Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 207

Search results for: pesticides

207 Molecular Docking Assessment of Pesticides Binding to Bacterial Chitinases

Authors: Diana Larisa Vladoiu, Vasile Ostafe, Adriana Isvoran


Molecular docking calculations reveal that pesticides provide favorable interactions with the bacterial chitinases. Pesticides interact with both hydrophilic and aromatic residues involved in the active site of the enzymes, their positions partially overlapping the substrate and the inhibitors locations. Molecular docking outcomes, in correlation with experimental literature data, suggest that the pesticides may be degraded or having an inhibitor effect on the activity of these enzymes, depending of the application dose and rate.

Keywords: chitinases, inhibition, molecular docking, pesticides

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
206 Plants and Microorganisms for Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Organochlorine Pesticides

Authors: Maritsa Kurashvili, George Adamia, Tamar Ananiashvili, Lia Amiranasvili, Tamar Varazi, Marina Pruidze, Marlen Gordeziani, Gia Khatisashvili


The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of plants and microorganisms. For this aim the selection of plants and microorganisms with corresponding capabilities towards three organochlorine pesticides (Lindane, DDT and PCP) has been carried out. The tolerance of plants to tested pesticides and induction degree of plant detoxification enzymes by these compounds have been used as main criteria for estimating the applicability of plants in proposed technology. Obtained results show that alfalfa, maize and soybean among tested six plant species have highest tolerance to pesticides. As a result of screening, more than 30 strains from genera Pseudomonas have been selected. As a result of GC analysis of incubation area, 11 active cultures for investigated pesticides are carefully chosen.

Keywords: DDT, Lindane, organochlorine pesticides, PCP, phytoremediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
205 Monitoring of Pesticide Content in Biscuits Available on the Vojvodina Market, Serbia

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Vasiljevic, Milana Lazovic, Danica Mrkajic, Aleksandar Fises, Strahinja Kovacevic


Biscuits belong to a group of flour-confectionery products that are considerably consumed worldwide. The basic raw material for their production is wheat flour or integral flour as a nutritionally highly valuable component. However, this raw material is also a potential source of contamination since it may contain the residues of biochemical compounds originating from plant and soil protection agents. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the health safety of both raw materials and final products. The aim of this research was to examine the content of undesirable residues of pesticides (mostly organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides, triazine pesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides) in 30 different biscuit samples of domestic origin present on the Vojvodina market using Gas Chromatograph Thermo ISQ/Trace 1300. The results showed that all tested samples had the limit of detection of pesticide content below 0.01 mg/kg, indicating that this type of confectionary products is not contaminated with pesticides.

Keywords: biscuits, pesticides, contamination, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
204 Pesticides Regulations: An Urgent Need for Legal Reform in India

Authors: D. Pranav


Pesticides are a class of Biocide, whose use in agriculture has led to a momentous increase in the yield of crops, fruits and vegetables all over the word and its effective use has also been the pillars of success for the Green Revolution. However, the incessant use of pesticides has now reached alarming levels. In 2007 alone, the world used an estimated 2.4 million tons of pesticides. Despite its tremendous benefits for agriculture, pesticide has been one of the major reasons for degradation of the natural environment and undesirable effects on human beings. It has not only caused damage to human health, but has also threatened the survival of few birds and animal species. In India, the sale and usage of banned pesticide, increased usage of pesticides and its inadequate labeling has caused Bio magnification, which is causing deleterious effects on child development, resulting in stunted mental and physical growth. This paper aims to bring to shed light on major loopholes in the current pesticide regulations such as the Insecticide Act of 1968. It further discusses loopholes in the yet to be tabled Pesticides Management Bill of 2008. It discusses and arrives at potential amendments to the laws and regulations concerning pesticides; that cannot only be applied to the Indian subcontinent but other developing countries as well.

Keywords: pesticides, India, human health, environment, regulations, reform

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
203 Adverse Effects of Natural Pesticides on Human and Animals: An Experimental Analysis

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa


Synthetic pesticides are widely used in large-scale worldwide for control pests in agriculture and public health sectors in both developed and developing countries. Although the positive role of pesticides, they have many adverse toxic effects on humans, animals, and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last few years, scientists have been searching for new active compounds from natural resources as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. Currently, many commercial natural pesticides are available commercially worldwide. These products are recommended for uses in organic farmers and considered as safe pesticides. This paper focuses on the adverse effects of natural pesticides on mammals. Available commercial pesticides in the market contain essential oils (e.g. pepper, cinnamon, and garlic), plant extracts, microorganism (e.g. bacteria, fungi or their toxin), mineral oils and some active compounds from natural recourses e.g. spinosad, neem, pyrethrum, rotenone, abamectin and other active compounds from essential oils (EOs). Some EOs components, e.g., thujone, pulegone, and thymol have high acute toxicity (LD50) is 87.5, 150 and 980 mg/kg. B.wt on mice, respectively. Natural pesticides such as spinosad, pyrethrum, neem, abamectin, and others have toxicological effects to mammals and ecosystem. These compounds were found to cause hematotoxicity, hepato-renal toxicity, biochemical alteration, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity. It caused adverse effects on the ecosystem. Therefore, natural pesticides in general not safe and have high acute toxicity and can induce adverse effects at long-term exposure.

