Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 356

Search results for: Bangladesh

356 The Impact of COVID-19 on Women’s Health in Bangladesh

Authors: Dil Ware Alam, Faiza Zebeen, Sumaya Binte Masud

Abstract:

COVID-19) has impacted the whole world, including Bangladesh. The epidemic has reduced access to health care, particularly for women, creating challenges for an increasingly disadvantaged population. Women's health and well-being in Bangladesh are susceptible to a rise in domestic violence and need to be addressed quickly. The planet has been greatly influenced by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and Bangladesh is no difference. The pandemic has resulted in a decline in the availability of health care, notably for women's health problems, leading to an increase in difficulties for an increasingly marginalized group. Maternity care, maternal health programs, medical interventions, nutritional counseling and mental health care, are not discussed, and women's health and well-being in Bangladesh is vulnerable with a spike in domestic violence and needs to be resolved urgently.

Keywords: Covid-19, mental health, reproductive health, Bangladesh

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355 Palliative Care: Optimizing the Quality of Life through Strengthening the Legal Regime of Bangladesh

Authors: Sonia Mannan, M. Jobair Alam

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The concept of palliative care in Bangladesh largely remained limited to the sympathetic caring of patients with a life-limiting illness. Quality of Life (QoL) issues are rarely practiced in Bangladesh. Furthermore, palliative medicine, in the perspective of holistic palliative care service, does not have its proper recognition in Bangladesh. Apart from those socio-medical aspects, palliative care patients face legal issues that impact their quality of life, including access to health services and social benefits and dealing with other life-transactions of the patients and their families (such as disposing of property; planning for children). This paper is an attempt to articulate these legal dimensions of the right to palliative care in the context of Bangladesh. The major focus of this paper will be founded on the doctrinal analysis of the constitutional provisions and other relevant legislation on the right to health and their judicial interpretation, which is argued to offer a meaningful space for the right to palliative care. This paper will also investigate the gaps in the said legal framework to better secure such care. In conclusion, a few recommendations are made so that the palliative care practices in Bangladesh are better aligned with international standards, and it can respond more humanely to the patients who need palliative care.

Keywords: Bangladesh, constitution, legal regime, palliative care, quality of life

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354 Communicative Language Teaching in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms: An Overview of Secondary Schools in Bangladesh

Authors: Saifunnahar

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As a former English colony, the relationship of Bangladesh with the English language goes a long way back. English is taught as a compulsory subject in Bangladesh from an early age starting from grade 1 and continuing through the 12th, yet, students are not competent enough to communicate in English proficiently. To improve students’ English language competency, the Bangladesh Ministry of Education introduced communicative language teaching (CLT) methods in English classrooms in the 1990s. It has been decades since this effort was taken, but the students’ level of proficiency is still not satisfactory. The main reason behind this failure is that CLT-based teaching-learning methods have not been effectively implemented. Very little research has been conducted to address the issues English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms are facing to carry out CLT methodologies in secondary schools (grades 6 to 10) in Bangladesh. Though the secondary level is crucial for students’ language learning and retention, EFL classrooms are marked with various issues that make teaching-learning harder for teachers and students. This study provides an overview of the status of CLT in EFL classrooms and the reasons behind failing to implement CLT in secondary schools in Bangladesh through an analysis of the qualitative data collected from different literature. Based on the findings, effective approaches have been recommended to employ CLT in EFL classrooms.

Keywords: Bangladesh, communicative language teaching, English as a foreign language, secondary schools, pedagogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
353 Microfinance and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from Bangladesh

Authors: Rahat Dewan

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The debate surrounding the efficacy of microfinance and the importance of microenterprise is fierce, lengthy and multifaceted. This paper reviews key issues, theory and evidence surrounding microfinance and microenterprise development for poverty alleviation. We report on a recently completed, large-scale microenterprise development intervention in Bangladesh using the rudimentary data available to us, and also our own qualitative field research. We find reasonable evidence for significant returns to several development outcomes.

Keywords: Bangladesh, development, microenterprise, microfinance

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
352 Illegal Immigrants of Bangladesh in Malaysia and Present Situation

Authors: Md. Zahidul Islam

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Illegal immigrants’ problem is a big problem all over the world including America. Malaysia is also facing this problem. Nowadays, it is turned into a major problem for Malaysia. Many illegal immigrants are staying in Malaysia from different countries such as Bangladesh, Myanmar, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippine, Nigeria. This article is only focusing on the present situation of illegal immigrants of Bangladesh. The aim of this article is to highlight how the Bangladeshi nationals are becoming an illegal immigrant in Malaysia. In the same time, this article also tries to identify the present situation of Bangladeshi illegal immigrants in Malaysia. The research will adopt qualitative methods of research. Both countries have to find a solution to solve this problem.

