Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1030

Search results for: hydrogen bonding

1030 A Computational Study of N–H…O Hydrogen Bonding to Investigate Cooperative Effects

Authors: Setareh Shekarsaraei, Marjan Moridi, Nasser L. Hadipour

Abstract:

In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy parameters of 14N (Nitrogen in imidazole ring) in N–H…O hydrogen bonding for Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate were calculated via density functional theory. We considered a five-molecule model system of Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Also, we examined the trends of environmental effect on hydrogen bonds as well as cooperativity. The functional used in this research is M06-2X which is a good functional and the obtained results have shown good agreement with experimental data. This functional was applied to calculate the NMR and NQR parameters. Some correlations among NBO parameters, NMR, and NQR parameters have been studied which have shown the existence of strong correlations among them. Furthermore, the geometry optimization has been performed using M062X/6-31++G(d,p) method. In addition, in order to study cooperativity and changes in structural parameters, along with increase in cluster size, natural bond orbitals have been employed.

Keywords: hydrogen bonding, density functional theory (DFT), natural bond orbitals (NBO), cooperativity effect

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1029 Origin of Hydrogen Bonding: Natural Bond Orbital Electron Donor-Acceptor Interactions

Authors: Mohamed Ayoub

Abstract:

We perform computational investigation using density functional theory, B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set followed by natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), which provides best single “natural Lewis structure” (NLS) representation of chosen wavefunction (Ψ) with natural resonance theory (NRT) to provide an analysis of molecular electron density in terms of resonance structures (RS) and weights (w). We selected for the study a wide range of gas phase dimers (B…HA), with hydrogen bond dissociation energies (ΔEB…H) that span more than two orders of magnitude. We demonstrate that charge transfer from a donor Lewis-type NBO (nB:) to an acceptor non-Lewis-type NBO (σHA*) is the primary cause for H-bonding not classical electrostatic (dipole-dipole or ionic). We provide a variety of structure, and spectroscopic descriptors to support the conclusion, such as IR frequency shift (ΔνHA), H-bond penetration distance (ΔRB..H), bond order (bB..H), charge-transfer (CTB→HA) and the corresponding donor-acceptor stabilization energy (ΔE(2)).

Keywords: natural bond orbital, hydrogen bonding, electron donor, electron acceptor

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1028 The Hydrolysis of Phosphate Esters Can Be Enhanced by Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding

Authors: Mohamed S. Sasi

Abstract:

The research project aim is to study the hydrolysis of 8-diethylphosphate-1-naphthalenol with hydroxylamine in water. 8-diethylphosphate-1-naphthalenol, 1 was successfully synthesized and its rate of reaction with hydroxylamine was studied at 60°C. Pseudo first order behavior was observed. The rate of P-O cleavage of 1 at 60°C (7.43 x 10-3 M-1s-1) was found to be 178 fold and 7 fold slower than diethyl 8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl phosphate, 3 at 60°C (1.32 M-1s-1) and diethyl 8-amino-1-naphthyl phosphate, 2 at 90 °C (5.5 x 10-2 M-1s-1) respectively. The rate of P-O cleavage of 1 with hydroxylamine was found to be faster than that of 4-chlorophenyl-1-cyclopropylphosphate triester, 5 where the reaction was too slow to observe at 60°C.

Keywords: phosphate esters, intramolecular hydrogen bonding

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1027 Effect of Hydrogen Content and Structure in Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Hydrogen Permeation Properties

Authors: Motonori Tamura

Abstract:

The hydrogen barrier properties of the coatings of diamond-like carbon (DLC) were evaluated. Using plasma chemical vapor deposition and sputtering, DLC coatings were deposited on Type 316L stainless steels. The hydrogen permeation rate was reduced to 1/1000 or lower by the DLC coatings. The DLC coatings with high hydrogen content had high hydrogen barrier function. For hydrogen diffusion in coatings, the movement of atoms through hydrogen trap sites such as pores in coatings, and crystal defects such as dislocations, is important. The DLC coatings are amorphous, and there are both sp3 and sp2 bonds, and excess hydrogen could be found in the interstitial space and the hydrogen trap sites. In the DLC coatings with high hydrogen content, these hydrogen trap sites are likely already filled with hydrogen atoms, and the movement of new hydrogen atoms could be limited.