Keywords: natural pesticides, toxicity, safety, genotoxicity, ecosystem, biochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
202 Gas Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry Qualitative Determination of Pesticides Found in Tea Infusions

Authors: Mihai-Alexandru Florea, Veronica Drumea, Roxana Nita, Cerasela Gird, Laura Olariu


The aim of this study was to investigate the residues of pesticide found in tea water infusions. A multi-residues method to determine 147 pesticides has been developed using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) procedure and dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) for the cleanup the pesticides from complex matrices such as plants and tea. Sample preparation was carefully optimized for the efficient removal of coextracted matrix components by testing more solvent systems. Determination of pesticides was performed using GC-MS/MS (100 of pesticides) and LC-MS/MS (47 of pesticides). The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was chosen to achieve low detection limits and high compounds selectivity and sensitivity. Overall performance was evaluated and validated according to DG-SANTE Guidelines. To assess the pesticide residue transfer rate (qualitative) from dried tea in infusions the samples (tea) were spiked with a mixture of pesticides at the maximum residues level accepted for teas and herbal infusions. In order to investigate the release of the pesticides in tea preparations, the medicinal plants were prepared in four ways by variation of water temperature and the infusion time. The pesticides from infusions were extracted using two methods: QuEChERS versus solid-phase extraction (SPE). More that 90 % of the pesticides studied was identified in infusion.

Keywords: tea, solid-phase extraction (SPE), selected reaction monitoring (SRM), QuEChERS

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
201 In vitro Estimation of Genotoxic Lesions in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Rat Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides

Authors: A. Ojha, Y. K. Gupta


Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for controlling a wide variety of pests throughout the world. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), methyl parathion (MPT), and malathion (MLT) are among the most extensively used OP pesticides in India. DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) are toxic lesions associated with the mechanisms of toxicity of genotoxic compounds. In the present study, we have examined the potential of CPF, MPT, and MLT individually and in combination, to cause DNA strand breakage and DPC formation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of rat were exposed to 1/4 and 1/10 LC50 dose of CPF, MPT, and MLT for 2, 4, 8, and 12h. The DNA strand break was measured by the comet assay and expressed as DNA damage index while DPC estimation was done by fluorescence emission. There was significantly marked increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein crosslink formation in time and dose dependent manner. It was also observed that MPT caused the highest level of DNA damage as compared to other studied OP compounds. Thus, from present study, we can conclude that studied pesticides have genotoxic potential. The pesticides mixture does not potentiate the toxicity of each other. Nonetheless, additional in vivo data are required before a definitive conclusion can be drawn regarding hazard prediction to humans.

Keywords: organophosphate, pesticides, DNA damage, DNA protein crosslink, genotoxic

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
200 Chemometric QSRR Evaluation of Behavior of s-Triazine Pesticides in Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević


This study considers the selection of the most suitable in silico molecular descriptors that could be used for s-triazine pesticides characterization. Suitable descriptors among topological, geometrical and physicochemical are used for quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) model establishment. Established models were obtained using linear regression (LR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. In this paper, MLR models were established avoiding multicollinearity among the selected molecular descriptors. Statistical quality of established models was evaluated by standard and cross-validation statistical parameters. For detection of similarity or dissimilarity among investigated s-triazine pesticides and their classification, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used and gave similar grouping. This study is financially supported by COST action TD1305.

Keywords: chemometrics, classification analysis, molecular descriptors, pesticides, regression analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
199 Simultaneous Determination of Some Phenolic Pesticides in Environmental and Biological Samples

Authors: Yasmeen F. Pervez, Etesh K. Janghel, Santosh Kumar Sar


Simple and sensitive analytical thermal gradient-thin layer chromatography technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic pesticides like carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran. It is based on the differential migration of colored derivatives formed by the reaction of hydrolysed phenolic compound with diazotized 3, 4 dimethyl aniline on a silica gel plate. Quantitative evaluation of hydrolyzed phenolic compound is made by visual comparison of intensities of color by spectrophotometry. The color system obeys Beer’s law in the following working range in ppm : carbaryl, 0.5-6.6; propoxur, 0.8-7.2; and carbofuran, 0.2-3.3 respectively. The Molar absorptivity, Sandell’s sensitivity, Correlation coefficient have been determined. The effects of analytical parameters on migration and analysis have been evaluated. The methods are highly reproducible and have been successfully applied to determination of phenolic pesticides in environmental and biological samples.

Keywords: phenolic pesticides (carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran), 3.4 dimethyl aniline, environmental, biological samples

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
198 Adsorption of Chlorinated Pesticides in Drinking Water by Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Hacer Sule Gonul, Vedat Uyak


Intensive use of pesticides in agricultural activity causes mixing of these compounds into water sources with surface flow. Especially after the 1970s, a number of limitations imposed on the use of chlorinated pesticides that have a carcinogenic risk potential and regulatory limit have been established. These chlorinated pesticides discharge to water resources, transport in the water and land environment and accumulation in the human body through the food chain raises serious health concerns. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention from on all because of their excellent mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics. Due to CNT particles' high degree of hydrophobic surfaces, these nanoparticles play critical role in the removal of water contaminants of natural organic matters, pesticides and phenolic compounds in water sources. Health concerns associated with chlorinated pesticides requires the removal of such contaminants from aquatic environment. Although the use of aldrin and atrazine was restricted in our country, repatriation of illegal entry and widespread use of such chemicals in agricultural areas cause increases for the concentration of these chemicals in the water supply. In this study, the compounds of chlorinated pesticides such as aldrin and atrazine compounds would be tried to eliminate from drinking water with carbon nanotube adsorption method. Within this study, 2 different types of CNT would be used including single-wall (SWCNT) and multi-wall (MWCNT) carbon nanotubes. Adsorption isotherms within the scope of work, the parameters affecting the adsorption of chlorinated pesticides in water are considered as pH, contact time, CNT type, CNT dose and initial concentration of pesticides. As a result, under conditions of neutral pH conditions with MWCNT respectively for atrazine and aldrin obtained adsorption capacity of determined as 2.24 µg/mg ve 3.84 µg/mg. On the other hand, the determined adsorption capacity rates for SWCNT for aldrin and atrazine has identified as 3.91 µg/mg ve 3.92 µg/mg. After all, each type of pesticide that provides superior performance in relieving SWCNT particles has emerged.