Keywords: illegal immigrants, present situation, Bangladesh, Malaysia

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351 Dealing with Neighbors: River Water Sharing between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

Authors: Ashutosh Pujari

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The sharing of natural resources is one of the most important aspects of relations between two neighboring countries, especially when it is a resource that has a presence in both the countries in question. River water is an important resource that is shared between India and its neighbors, namely Pakistan and Bangladesh. India shares Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum rivers with Pakistan, while with Bangladesh, it shares Ganges and Brahmaputra. However, it is interesting to note how does India deals with her sharing of water with these two countries. Although water sharing with both the countries has been dotted by irritants over the years, relations with Bangladesh is undoubtedly better in this respect. Given the common history of the region, this paper analyses the reasons behind this difference in the relationship between India and her neighbors and its implications for the present times. Through critical analysis of literature and the official policy of all the governments involved and the narratives present, this paper tries to present understand how India’s relations with its neighbors are a function of geopolitics, culture, and perceptions on both sides.

Keywords: geopolitics, river water sharing, India-Pakistan relations, India-Bangladesh relations

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350 Pattern and Risk Factors of Menstrual Regulation Service Use among Ever-married Women in Bangladesh: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study

Authors: Md. Rashed Aalm, Md. Nuruzzaman Khan, Yothin Sawangdee

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Background: Around 47% of the total pregnancies are unintended in Bangladesh, which lead to several adverse consequences, including maternal and child mortality. Use of menstrual regulation (MR) can help women to reduce unintended pregnancy related adverse consequences. We explored the prevalence and determinants of MR services among ever-married women in Bangladesh. Methods: Total of 14,346 ever-married women data were analysed from the 2017 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Our study variable was use or non-use of MR services. Individual, household, and community level factors were the explanatory factors. Multilevel mixed-effect Poisson regression model was used to determine the factors associated with MR services in Bangladesh. Results: Nearly 7% of the total women in Bangladesh use MR services. Use of MR services was found higher among women who were aged 20-30 ages (IRR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.17–2.17), who were overweight (IRR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.13–1.81), had at least 1 child (IRR 2.97, 95% CI: 2.34– 3.77) or > 2 children (IRR 3.22, 95% CI: 2.45–4.20), and the birth preceding birth interval was(2 – 4) years (IRR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.13–2.15). Around 1.39 times (95% CI: 1.11–1.73) higher likelihood of MR was found among women whose husbands were engage with business. At the community level, MR service was found lower among the women who resided in the community with higherilliteracy (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42–0.96) and the Mymensingh division (IRR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91). Conclusion: Use of MR service is comparatively low, which indicate a significant proportion of unintended pregnancy continued toward life-birth. This could be responsible for higher adverse maternal and child health outcomes in Bangladesh. Initiatives should be taken to ensure MR services is available when women need this service.

Keywords: menstrual regulation, pattern, risk, maternal health, Bangladesh

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349 A Review on the Necessities of Green Building in Bangladesh and Its Construction Process

Authors: Syeda Afsana Azad

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Climate change, due to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has been recognized as one of the biggest threats to the present world. The condition of the earth is getting worse day by day due to climate change. Bangladesh is considered to be one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to large population, sharp urbanization, etc. Construction of green building is a very good solution to reduce the greenhouse effect. Green building technology refers to that kind of structures which are environmentally friendly and resource-efficient throughout a building’s service life. This technology can provide at least 50% energy saving opportunity to the nation. The necessity of the construction of structures in an environment-friendly way is increasing now. This study shows the scenario of rapid population growth, urbanization, necessity of green building in Bangladesh and also discusses the construction process of green building. As the present climate condition of Bangladesh is not friendly, construction of green building is very much needed. To battle climate change, it is mandatory to construct green building.

Keywords: Bangladesh, climate change, green building, green house effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
348 Behavioral Pattern of 2G Mobile Internet Subscribers: A Study on an Operator of Bangladesh

Authors: Azfar Adib

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Like many other countries of the world, mobile internet has been playing a key role in the growth of internet subscriber base in Bangladesh. This study has attempted to identify particular behavioral or usage patterns of 2G mobile internet subscribers who were using the service of the topmost internet service provider (as well as the top mobile operator) of Bangladesh prior to the launching of 3G services (when 2G was fully dominant). It contains some comprehensive analysis carried on different info regarding 2G mobile internet subscribers, obtained from the operator’s own network insights.This is accompanied by the results of a survey conducted among 40 high-frequency users of this service.

