia ervilia) in the north of Morocco. In vitro dry and organic matter digestibility, gas production, and kinetics of fermentation of grains and straw were evaluated using gas production technique, pepsin-cellulase enzymatic digestibility of DM (CDDM)and OM (CDOM), as well as protease enzymatic CP degradation (CPD) and in vitro true digestibility, were performed using DAISYII Incubator. In vitro digestibility was performed using gas production method of (Menke et al., 1979) improved by Menke and Steingass (1988). Samples were incubated in glass syringes that contained rumen fluid and incubation solution that conserved in water bath in 39°C during 72 hours. Gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Studied digestibility parameters were dry and organic matter digestibility, microbial biomass production, partitioning factor, and volatile fatty acids. Enzymatic dry matter digestibility was different (p < 0.05) among grains and straw for all ecotypes. It varied from 804.1 to 957.7 g/kg DM and 270.4 to 412.3 g/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Metabolizable energy varied between 11.7 to 14.3 MJ/kg DM and 2.6 to 5.0 MJ/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Potential gas production (A), the rate constants (c and d), and lag times of grains and straws from different bitter vetch ecotypes were different (p > 0.05). The results emphasized that in any evaluation of bitter vetch ecotypes, where straw of this legume seed is used as an animal feed, not only seed yield but also yield and quality of straw should be taken into consideration, particularly in areas where straw from this legume is considered as an important feedstuff for ruminants. Enzymatic digestibility was lower than in vitro digestibility by gaz production and by the DAISYII method because rumen fluid contains bacteria than increase digestibility. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility by gaz production and the DAISY II method. The DAISY II method can be used to increase labor efficiency in the in vitro DM digestibility analysis if gaz production is not necessary for analysis.

Keywords: bitter vetch, grains, straw, ecotype, in vitro digestibility, gaz production, enzymatic digestibility

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22 Effective Thermal Retrofitting Methods to Improve Energy Efficiency of Existing Dwellings in Sydney

Authors: Claire Far, Sara Wilkinson, Deborah Ascher Barnstone

Abstract:

Energy issues have been a growing concern in current decades. Limited energy resources and increasing energy consumption from one side and environmental pollution and waste of resources from the other side have substantially affected the future of human life. Around 40 percent of total energy consumption of Australian buildings goes to heating and cooling due to the low thermal performance of the buildings. Thermal performance of buildings determines the amount of energy used for heating and cooling of the buildings which profoundly influences energy efficiency. Therefore, employing sustainable design principles and effective use of construction materials for building envelope can play crucial role in the improvement of energy efficiency of existing dwellings and enhancement of thermal comfort of the occupants. The energy consumption for heating and cooling normally is determined by the quality of the building envelope. Building envelope is the part of building which separates the habitable areas from exterior environment. Building envelope consists of external walls, external doors, windows, roof, ground and the internal walls that separate conditioned spaces from non-condition spaces. The energy loss from the building envelope is the key factor. Heat loss through conduction, convection and radiation from building envelope. Thermal performance of the building envelope can be improved by using different methods of retrofitting depending on the climate conditions and construction materials. Based on the available studies, the importance of employing sustainable design principles has been highlighted among the Australian building professionals. However, the residential building sector still suffers from a lack of having the best practice examples and experience for effective use of construction materials for building envelope. As a result, this study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of existing dwellings in Sydney, the most populated city in Australia. Based on the research findings, the best thermal retrofitting methods for increasing thermal comfort and energy efficiency of existing residential dwellings as well as reducing their environmental impact and footprint have been identified and proposed.

Keywords: thermal comfort, energy consumption, residential dwellings, sustainable design principles, thermal retrofit

Procedia PDF Downloads 202