Keywords: pesticide, drinking water, carbon nanotube, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
197 A Review on the Mechanism Removal of Pesticides and Heavy Metal from Agricultural Runoff in Treatment Train

Authors: N. A. Ahmad Zubairi, H. Takaijudin, K. W. Yusof


Pesticides have been used widely over the world in agriculture to protect from pests and reduce crop losses. However, it affects the environment with toxic chemicals. Exceed of toxic constituents in the ecosystem will result in bad side effects. The hydrological cycle is related to the existence of pesticides and heavy metal which it can penetrate through varieties of sources into the soil or water bodies, especially runoff. Therefore, proper mechanisms of pesticide and heavy metal removal should be studied to improve the quality of ecosystem free or reduce from unwanted substances. This paper reviews the use of treatment train and its mechanisms to minimize pesticides and heavy metal from agricultural runoff. Organochlorine (OCL) is a common pesticide that was found in the agricultural runoff. OCL is one of the toxic chemicals that can disturb the ecosystem such as inhibiting plants' growth and harm human health by having symptoms as asthma, active cancer cell, vomit, diarrhea, etc. Thus, this unwanted contaminant gives disadvantages to the environment and needs treatment system. Hence, treatment train by bioretention system is suitable because removal efficiency achieves until 90% of pesticide removal with selected vegetated plant and additive.

Keywords: pesticides, heavy metal, agricultural runoff, bioretention, mechanism removal, treatment train

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
196 A Sustainable and Low-Cost Filter to Treat Pesticides in Water

Authors: T. Abbas, J. McEvoy, E. Khan


Pesticide contamination in water supply is a common environmental problem in rural agricultural communities. Advanced water treatment processes such as membrane filtration and adsorption on activated carbon only remove pesticides from water without degrading them into less toxic/easily degradable compounds leaving behind contaminated brine and activated carbon that need to be managed. Rural communities which normally cannot afford expensive water treatment technologies need an economical and sustainable filter which not only treats pesticides from water but also degrades them into benign products. In this study, iron turning waste experimented as potential point-of-use filtration media for the removal/degradation of a mixture of six chlorinated pesticides (lindane, heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT) in water. As a common and traditional medium for water filtration, sand was also tested along with iron turning waste. Iron turning waste was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer. Four glass columns with different filter media layer configurations were set up: (1) only sand, (2) only iron turning, (3) sand and iron turning (two separate layers), and (4) sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers). The initial pesticide concentration and flow rate were 2 μg/L and 10 mL/min. Results indicate that sand filtration was effective only for the removal of DDT (100%) and endosulfan (94-96%). Iron turning filtration column effectively removed endosulfan, endrin, and dieldrin (85-95%) whereas the lindane and DDT removal were 79-85% and 39-56%, respectively. The removal efficiencies for heptachlor, endosulfan, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT were 90-100% when sand and iron turning waste (two separate layers) were used. However, better removal efficiencies (93-100%) for five out of six pesticides were achieved, when sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers) were used as filtration media. Moreover, the effects of water pH, amounts of media, and minerals present in water such as magnesium, sodium, calcium, and nitrate on the removal of pesticides were examined. Results demonstrate that iron turning waste efficiently removed all the pesticides under studied parameters. Also, it completely de-chlorinated all the pesticides studied and based on the detection of by-products, the degradation mechanisms for all six pesticides were proposed.

Keywords: pesticide contamination, rural communities, iron turning waste, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
195 Optimization of DLLME Extraction Parameters for Pesticides Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Ezgi Altiparmak, Emine Yilmaz, Filiz Dadaser-Celik, Nuray Ates


Pesticides have been used widely all over the world for centuries to increase agricultural production and to combat harmful pests. Pesticides used for agriculture, household, and public health sectors eventually reach water bodies, posing a risk to human health and the environment even in micro concentrations. Each country legally sets its own maximum allowable limits to regulate pesticides residues. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor pesticide residues in water resources, especially if they are used for drinking water purposes. With the technological developments, nowadays, sensitive analytical instruments employing complex analysis methods such as GC/MS and LC/MS have been used to analyze pesticides. Pesticide residues must be concentrated by different extraction methods before HPLC analysis to be able to detect them in micro levels with high precision and low detection limits. The aim of this study is to develop an analytical method for the analysis of metolachlor and acetochlor pesticides by HPLC instrument with dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) method. In order to determine optimum conditions for DLLME extraction method, extraction solvent type (chloroform, dichloromethane, and 1,2 dichloroethane), dispersive solvent type (acetonitrile, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol), flowrate (1, 1.2, and 1.5 ml/min), oven temperature (20°C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C), the volume of extraction solvent (300, 350 and 400 µl), and mobile phase mixture (60/40, 70/30 and 80/20 acetonitrile/water in v/v) were comprehensively investigated with Taguchi experimental design. The optimized conditions were obtained as extraction solvent of 1,2-dichloroethane, the dispersive solvent of methanol, extraction solvent volume of 350 µL, the dispersive volume of 1 ml, the flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, the temperature of 40 °C, and mobile phase mixture of 70/30 v/v.