Keywords: mobile internet, Symbian, Android, iPhone

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
347 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Alamgir Hossain

Abstract:

The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Cox1, 12S rRNA, molecular characterization, Bangladesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
346 Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Corporate Governance: Effectiveness of CSR in Human Rights

Authors: Md. Awal Hossain Mollah

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Corporate governance is playing a crucial role for ensuring social accountability and responsibility of business organization through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for the last two decades. In Bangladesh, CSR is a growing and popular concept and a recent development. Various business and corporate organizations are playing crucial role for helping vulnerable sections of our society now. For instance, Dutch Bangla Bank has been providing scholarship for under graduate and graduate students in our country which is very helpful for promoting poor and meritorious students in Bangladesh. In this study, how far CSR is playing its role for ensuring human right in Bangladesh will be examined with specific case studies. The study focus will reflect on both developed and developing nations based on literature review and possible empirical evidence.

Keywords: CSR, corporate governance, social security, Bangladesh, scholarships, graduate students, Dutch angla Bank

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345 Protected Status: Violation of the Provisions of Protected Status under International Humanitarian Law during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Authors: Sabera Sultana

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In today's war-torn world, it is crucial to identify, understand, and apply the laws aimed at minimizing civilian casualty during wartime. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provisions of protected status under international humanitarian law and evaluate the historical facts and shreds of evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This legal research paper evaluates the international humanitarian laws and case laws regarding protected status of people during wartime and evaluates them against the historical facts and well-documented evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This paper will help to create a brief guideline on Protected Status under international humanitarian law, which will help to protect our civilians during wartime if ever required.

Keywords: civilian protection, international humanitarian laws, liberation war of Bangladesh, protected status

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344 Open Data for e-Governance: Case Study of Bangladesh

Authors: Sami Kabir, Sadek Hossain Khoka

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Open Government Data (OGD) refers to all data produced by government which are accessible in reusable way by common people with access to Internet and at free of cost. In line with “Digital Bangladesh” vision of Bangladesh government, the concept of open data has been gaining momentum in the country. Opening all government data in digital and customizable format from single platform can enhance e-governance which will make government more transparent to the people. This paper presents a well-in-progress case study on OGD portal by Bangladesh Government in order to link decentralized data. The initiative is intended to facilitate e-service towards citizens through this one-stop web portal. The paper further discusses ways of collecting data in digital format from relevant agencies with a view to making it publicly available through this single point of access. Further, possible layout of this web portal is presented.

Keywords: e-governance, one-stop web portal, open government data, reusable data, web of data

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
343 My Voice My Well-Being: A Participatory Research Study with Secondary School Students in Bangladesh

Authors: Saira Hossain

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Well-being commonly refers to the concept that equates to a good life. Similarly, student well-being can be understood as a notion of a good life at school. What constitutes a good life at school for students? – is an emerging question that poses huge interest in this area of research. Student well-being is not only associated with a student’s socio-emotional and academic development at school but also success in life after school as an adult. Today, student well-being is a popular agenda for educators, policymakers, teachers, parents, and most importantly, for students. With the emergence of student well-being, student's voice in matters important to them at school is increasingly getting priority. However, the coin has another side too. Despite the growing importance of understanding student well-being, it is still an alien concept in countries like Bangladesh. The education system of Bangladesh is highly rigid, centralized, and exam-focused. Student's academic achievement has been given the utmost priority at school, whereas their voice, as well as their well-being, is grossly neglected in practice. In this regard, the study set out to explore students' conceptualization of well-being at school in Bangladesh. The study was qualitative. It employed a participatory research approach to elicit the views of 25 secondary school students of aged 14-16 in Bangladesh to explore the concept of well-being. Data analysis was conducted following the thematic analysis technique. The results suggested that student conceptualized well-being as a multidimensional concept with multiple domains, including having, being, relating, feeling, thinking, functioning, and striving. The future implication of the study findings is discussed. Additionally, the study also underscores the implication of the participatory approach as a research technique to explore students' opinion in Bangladesh, where there exists a culture of silence regarding the student's voice.