Keywords: hydrogen permeation, stainless steels, diamond-like carbon, hydrogen trap sites

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1026 Pharmacokinetic Model of Warfarin and Its Application in Personalized Medicine

Authors: Vijay Kumar Kutala, Addepalli Pavani, M. Amresh Rao, Naushad Sm

Abstract:

In this study, we evaluated the impact of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants on binding and hydroxylation of warfarin. In silico data revealed that warfarin forms two hydrogen bonds with protein backbone i.e. I205 and S209, one hydrogen bond with protein side chain i.e. T301 and stacking interaction with F100 in CYP2C9*1. In CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants, two hydrogen bonds with protein backbone are disrupted. In double variant, all the hydrogen bonds are disrupted. The distances between C7 of S-warfarin and Fe-O in CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2/*3 were 5.81A°, 7.02A°, 7.43° and 10.07°, respectively. The glide scores (Kcal/mol) were -7.698, -7.380, -6.821 and -6.986, respectively. Increase in warfarin/7-hydroxy warfarin ratio was observed with increase in variant alleles. To conclude, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants result in disruption of hydrogen bonding interactions with warfarin and longer distance between C7 and Fe-O thus impairing warfarin 7-hydroxylation due to lower binding affinity of warfarin.

Keywords: warfarin, CYP2C9 polymorphism, personalized medicine, in Silico

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1025 On the Effect of Carbon on the Efficiency of Titanium as a Hydrogen Storage Material

Authors: Ghazi R. Reda Mahmoud Reda

Abstract:

Among the metal that forms hydride´s, Mg and Ti are known as the most lightweight materials; however, they are covered with a passive layer of oxides and hydroxides and require activation treatment under high temperature ( > 300 C ) and hydrogen pressure ( > 3 MPa) before being used for storage and transport applications. It is well known that small graphite addition to Ti or Mg, lead to a dramatic change in the kinetics of mechanically induced hydrogen sorption ( uptake) and significantly stimulate the Ti-Hydrogen interaction. Many explanations were given by different authors to explain the effect of graphite addition on the performance of Ti as material for hydrogen storage. Not only graphite but also the addition of a polycyclic aromatic compound will also improve the hydrogen absorption kinetics. It will be shown that the function of carbon addition is two-fold. First carbon acts as a vacuum cleaner, which scavenges out all the interstitial oxygen that can poison or slow down hydrogen absorption. It is also important to note that oxygen favors the chemisorption of hydrogen, which is not desirable for hydrogen storage. Second, during scavenging of the interstitial oxygen, the carbon reacts with oxygen in the nano and microchannel through a highly exothermic reaction to produce carbon dioxide and monoxide which provide the necessary heat for activation and thus in the presence of carbon lower heat of activation for hydrogen absorption which is observed experimentally. Furthermore, the product of the reaction of hydrogen with the carbon oxide will produce water which due to ball milling hydrolyze to produce the linear H5O2 + this will reconstruct the primary structure of the nanocarbon to form secondary structure, where the primary structure (a sheet of carbon) are connected through hydrogen bonding. It is the space between these sheets where physisorption or defect mediated sorption occurs.

Keywords: metal forming hydrides, polar molecule impurities, titanium, phase diagram, hydrogen absorption

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1024 Transition to Hydrogen Cities in Korea and Japan

Authors: Minhee Son, Kyung Nam Kim

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This study explores the plan of the Korean and Japanese governments to transition into the hydrogen economy. Two motor companies, Hyundai Motor Company from Korea and Toyota from Japan, released the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle to monopolize the green energy automobile market. Although, they are the main countries which emit greenhouse gas, hydrogen energy can bring from a certain industry places, such as chemical plants and steel mills. Recent, the two countries have been focusing on the hydrogen industry including a fuel cell vehicle, a hydrogen station, a fuel cell plant, a residential fuel cell. The purpose of this paper is to find out the differences of the policies in the two countries to be hydrogen societies. We analyze the behavior of the public and private sectors in Korea and Japan about hydrogen energy and fuel cells for the transition of the hydrogen economy. Finally we show the similarities and differences of both countries in hydrogen fuel cells. And some cities have feature such as Hydrogen cities. Hydrogen energy can make impact environmental sustainability.