Keywords: analysis, DLLME, HPLC, optimization, pesticides, taguchi experimental design

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
194 Separation of Some Pyrethroid Insecticides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Fairouz Tazerouti, Samira Ihadadene


Pyrethroids are synthetic pesticides that originated from the modification of natural pyrethrins to improve their biological activity and stability. They are a family of chiral pesticides with a large number of stereoisomers. Enantiomers of synthetic pyretroids present different insecticidal activity, toxicity against aquatic invertebrates and persistence in the environment so the development of rapid and sensitive chiral methods for the determination of different enantiomers is necessary. In this study, the separation of enantiomers of pyrethroid insecticides has been systematically studied using three commercially chiral high-performance liquid chromatography columns. Useful resolution was obtained for compounds with a variety of acid and alcohol moieties, and containing one to four chiral centres. The chromatographic behaviour of the diastereomers of some of these insecticides by using normal, polar and reversed mobile phase mode were also examined.

Keywords: pesticides, analysis, liquid chromatography, pyrethroids

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
193 Micro Plasma an Emerging Technology to Eradicate Pesticides from Food Surface

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Islam Khan, Yun Ji Kim


Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) have been widely used to replace more persistent organochlorine pesticides because OPPs are more soluble in water and decompose rapidly in aquatic systems. Extensive uses of OPPs in modern agriculture are the major cause of the contamination of surface water. Regardless of the advantages gained by the application of pesticides in modern agriculture, they are a threat to the public health environment. With the aim of reducing possible health threats, several physical and chemical treatment processes have been studied to eliminate biological and chemical poisons from food stuff. In the present study, a micro-plasma device was used to reduce pesticides from the surface of food stuff. Pesticide free food items chosen in this study were perilla leaf, tomato, broccoli and blueberry. To evaluate the removal efficiency of pesticides, different washing methods were followed such as soaking with water, washing with bubbling water, washing with plasma-treated water and washing with chlorine water. 2 mL of 2000 ppm pesticide samples, namely, diazinone and chlorpyrifos were individuality inoculated on food surface and was air dried for 2 hours before treated with plasma. Plasma treated water was used in two different manners one is plasma treated water with bubbling the other one is aerosolized plasma treated water. The removal efficiency of pesticides from food surface was studied using HPLC. Washing with plasma treated water, aerosolized plasma treated water and chlorine water shows minimum 72% to maximum 87 % reduction for 4 min treatment irrespective to the types of food items and the types of pesticides sample, in case of soaking and bubbling the reduction is 8% to 48%. Washing with plasma treated water, aerosolized plasma treated water and chlorine water shows somewhat similar reduction ability which is significantly higher comparing to the soaking and bubbling washing system. The temperature effect of the washing systems was also evaluated; three different temperatures were set for the experiment, such as 22°C, 10°C and 4°C. Decreasing temperature from 22°C to 10°C shows a higher reduction in the case of washing with plasma and aerosolized plasma treated water, whereas an opposite trend was observed for the washing with chlorine water. Further temperature reduction from 10°C to 4°C does not show any significant reduction of pesticides, except for the washing with chlorine water. Chlorine water treatment shows lesser pesticide reduction with the decrease in temperature. The color changes of the treated sample were measured immediately and after one week to evaluate if there is any effect of washing with plasma treated water and with chlorine water. No significant color changes were observed for either of the washing systems, except for broccoli washing with chlorine water.

Keywords: chlorpyrifos, diazinone, pesticides, micro plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
192 Hepatological Alterations in Market Gardeners Occupationally Exposed to Pesticides in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Authors: M. G. Tanga, P. B. Telefo, D. N. Tarla


Even though the WHO, the EPA and other regulatory bodies have recognized the effects of acute pesticide poisoning little data exists on health effects after long-term low-dose exposures especially in Africa and Cameroon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pesticides on the hepatic functions of market gardeners in the Western Region of Cameroon by studying some biochemical parameters. Sixty six male market gardeners in Foumbot, Massangam, and Bantoum were interviewed on their health status, habits and pesticide use in agriculture, including the spray frequency, application method, and pesticide dosage. Thirty men with no history of pesticide exposure were recruited as control group. Thereafter, their blood samples were collected for assessment of hepatic function biomarkers (ALT, AST, and albumin). The results showed that 56 pesticides containing 25 active ingredients were currently used by market gardeners enrolled in our study and most of their symptoms (headache, fatigue, skin rashes, eye irritation, and nausea) were related to the use of these chemicals. Compared to the control subjects market gardeners’ ALT levels (32.9 ± 7.19 UL-1 vs. 82.11 ± 35.40 UL-1; P < 0.001) and, AST levels (40.63 ± 6.52 UL-1 vs. 112.11 UL-1 ± 47.15 UL-1; P < 0.001) were significantly increased. These results suggest that liver function tests can be used as biomarkers to indicate toxicity before overt clinical signs occur. The market gardeners’ chronic exposure to pesticides due to poor application measures could lead to hepatic function impairment. Further research on larger scale is needed to confirm these findings and to establish a mechanism of toxicity.

Keywords: biomarkers, liver, pesticides, occupational exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
191 Use of Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Aqueous and Juice Samples

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Ashok Kumar Malik


Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction (FPSE) combined with Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) has been developed for the determination of nineteen organochlorine pesticides in various aqueous samples. The method consolidates the features of sol-gel derived microextraction sorbents with rich surface chemistry of cellulose fabric substrate which could directly extract sample from complex sample matrices and incredibly improve the operation with decreased pretreatment time. Some vital parameters such as kind and volume of extraction solvent and extraction time were examinedand optimized. Calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 0.5-500 ng/mL. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.033 ng/mL to 0.136 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for extraction of 10 ng/mL 0f OCPs were less than 10%. The developed method has been applied for the quantification of these compounds in aqueous and fruit juice samples. The results obtained proved the present method to be rapid and feasible for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples.