Keywords: Bangladesh, participatory research, secondary school, student well-being

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342 Trans-Boundary Water Disputes between India and Bangladesh and the Policy Responses

Authors: Aditaya Narayan Mishra

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Unequal distribution of environmental resources as a possible cause of conflict has been the topic of substantial research, and these connections have ruled the post-Cold War attention in the discourse of environmental security. In this category, considerable concentration has been given to water resources, on account of their important standing for human existence. Thus, water is considered to be one of the most important non-conventional security issues. As per this consideration, the case of India-Bangladesh is one of the most critical examples of disputes over transboundary water sharing. The concern regarding sharing of trans-boundary rivers has been the main focus of Bangladesh and India‘s relationship for the last forty-five years. Both countries share fifty-four rivers, most of which have originated in the Himalayan range. The main causes for problems in the sharing of the waters of trans-boundary rivers between India and Bangladesh include the: Farakka Barrage, Teesta river sharing issue, River linking project and Tipaimukh Dam. The construction of Farakka barrage across the Ganga River was the beginning of water dispute. Attempts at unilateral exploitation of the trans-boundary water resources led to inter-state conflicts that spilled over into other areas of bilateral disputes between India and Bangladesh. Apart from Farakka, Barrage, the disputes over Teesta River sharing, River linking project and Tipaimukh Dam are also vital contents for the both countries bilateral diplomacy. Till date, India and Bangladesh have signed five treaties regarding water sharing. However, all these treaties have been rendered worthless due to mistrust and political upheaval in both countries. The current paper would address all these water sharing disputes between India and Bangladesh with focus on the various policy responses (both bilateral and multilateral initiatives) to deal with these water sharing disputes. It will try to analyze the previous agreements and their drawbacks and loopholes. In addition, it will mention the reasons for water sharing cooperation between India and Bangladesh.

Keywords: India and Bangladesh relations, water disputes, Teesta, river linking project, Tipaimukh Dam, Farakka, policy responses

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341 Perspective and Challenge of Tidal Power in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Alamgir Hossain, Md. Zakir Hossain, Md. Atiqur Rahman

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Tidal power can play a vital role in integrating as new source of renewable energy to the off-grid power connection in isolated areas, namely Sandwip, in Bangladesh. It can reduce the present energy crisis and improve the social, environmental and economic perspective of Bangladesh. Tidal energy is becoming popular around the world due to its own facilities. The development of any country largely depends on energy sector improvement. Lack of energy sector is because of hampering progress of any country development, and the energy sector will be stable by only depend on sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy having environmental friendly is the only sustainable solution of secure energy system. Bangladesh has a huge potential of tidal power at different locations, but effective measures on this issue have not been considered sincerely. This paper summarizes the current energy scenario, and Bangladesh can produce power approximately 53.19 MW across the country to reduce the growing energy demand utilizing tidal energy as well as it is shown that Sandwip is highly potential place to produce tidal power, which is estimated approximately 16.49 MW by investing only US $10.37 million. Besides this, cost management for tidal power plant has been also discussed.

Keywords: sustainable energy, tidal power, cost analysis, power demand, gas crisis

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340 A Comparative Study of Selected Psychological Variable of Basketball and Volleyball Sportsperson of Bangladesh Krirra Shiskha Protifsthan

Authors: M. Ashadur Rahman

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This study presents the psychological status of basketball and volleyball sportspersons of Bangladesh Krira Shikkha Protifsthan (BKSP) in Bangladesh. The subjects of the study were 34 sportspersons which were 20 Basketball and 14 Volleyball Sportspersons in BKSP. The age ranges of the subjects were 15 to 20 years. The subjects were all male sportspersons and regular students of BKSP. Anxiety control, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, and motivation were selected as psychological variables. Psychological Skill Inventory for Sport (PST) prepared by Mahoney Gabiel, Perking (1987) was used to assess the psychological skills of sportspersons to different sports. Mean standard deviation and independent t-test were used to analyze the data, and level of significance was set at 0.05. Significant differences were not found between psychological status between basketball and volleyball sportspersons of BKSP in Bangladesh.

Keywords: psychological variable, anxiety control, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
339 Effect of Climate Change on Road Maintenance in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammed Russedul Islam, Shah M. Muniruzzaman, M. Kamrul-Al-Masud, Syed Sadat Morshed

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Bangladesh is one of the most climate vulnerable countries in the world. According to scientists it is predicted that temperature will raise 1-3% and precipitation 20% by 2050 in Bangladesh. Increased temperature and precipitation will deteriorate pavement structure in an accelerated rate. The study has found that pavement life will reduce significantly due to rise in temperature and precipitation in in a coastal road in Bangladesh. It will cause to increase the maintenance cost of the road. The study has found that reduction in pavement life will be caused due the decrease in stiffness and strength parameters of the pavement material due to high temperature and precipitation. It has found that use of new material costlier than the existing one will be necessary to prevent the reduction of pavement life. Eventually it will increase the re-construction cost of the road. The study has used mechanistic-empirical analysis method with a software GAMES (General analysis on multi-layered elastic systems) to find out the effect of temperature and precipitation rise on the pavement life. The study will help to guide road engineers of Bangladesh to prepare in advance to fight with the climate change effect.

Keywords: climate change, maintenance cost, mechanistic-empirical method, pavement life

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338 Contributing Factors Affecting the Safety in Construction Sites of Bangladesh

Authors: Farzana Rahman, Mohammed Hossain Ezaz, Dipak Halder, Proshanta Mondal

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Site safety is an important function regardless of project size. A key goal, which must be met for a successful project, is to finish the project with a good safety record. Construction safety is an important issue in all over the world. Today, developed countries strictly follow the safety procedure to avoid any hazard, accident or fatality. However, for a least developed country like Bangladesh, still accidents and fatalities are quite high due to lack of safety management. With the increased volume of construction work in Bangladesh, the need for proper attention in safety issues has become essential for human, economic and other consideration. Recently lots of accidents are taking place in construction sites of Bangladesh causing severe injury to death to the workers and pedestrians. There are a number of reasons/factors that these high numbers are widespread to the construction industry that are not found in most other businesses. The objective of this research work is to identify and explore the various factor that affect the construction site safety in Bangladesh. A questionnaire surveys was conducted to the reputed construction companies of Bangladesh to examine the present safety situation in construction sites. Nine factors were selected for the survey. The finding shows that 78% of organizations’ from the respondents are conscious about the safety procedure and they usually provide safety measures for the workers. Promotion of safety measures at the working site results in a better working environment, higher productivity and greater contentment among the workers.

Keywords: construction sites, fatalities, safety issues, safety situation

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337 Environmental Degradation and Biodiversity Loss in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Atiqur Rahman

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The study aimed at inventorying the threatened biodiversity of Bangladesh and assessing the rate of loss of biodiversity caused due to environmental degradation for conservation management. The impact assessment of environmental depletion and rate of biodiversity loss determination have been made by a long term field investigation, examination of preserved herbarium specimens and survey of relevant floristic literature following the IUCN’s threatened criteria of assessing Red List Plants under the Flora Bangladesh Project. Biodiversity of Bangladesh, as evaluated, has been affected to a large extent during the last four and half decades due to spontaneous environmental degradation caused by frequent occurrence of cyclonic storms and tidal bores since 1970 and flooding, draught, unilateral diversion of trans-boundary waters by operating Farakka Barrage since 1975, indiscriminate destruction and over exploitation of natural resources, unplanned development and industrialization, overpopulation etc. Depletion of world’s largest mangrove biodiversity in Sundarbans, coastal and island biodiversity in southern part, agro-biodiversity and agro-fisheries all over the country, Haor and wetland biodiversity of plain lands, terrestrial and forest biodiversity in central and eastern hilly part of Bangladesh, as assessed, have greatly been occurred at a higher rate due to environmental degradation which in turn affect directly or indirectly the economy, food security and environmental health of the country. Complete inventory of 30 plant families resulted in the recognition of 45.18% species of Bangladesh as threatened environmentally and 13.23% species as possibly extinct from the flora since these have neither been reported or could be traced in the field for more than 100 years. The rate of extinction is determined to be 2.65% per 20 years. Hence the study indicates that the loss of biodiversity and environmental degradation in Bangladesh occurring at an alarming rate. The study focuses on the issues of environment, the extent of loss of different plant biodiversities in Bangladesh, prioritizing and implementing national conservation strategies for sustainable management of the environment.