Keywords: fabric phase sorptive extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, organochlorine pesticides, sample pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
190 Chronic Pesticides Exposure and Certain Endocrine Functions Among Farmers in East Almnaif District, Ismailia, Egypt

Authors: Amani Waheed, Mostafa Kofi, Shaymaa Attia, Soha Younis, Basma Abdel Hadi


Background: Exposure to pesticides is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers in developing countries. Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. Objective: To investigate thyroid and reproductive hormones and fasting blood glucose levels among farmers chronically exposed to pesticide from East Almnaif district, Ismailia governorate. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 farmers with active involvement pesticides handling and 43 participants not occupationally exposed to pesticides as the control group. A structured interview questionnaire measuring the sociodemographic characteristics, pesticides exposure characteristics, and safety measures was used. General examination including measurements of height, weight, and blood pressure was done. Moreover, levels of plasma cholinesterase enzyme (PChE), glucose, as well as reproductive and thyroid hormones (TSH, T4, and testosterone) were determined. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding their age, educational level, smoking status, and body mass index. The mean duration of exposure was 20.60 11.06 years. Majority of farmers (76.7%) did not use any personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticides handling. The mean systolic blood pressure among exposed farmers was greater (134.88 17.18 mm Hg) compared to control group (125 14.69 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). The mean diastolic blood pressure was higher (84.02 8.69 mm Hg) compared to control group (78.79 8.98 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.006). The pesticide exposed farmers had statistically significant lower level of PChE (3969.93 1841U/L) than control group (4879.29 1950.08 U/L). Additionally, TSH level was significantly higher in exposed farmers (median =1.39µIU/ml) compared to controls (median = 0.91 µIU/ml) (p=0.032). While, the exposed group had a lower T4 level (6.91 1.91 µg/dl) compared to the control group (7.79 2.10µg/dl), with the statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.045). The exposed group had significantly lower level of testosterone hormone (median=3.37 ng/ml) compared to the control group (median= 6.22 ng/ml) (p=0.003). While, the exposed farmers had statistically insignificant higher level of fasting blood glucose (median =89 mg/dl) than the controls (median=88 mg/dl). Furthermore, farmers who did not use PPE had statistically significant lower level of T4 (6.57 1.81µg/dl) than farmers who used PPE during handling of pesticides (8.01 1.89 µg/dl). Conclusion: Chronic exposure to pesticides exerts disturbing action on reproductive function and thyroid function of the male farmers.

Keywords: chronic occupational pesticide exposure, Diabetes mellitus, male reproductive hormones, thyroid function

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
189 Factors Associated with Pesticides Used and Plasma Cholinesterase Level among Agricultural Workers in Rural Area, Thailand

Authors: Pirakorn Sukonthaman, Paphitchaya Temphattharachok, Warangkana Thammasanya, Kraichart Tantrakarnarpa, Tanongson Tientavorn


Agriculture is the main occupation in Thailand. Excessive amount of pesticides are used to increase the products but are toxic to human body. In 2009, Bureau of Epidemiology received 1,691 cases reported with pesticides toxicity (2.66:100,000) which 10.61 % of them is caused by Organophosphate. The purposes are to find factors associated with pesticides used and plasma cholinesterase level and other emerging issues that previous studies did not explain among agricultural workers in Baan Na Yao, Chachoengsao, Thailand. This research was an exploratory mixed method study. Qualitative interviews and quantitative questionnaires were used together in order to gather information from the agricultural workers (mainly cassava and rice farming) directly exposed to pesticides within 2 months simultaneously. Qualitative participants were selected by purposive sampling and a total survey for quantitative ones. The quantitative data was statistically analyzed by using multiple logistic regression model. Qualitative data was transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. For qualitative study, 15 participants were interviewed and 300/323 participants (92.88%) were given questionnaires, of which were 175 male and 125 female and 113 among them were spraymen. The prevalence of abnormal plasma cholinesterase level was 92.28% (Safe 7.72% Risky 49.33% and Unsafe 42.95%). Participants with inappropriate behaviors during spraying had a significant association with plasma cholinesterase level (95%CI=1.399-14.858) but other factors such as age, gender, education, attitude and knowledge had no association. They also had encountered various symptoms from pesticides such as fatigue (61%), vertigo (59.67%) and headache (58.86%), etc. Although they had high knowledge and attitude they still had poor behaviors. Moreover, our qualitative component showed that though they had worn the personal protective equipment (PPE) regularly, their PPE was not standard. Not only substandard PPE, but also there were obstacles of wearing such as the hot climate and inconvenience. They misunderstood their symptoms from using pesticides as allergy. Therefore, they did not seek for proper medical check-ups and treatment. This research revealed almost all of the participants have abnormal levels of plasma cholinesterase related especially those with poor behaviors. They also wore PPE but inadequately and misunderstood the symptoms produced by organophosphate use as allergy. Therefore, they did not seek for medical treatment. Occupation health education, modification of PPE and periodic medical checking are ways to make agricultural workers concern and know if there is any progression in a long term.

Keywords: pesticides, plasma cholinesterase level, spraymen, agricultural workers

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
188 In situ Biodegradation of Endosulfan, Imidacloprid, and Carbendazim Using Indigenous Bacterial Cultures of Agriculture Fields of Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Geeta Negi, Pankaj, Anjana Srivastava, Anita Sharma


In the present study, the presence of endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim, in the soil /vegetables/cereals and water samples was observed in agriculture fields of Uttarakhand. In view of biodegradation of these pesticides, nine bacterial isolates were recovered from the soil samples of the fields which tolerated endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim from 100 to 200 µg/ml. Three bacterial consortia used for in vitro bioremediation experiments were three bacterial isolates for carbendazim, imidacloprid and endosulfan, respectively. Maximum degradation (87 and 83%) of α and β endosulfan respectively was observed in soil slurry by consortium. Degradation of Imidacloprid and carbendazim under similar conditions was 88.4 and 77.5% respectively. FT-IR analysis of biodegraded samples of pesticides in liquid media showed stretching of various bonds. GC-MS of biodegraded endosulfan sample in soil slurry showed the presence of non-toxic intermediates. A pot trial with Bacterial treatments lowered down the uptake of pesticides in onion plants.