Keywords: Bangladesh, biodiversity, conservation, environmental management

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336 An Islamic Microfinance Business Model in Bangladesh and Its Role in Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Abul Hassan

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Present socio-economic context and women wellbeing in Bangladesh imposes lots of constraints on women’s involvement in income generating activities. Different studies showed that the implementation of World Bank structural adjustment policies have had mixed impacts on women and their wellbeing. By involving poor people specially women in Islamic microfinance programmes in Bangladesh are used as a tool to combat poverty. Women are specifically targeted by Islamic microfinance under the rural development scheme of Islami Bank Bangladesh that provide interest free loan to the women groups. The programme has a multiplier effect since women invest largely in their households. The aim of this research is twofold: firstly, it wanted to confirm or refute a positive link between Islamic microfinance and the socio-economic wellbeing of women in Bangladesh and secondly, to explore the context in which Islamic microfinance programs function in Bangladesh and the way their performance can be improved. Based on structured questionnaires’ survey, this study addressed two research questions: (1) What can be expected from the offer of Islamic microfinance on the welfare of recipients and (2) Under what conditions would such an offer be more beneficial. The main result of this study shows that increase in women’s income and assets played a very important role in enhancing women’s economic independence and sense of self-confidence. An important policy recommendation is that it is necessary to redirect Islamic microfinance towards diversified developmental activities that will contribute to the improvement, in the long run, of the wellbeing of the recipients.

Keywords: business model, Islamic microfinance, women’s wellbeing

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335 Prevalence and Pattern of Modern Contraceptive Use among Chittagong City Slum Dwellers in Bangladesh

Authors: Tahera Begum, Sabina Yeasmin, Jalal Uddin

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Ten slums of ten wards of Chittagong city corporation of Bangladesh were conveniently selected to know about modern contraceptive use by the slum dwellers. Total 300 family heads or their wives were interviewed with a questionnaire in February 2014. Family size was 4.62. Among 300 families 248 eligible couples were found. 57% eligible couples use different modern contraceptive measures. Remaining 43% eligible couples do not use modern contraceptive measures. Among the users 58% use oral pill, 30% injectables, 8% use condom, 3% were found with ligation and only 1% with vasectomy. Contraceptive prevalence rate has been increased and pattern as changed. A discussion is made with literature review.

Keywords: conraceptive, Bangladesh, family, pill

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334 Rohingya Refugees and Bangladesh: Balance of Human Rights and Rationalization

Authors: Kudrat-E-Khuda Babu

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Rohingya refugees are the most marginalized and persecuted section of people in the world. The heinous brutality of Myanmar has forced the Muslim minority community to flee themselves to their neighboring country, Bangladesh for quite a few times now. The recent atrocity of the Buddhist country has added insult to injury on the existing crisis. In lieu of protection, the rights of the Rohingya community in Myanmar are being violated through exclusion from citizenship and steamroller of persecution. The mass influx of Rohingya refugees to Bangladesh basically took place in 1978, 1992, 2012, and 2017. At present, there are around one million Rohingyas staying at Teknaf, Ukhiya of Cox’s Bazar, the southern part of Bangladesh. The country, despite being a poverty-stricken one, has shown unprecedented generosity in sheltering the Rohingya people. For sheltering half of the total refugees in 2017, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina is now being regarded as the lighthouse of humanity or the mother of humanity. Though Bangladesh is not a ratifying state of the UN Refugee Convention, 1951 and its Additional Protocol, 1967, the country cannot escape its obligation under international human rights jurisprudence. Bangladesh is a party to eight human rights instruments out of nine core instruments, and thus, the country has an indirect obligation to protect and promote the rights of the refugees. Pressure from international bodies has also made Bangladesh bound to provide refuge to Rohingya people. Even though the demographic vulnerability and socio-economic condition of the country do not suggest taking over extra responsibility, the principle of non-refoulment as a part of customary international law reminds us to stay beside those persecuted or believed to have well-founded fear of persecution. In the case of HM Ershad v. Bangladesh and Others, 7 BLC (AD) 67, it was held that any international treaty or document after signing or ratification is not directly enforceable unless and until the parliament enacts a similar statute howsoever sweet the document is. As per Article 33(2) of the 1951 Refugee Convention, there are even exceptions for a state party in case of serious consequences like threat to national security, apprehension of serious crime and danger to safeguard state population. Bangladesh is now at a cross-road of human rights and national interest. The world community should come forward to resolve the crisis of the persecuted Rohingya people through repatriation, resettlement, and reintegration.

Keywords: Rohingya refugees, human rights, Bangladesh, Myanmar

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333 Volatility Spillover Among the Stock Markets of South Asian Countries

Authors: Tariq Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Vikesh Kumar, Sheraz Mustafa, Jhanzeb Marwat

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The paper provides an updated version of volatility spillover among the equity markets of South Asian countries, including Pakistan, India, Srilanka, and Bangladesh. The analysis uses both symmetric and asymmetric Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models to investigate volatility persistence and leverage effect. The bivariate EGARCH model is used to test for volatility transmission between two equity markets. Weekly data for the period February 2013 to August 2019 is used for empirical analysis. The findings indicate that the leverage effect exists in the equity markets of all the countries except Bangladesh. The volatility spillover from the equity market of Bangladesh to all other countries is negative and significant whereas the volatility of the equity market of Sri-Lanka does influence the volatility of any other country’s equity market. Indian equity market influence only the volatility of the Sri-Lankan equity market; and there is bidirectional volatility spillover between the equity markets of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The findings are important for policy-makers and international investors.

Keywords: volatility spillover, volatility persistence, garch, egarch

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332 Impact of Curriculum Politicization on the Teaching-Learning Process in 'Patriotism-Building', Compulsory History Courses in Bangladesh's Higher Education

Authors: Raiya Kishwar Ashraf

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The National University, the largest public educational institution in Bangladesh, recently made it mandatory for all students to study a course in Bangladesh‘s history of the 1971 Liberation War. This introduction was accompanied by massive political, financial and academic movement that allocated resources towards achieving greater awareness of the country‘s spirit, goals of liberation and patriotism among the youth. This study argues that the infrastructure and political economy around the course heavily politicizes the education system and more specifically the teaching and learning the process. By conducting a qualitative study in three affiliated colleges under the National University, this study aimed to explore the extent to which politicization affected higher education curriculum, especially history education in Bangladesh. The findings revealed significant levels of politicization and structural constraints present in the process that restricts the teacher and student engagement with course materials. The results of this study are useful for curriculum designers and higher education teachers and staffs who wish to develop content and deliver education that promotes critical inquiry among students. The findings further shed light on the importance of identifying and addressing political influences in education curriculum and programme development.

Keywords: Bangladesh higher education, critical thinking, curriculum politicization, history curriculum, National University, teaching-learning method

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
331 Efficiency and Factors Affecting Inefficiency in the Previous Enclaves of Northern Region of Bangladesh: An Analysis of SFA and DEA Approach

Authors: Md. Mazharul Anwar, Md. Samim Hossain Molla, Md. Akkas Ali, Mian Sayeed Hassan

Abstract:

After 68 years, the agreement between Bangladesh and India was ratified on 6 June 2015 and Bangladesh received 111 Indian enclaves. Millions of farm household lived in these previous enclaves, being detached from the mainland of the country, they were socially, economically and educationally deprived people in the world. This study was undertaken to compare of the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and the constant returns to scale (CRS) and variable returns to scale (VRS) output-oriented DEA models, based on a sample of 300 farms from the three largest enclaves of Bangladesh in 2017. However, the aim of the study was not only to compare estimates of technical efficiency obtained from the two approaches, but also to examine the determinants of inefficiency. The results from both the approaches indicated that there is a potential for increasing farm production through efficiency improvement and that farmers' age, educational level, new technology dissemination and training on crop production technology have a significant effect on efficiency. The detection and measurement of technical inefficiency and its determinants can be used as a basis of policy recommendations.

Keywords: DEA approach, previous enclaves, SFA approach, technical inefficiency

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330 Future Prospects of Female Journalists in Mass Media of Bangladesh

Authors: M. Nurus Safa, Jiang Jinzhang, Akter Tahera

Abstract:

This study explores the female are overcoming the odds and doing well as journalist during the last decade in Bangladesh. Female journalists are contributing to the society for economic prosperity and changing the attitude towards the development concept and process. But the path is not smooth for involving women in journalism. The findings are female journalist facing many barriers like family pressure, Society problem, pay-allowances, gender discrimination, sexual harassment and even lack of workplace. According to their skill and merit, they face problems in getting maternity leave and assignments. But their role in this sector cannot be neglected. It is possible to survive if have the passion, professionalism, and love on this profession. Day by day, the female participation in journalism sector is increasing in Bangladesh. Despite the barriers, female journalists are showing strong interest in journalism as a career. As much gender balance in Mass media as the women's freedom and scope will increase. As a result, the spread of female’s workplace in the media will spread. Good number of female journalists is working in different policy making positions of the organization. In future, experienced female journalists will be more because now day's they taking challenges and working religiously according to the company and public need. In recent time Bangladesh is encouraging her women to work outside of home. Currently, a significant change has come into the social attitude which represents by women’s advancement in journalism sector of Bangladesh. This study uses the survey method and 6 depth interview to find out a fruitful result. As a sampling, the study uses purposive sampling technique to collect the data from the 120 female respondents of television, online and print media journalists.