Keywords: biodegradation, carbendazim, consortium, endosulfan

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
187 Development of Bicomponent Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: M. Bischoff, F. Schmidt, J. Herrmann, J. Mattheß, G. Seide, T. Gries


Crop yields have not increased as dramatically as the demand for food. One method to counteract this is to use pesticides to keep away predators, e.g. several forms of insecticide are available to fight insects. These insecticides and pesticides are both controversial as their application and their residue in the food product can also harm humans. In this study an alternative method to combat insects is studied. A physical insect-killing effect of SiO2 particles is used. The particles are applied on fibres to avoid erosion in the fields, which would occur when applied separately. The development of such SiO2 functionalized PP fibres is shown.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
186 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade


Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

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185 A Comparative Analysis of the Private and Social Benefit-Cost Ratios of Organic and Inorganic Rice Farming: Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in the Aveyime Community, Ghana

Authors: Jerome E. Abiemo, Takeshi Mizunoya


The Aveyime community in the Volta region of Ghana is one of the major hubs for rice production. In the past, rice farmers applied organic pesticides to control pests, and compost as a soil amendment to improve fertility and productivity. However, the introduction of chemical pesticides and fertilizers have led many farmers to convert to inorganic system of rice production, without considering the social costs (e.g. groundwater contamination and health costs) related to the use of pesticides. The study estimates and compares the private and social BCRs of organic and inorganic systems of rice production. Both stratified and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select 300 organic and inorganic rice farmers and 50 pesticide applicators. The respondents were interviewed with pre-tested questionnaires. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) which elucidates organic farmers` Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) was employed to estimate the cost of groundwater contamination. The Cost of Illness (COI) analysis was used to estimate the health cost of pesticide-induced poisoning of applicators. The data collated, was analyzed with the aid of Microsoft excel. The study found that high private benefit (e.g. increase in farm yield and income) was the most influential factor for the rapid adoption of pesticides among rice farmers. The study also shows that the social costs of inorganic rice production were high. As such the social BCR of inorganic farming (0.2) was low as compared to organic farming (0.7). Based on the results, it was recommended that government should impose pesticide environmental tax, review current agricultural policies to favour organic farming and promote extension education to farmers on pesticide risk, to ensure agricultural and environmental sustainability.

Keywords: benefit-cost-ratio (BCR), inorganic farming, pesticides, social cost

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184 Currently Use Pesticides: Fate, Availability, and Effects in Soils

Authors: Lucie Bielská, Lucia Škulcová, Martina Hvězdová, Jakub Hofman, Zdeněk Šimek


The currently used pesticides represent a broad group of chemicals with various physicochemical and environmental properties which input has reached 2×106 tons/year and is expected to even increases. From that amount, only 1% directly interacts with the target organism while the rest represents a potential risk to the environment and human health. Despite being authorized and approved for field applications, the effects of pesticides in the environment can differ from the model scenarios due to the various pesticide-soil interactions and resulting modified fate and behavior. As such, a direct monitoring of pesticide residues and evaluation of their impact on soil biota, aquatic environment, food contamination, and human health should be performed to prevent environmental and economic damages. The present project focuses on fluvisols as they are intensively used in the agriculture but face to several environmental stressors. Fluvisols develop in the vicinity of rivers by the periodic settling of alluvial sediments and periodic interruptions to pedogenesis by flooding. As a result, fluvisols exhibit very high yields per area unit, are intensively used and loaded by pesticides. Regarding the floods, their regular contacts with surface water arise from serious concerns about the surface water contamination. In order to monitor pesticide residues and assess their environmental and biological impact within this project, 70 fluvisols were sampled over the Czech Republic and analyzed for the total and bioaccessible amounts of 40 various pesticides. For that purpose, methodologies for the pesticide extraction and analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique were developed and optimized. To assess the biological risks, both the earthworm bioaccumulation tests and various types of passive sampling techniques (XAD resin, Chemcatcher, and silicon rubber) were optimized and applied. These data on chemical analysis and bioavailability were combined with the results of soil analysis, including the measurement of basic physicochemical soil properties as well detailed characterization of soil organic matter with the advanced method of diffuse reflectance infrared spectrometry. The results provide unique data on the residual levels of pesticides in the Czech Republic and on the factors responsible for increased pesticide residue levels that should be included in the modeling of pesticide fate and effects.

Keywords: currently used pesticides, fluvisoils, bioavailability, Quechers, liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry, soil properties, DRIFT analysis, pesticides

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183 Determination of Some Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Vegetable and Soil Samples from Alau Dam and Gongulong Agricultural Sites, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Clement Akan, Lami Jafiya, Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Zakari Mohammed, Fanna Inna Abdulrahman


Five vegetables (spinach, lettuce, cabbage, tomato, and onion) were freshly harvested from the Alau Dam and Gongulong agricultural areas for the determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, metoxichlor, lindane, endosulfan dieldrin, and aldrin.) Soil samples were also collected at different depths for the determination of the above pesticides. Samples collection and preparation were conducted using standard procedures. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil and vegetable samples were determined using GC/MS SHIMADZU (GC-17A) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The highest concentration was that of p,p’-DDD (132.4±13.45µg/g) which was observed in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (2.34µg/g) was observed in the root of spinach. Similar trends were observed at the Gongulong agricultural area, with p,p’-DDD having the highest concentration of 153.23µg/g in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (12.45µg/g) which was observed in the root of spinach. α-BHC, γ-BHC, Methoxychlor, and lindane were detected in all the vegetable samples studied. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil samples were observed to be higher at a depth of 21-30cm, while the lowest concentrations were observed at a depth of 0-10cm. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the vegetables and soil samples from the two agricultural sites were observed to be at alarming levels, much higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) .The levels of the pesticides observed in the vegetables and soil samples investigated, are of such a magnitude that calls for special attention and laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in these study areas is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution, so as to minimize health risks.