Keywords: attitude, Bangladesh, challenges, female journalists, prospects

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329 Status and Rights of Rohingya Migrants in Bangladesh: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Md Nur Uddin

Abstract:

The Rohingya people are one of the world's most oppressed and persecuted refugee populations, having been stateless for over six generations and still are. In recent years, more than half-million Rohingya Muslims have fled Myanmar (Burma) for neighboring nations. This article discusses the Status and Rights of Rohingya Migrants in Bangladesh, with a focus on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. A lot of information has been studied about Rohingya refugees states that violence in Rakhine state has sent an estimated 615,500 Rohingya across the border into Bangladesh's Cox's Bazar since August 25, 2017. In Cox's Bazar, a total of 33,131 Rohingya refugees are housed in two registered camps, with an additional 854,024 living in informal settlements nearby. The living conditions of Rohingya refugees in overcrowded camps remain dismal. Mental health is bad, cleanliness is poor, malnutrition is common, and physical and sexual abuse is endemic. A coordinated diplomatic effort involving Bangladesh and Myanmar, as well as international mediators such as the Organization of Islamic Countries and the United Nations, is essential to adequately resolve this complex matter. Bangladeshi officials must ensure the safety of the Rohingyas in the camps and use available humanitarian aid to give the refugees basic amenities such as food, shelter, sanitation, and medical treatment. UNHCR officials should keep an eye on the actual repatriation process to ensure that refugees who have expressed a desire to stay in Bangladesh are not deported against their choice.

Keywords: international refugee laws, united nations, Rohingya, stateless, humanitarian

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328 Climate Change: Affecting Basic Human Rights in Bangladesh

Authors: Shekh Shadi Rahaman

Abstract:

In Bangladesh, basic human rights more specifically right to food and right to shelter are being adversely affected by the consequences of climate change. Over the last two decades, a considerable number of environmental studies revealed that basic human rights, more specifically, the right to food and right to a shelter are going to be seriously affected by climate change. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries and livestock, which are most sensitive to climate change, are key sources interconnected with food security and the security of shelter. Consequences of climate change affecting these key sources, and with the change of time, climate change is turning into a gigantic challenge towards ensuring basic human rights in Bangladesh. This study was carried out by employing a general review of literature on climate change, focusing on effects of climate change on basic two major human rights in Bangladesh. Upon analysis of existing researches, it is found very few researches focused on correlating climate change and right to food and right to shelter. This study shows how the consequences of climate change affects food production and abode of people of Bangladesh. This study recommends that tree plantation, floating agricultural practice, co-operation with international organization, developing environment friendly institutions, increased use of renewable energy, proper management of wetlands and forests, shelter for climate induced migrated people, encouraging research and public awareness are key issues to be followed for combating climate change and protecting basic human right to food and shelter.

Keywords: achievements, agriculture and forestry, fisheries and livestock, renewable energy

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327 Human Rights, Ethics, Medical Care and HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh: A Philosophical Investigation

Authors: Asm Habibullah Choudhury

Abstract:

Background: This study is an investigation into medical care, ethics, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the context of Bangladesh. The low prevalence of HIV and high prevalence of STDs in Bangladesh, in common with the global experience of HIV epidemics, has been characterized by tremendous stigmatization of those affected. Stigmatization has resulted in an extraordinary degree of unjust discrimination and in numerous human rights violations of PLWHA. Methodology: This will be a cross-sectional descriptive study and will be conducted at different points of Bangladesh. Result: PLWHA will be identified as many as possible and will be interviewed. Medical care providers will be interviewed to assess their attitude and will be observed for stigma while providing medical services. Some of the religious leaders, local influential people will be interviewed to assess their attitude towards PLWHA. Conclusion: If effective responses to HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are to be promoted in the region, work has to occur simultaneously on several fronts: Legal challenge, where necessary, to bring to account governments, employers, institutions and individuals. To create enabling environment in which PLWHA and their families, women, boys, and girls are able to access prevention and care services. Access to quality and comprehensive care. The fundamental objective, however, is to strive for action based on this understanding—action that will promote egalitarian and gender-progressive role models, and that will help guide the manner in which we interact with one another.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Bangladesh, human rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 234