Keywords: Alau Dam, gongulong, organochlorine, pesticide residues, soil, vegetables

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182 Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides (POPs) in Water, Sediment, Fin Fishes (Schilbes mystus and Hemichromis fasciatus) from River Ogun, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Edwin O. Clarke, Akintade O. Adeboyejo


Intensive use of pesticides resulted in dispersal of pollutants throughout the globe. This study was carried out to investigate persistent Organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in water, sediment and fin fishes, Schilbes mystus and Hemichromis fasciatus from two different sampling stations along River Ogun between the month of June 2012 and January 2013. The Organochlorine pesticides analyzed include DDT (pp’1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl) ethane), DDD, DDE (pp1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene, HCH (gamma 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane, HCB hexachlorobenzene),Dieldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a octahydro- 1,4,5,8 dimethanonaphthalene). The analysis was done using Gas Chromatograph with Electron Capture Detector. In water sample, the result showed that PPDDT, Endrin aldehyde, Endrin ketone concentrations were high in both stations. The mean value of Organochlorine analyzed in water range from Beta BHC (0.50±0.10µg/l) to PP DDT (162.86±0.21µg/l) in Kara sample station and Beta BHC (0.20±0.07µg/l) to Endrin Aldehyde (76.47±0.02µg/l) in Odo-Ogun sample station. The levels of POPs obtained in sediments ranged from 0.40±0.23µg/g (Beta BHC) to 259.90 ± 1.00µg/kg (Endosulfan sulfate) in Kara sample station and 0.64±0.00µg/g (Beta BHC) to 379.77 ±0.15 µg/g (Endosulfan sulfate) in Odo-Ogun sample station. The levels of POPs obtained in fin fish samples ranged from 0.29±0.00µg/g (Delta BHC) to 197.87 ± 0.31µg/g (PP DDT) in Kara sample station and in Odo-Ogun sample station the mean value for fish samples range from 0.29 ± 0.00 µg/g (Delta BHC) to 197.87 ± 0.32 µg/g (PP DDT). The study showed that the accumulation of POPs affect the environment and reduce water quality. The results showed that the concentrations were found to exceed the maximum acceptable concentration of 0.10µg/l value set by the European Union for the protection of freshwater aquatic life and this can be hazardous if the trend is not checked.

Keywords: hazardous, persistent, pesticides, biomes

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181 Evaluation of QSRR Models by Sum of Ranking Differences Approach: A Case Study of Prediction of Chromatographic Behavior of Pesticides

Authors: Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević


The present study deals with the selection of the most suitable quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models which should be used in prediction of the retention behavior of basic, neutral, acidic and phenolic pesticides which belong to different classes: fungicides, herbicides, metabolites, insecticides and plant growth regulators. Sum of ranking differences (SRD) approach can give a different point of view on selection of the most consistent QSRR model. SRD approach can be applied not only for ranking of the QSRR models, but also for detection of similarity or dissimilarity among them. Applying the SRD analysis, the most similar models can be found easily. In this study, selection of the best model was carried out on the basis of the reference ranking (“golden standard”) which was defined as the row average values of logarithm of retention time (logtr) defined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Also, SRD analysis based on experimental logtr values as reference ranking revealed similar grouping of the established QSRR models already obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

Keywords: chemometrics, chromatography, pesticides, sum of ranking differences

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180 Application of Aquatic Plants for the Remediation of Organochlorine Pesticides from Keenjhar Lake

Authors: Soomal Hamza, Uzma Imran


Organochlorine pesticides bio-accumulate into the fat of fish, birds, and animals through which it enters the human food cycle. Due to their persistence and stability in the environment, many health impacts are associated with them, most of which are carcinogenic in nature. In this study, the level of organochlorine pesticides has been detected in Keenjhar Lake and remediated using Rhizoremediation technique. 14 OC pesticides namely, Aldrin, Deldrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Endrin, Endosulfun I and II, DDT, DDE, DDD, Alpha, Beta, Gamma BHC and two plants namely, Water Hyacinth and Slvinia Molesta were used in the system using pot experiment which processed for 11 days. A consortium was inoculated in both plants to increase its efficiency. Water samples were processed using liquide-liquid extraction. Sediments and roots samples were processed using Soxhlet method followed by clean-up and Gas Chromatography. Delta-BHC was the predominantly found in all samples with mean concentration (ppb) and standard deviation of 0.02 ± 0.14, 0.52 ± 0.68, 0.61 ± 0.06, in Water, Sediments and Roots samples respectively. The highest levels were of Endosulfan II in the samples of water, sediments and roots. Water Hyacinth proved to be better bioaccumulaor as compared to Silvinia Molesta. The pattern of compounds reduction rate by the end of experiment was Delta-BHC>DDD > Alpha-BHC > DDT> Heptachlor> H.Epoxide> Deldrin> Aldrin> Endrin> DDE> Endosulfun I > Endosulfun II. Not much significant difference was observed between the pots with the consortium and pots without the consortium addition. Phytoremediation is a promising technique, but more studies are required to assess the bioremediation potential of different aquatic plants and plant-endophyte relationship.

Keywords: aquatic plant, bio remediation, gas chromatography, liquid liquid extraction

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179 Development of Method for Detecting Low Concentration of Organophosphate Pesticides in Vegetables Using near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Atchara Sankom, Warapa Mahakarnchanakul, Ronnarit Rittiron, Tanaboon Sajjaanantakul, Thammasak Thongket


Vegetables are frequently contaminated with pesticides residues resulting in the most food safety concern among agricultural products. The objective of this work was to develop a method to detect the organophosphate (OP) pesticides residues in vegetables using Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Low concentration (ppm) of OP pesticides in vegetables were investigated. The experiment was divided into 2 sections. In the first section, Chinese kale spiked with different concentrations of chlorpyrifos pesticide residues (0.5-100 ppm) was chosen as the sample model to demonstrate the appropriate conditions of sample preparation, both for a solution or solid sample. The spiked samples were extracted with acetone. The sample extracts were applied as solution samples, while the solid samples were prepared by the dry-extract system for infrared (DESIR) technique. The DESIR technique was performed by embedding the solution sample on filter paper (GF/A) and then drying. The NIR spectra were measured with the transflectance mode over wavenumber regions of 12,500-4000 cm⁻¹. The QuEChERS method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed as the standard method. The results from the first section showed that the DESIR technique with NIR spectroscopy demonstrated good accurate calibration result with R² of 0.93 and RMSEP of 8.23 ppm. However, in the case of solution samples, the prediction regarding the NIR-PLSR (partial least squares regression) equation showed poor performance (R² = 0.16 and RMSEP = 23.70 ppm). In the second section, the DESIR technique coupled with NIR spectroscopy was applied to the detection of OP pesticides in vegetables. Vegetables (Chinese kale, cabbage and hot chili) were spiked with OP pesticides (chlorpyrifos ethion and profenofos) at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 100 ppm. Solid samples were prepared (based on the DESIR technique), then samples were scanned by NIR spectrophotometer at ambient temperature (25+2°C). The NIR spectra were measured as in the first section. The NIR- PLSR showed the best calibration equation for detecting low concentrations of chlorpyrifos residues in vegetables (Chinese kale, cabbage and hot chili) according to the prediction set of R2 and RMSEP of 0.85-0.93 and 8.23-11.20 ppm, respectively. For ethion residues, the best calibration equation of NIR-PLSR showed good indexes of R² and RMSEP of 0.88-0.94 and 7.68-11.20 ppm, respectively. As well as the results for profenofos pesticide, the NIR-PLSR also showed the best calibration equation for detecting the profenofos residues in vegetables according to the good index of R² and RMSEP of 0.88-0.97 and 5.25-11.00 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the calibration equation developed in this work could rapidly predict the concentrations of OP pesticides residues (0.5-100 ppm) in vegetables, and there was no significant difference between NIR-predicted values and actual values (data from GC-MS) at a confidence interval of 95%. In this work, the proposed method using NIR spectroscopy involving the DESIR technique has proved to be an efficient method for the screening detection of OP pesticides residues at low concentrations, and thus increases the food safety potential of vegetables for domestic and export markets.

Keywords: NIR spectroscopy, organophosphate pesticide, vegetable, food safety

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178 Multi-Residue Analysis (GC-ECD) of Some Organochlorine Pesticides in Commercial Broiler Meat Marketed in Shivamogga City, Karnataka State, India

Authors: L. V. Lokesha, Jagadeesh S. Sanganal, Yogesh S. Gowda, Shekhar, N. B. Shridhar, N. Prakash, Prashantkumar Waghe, H. D. Narayanaswamy, Girish V. Kumar


Organochlorine (OC) insecticides are among the most important organotoxins and make a large group of pesticides. Physicochemical properties of these toxins, especially their lipophilicity, facilitate the absorption and storage of these toxins in the meat thus possess public health threat to humans. The presence of these toxins in broiler meat can be a quantitative and qualitative index for the presence of these toxins in animal bodies, which is attributed to Waste water of irrigation after spraying the crops, contaminated animal feeds with pesticides, polluted air are the potential sources of residues in animal products. Fifty broiler meat samples were collected from different retail outlets of Bengaluru city, Karnataka state, in ice cold conditions and later stored under -20°C until analysis. All the samples were subjected to Gas Chromatograph attached to Electron Capture Detector(GC-ECD, VARIAN make) screening and quantification of OC pesticides viz; Alachlor, Aldrin, Alpha-BHC, Beta-BHC, Dieldrin, Delta-BHC, o,p-DDE, p,p-DDE, o,p-DDD, p,p-DDD, o,p-DDT, p,p-DDT, Endosulfan-I, Endosulfan-II, Endosulfan Sulphate and Lindane(all the standards were procured from Merck). Extraction was undertaken by blending fifty grams (g) of meat sample with 50g Sodium Sulphate anahydrous, 120 ml of n-hexane, 120 ml acetone for 15 mins, extract is washed with distilled water and sample moisture is dried by sodium sulphate anahydrous, partitioning is done with 25 ml petroleum ether, 10 ml acetonitrile and 15 ml n-hexane shake vigorously for two minutes, sample clean up was done with florosil column. The reconstituted samples (using n-hexane) (Merck chem) were injected to Gas Chromatograph–Electron Capture Detector(GC-ECD). The present study reveals that, among the fifty chicken samples subjected for analysis, 60% (15/50), 32% (8/50), 28% (7/50), 20% (5/50) and 16% (4/50) of samples contaminated with DDTs, Delta-BHC, Dieldrin, Aldrin and Alachlor respectively. DDT metabolites, Delta-BHC were the most frequently detected OC pesticides. The detected levels of the pesticides were below the levels of MRL(according to Export Council of India notification for fresh poultry meat).

Keywords: accuracy, gas chromatography, meat, pesticide, petroleum ether

Procedia PDF Downloads 225