Keywords: fuel cell, hydrogen city, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, hydrogen station, hydrogen energy

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1023 Topological Analysis of Hydrogen Bonds in Pyruvic Acid-Water Mixtures

Authors: Ferid Hammami

Abstract:

The molecular geometries of the possible conformations of pyruvic acid-water complexes (PA-(H₂O)ₙ = 1- 4) have been fully optimized at DFT/B3LYP/6-311G ++ (d, p) levels of calculation. Among several optimized molecular clusters, the most stable molecular arrangements obtained when one, two, three, and four water molecules are hydrogen-bonded to a central pyruvic acid molecule are presented in this paper. Apposite topological and geometrical parameters are considered as primary indicators of H-bond strength. Atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis shows that pyruvic acid can form a ring structure with water, and the molecular structures are stabilized by both strong O-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds. In large clusters, classical O-H...O hydrogen bonds still exist between water molecules, and a cage-like structure is built around some parts of the central molecule of pyruvic acid. The electrostatic potential energy map (MEP) and the HOMO-LUMO molecular orbital (highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) analysis has been performed for all considered complexes.

Keywords: pyruvic acid, PA-water complex, hydrogen bonding, DFT, AIM, MEP, HOMO-LUMO

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1022 A Study on Temperature and Drawing Speed for Diffusion Bonding Enhancement in Drawing of Hot Lined Pipes by FEM Analysis

Authors: M. T. Ahn, J. H. Park, S. H. Park, S. H. Ha

Abstract:

Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in hot drawing even if the reduction in the section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: diffusion bonding, temperature, pressure, drawing speed

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1021 Keto-Enol Tautomerism of Salicylideneaniline Substituted

Authors: Rihana Hadjeb, Djamel Barkat

Abstract:

Schiff bases derived from o-hydroxybenzaldehyde has attracted a great interest not only for its promising applications towards linear and non-linear optical properties, biological activity and technological applications but also used as model compounds for the theory of hydrogen bonding. Due to its intramolecular hydrogen bonding, depending on the position of proton in the hydrogen bond o-hydroxy salicylidene Schiff bases exhibit two tautomeric forms, enol-imine (E-form) and keto-enamine (K-form) both in solution and in crystalline state. A zwitterionic structure also appears due to a proton transfer in enol – imine and keto – amine tautomer. These classes of compounds also exhibit thermochromic and photochromic behavior. We undertook in this study the synthesis of ten compounds of hydroxy Schiff bases from the condensation of salicylic aldehyde and aniline substituted in the ortho, meta and para by the methyl, chloro and nitro groups. To study the keto-enol equilibrium of the compounds; UV-VIS spectra were studied in different polarity solvents. The compounds were in tautomeric equilibrium (enol imine O–H•••N, keto-amine O•••H–N forms). For some derivatives of salicylideneanilines the keto-amine form was observed in both ethanol and dioxane. IR results showed that all Schiff bases studied favor the enol-imine form over the keto form.

Keywords: salicylideneaniline, tautomerism, keto-enol equilibrium, UV-VIS spectroscopy, solvent effect

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1020 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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1019 Influence of [Emim][OAc] and Water on Gelatinization Process and Interactions with Starch

Authors: Shajaratuldur Ismail, Nurlidia Mansor, Zakaria Man

Abstract:

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] were obtained through gelatinization process. The gelatinization process occurred in the presence of water and [Emim][OAc] as plasticizer at high temperature (90˚C). The influence of [Emim][OAc] and water on the gelatinization and interactions with starch have been studied over a range of compositions. The homogenous mass was obtained for the samples containing 35, 40 and 43.5 % of water contents which showed that water plays important role in gelatinization process. Detailed IR spectroscopy analysis showed decrease in hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups in the presence of [Emim][OAc]. Starch-[Emim][OAc]-water mixture at 10-3-8.7 presented homogenous mass, less hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups.

Keywords: starch, ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, plasticizer, gelatinization, IR spectroscopy

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1018 Microstructure of Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings

Authors: Motonori Tamura

Abstract:

Ceramics coatings consisting of fine crystal grains, with diameters of about 100 nm or less, provided superior hydrogen-permeation barriers. Applying TiN, TiC or Al₂O₃ coatings on a stainless steel substrate reduced the hydrogen permeation by a factor of about 100 to 5,000 compared with uncoated substrates. Effect of the microstructure of coatings on hydrogen-permeation behavior is studied. The test specimens coated with coatings, with columnar crystals grown vertically on the substrate, tended to exhibit higher hydrogen permeability. The grain boundaries of the coatings became trap sites for hydrogen, and microcrystalline structures with many grain boundaries are expected to provide effective hydrogen-barrier performance.

Keywords: hydrogen permeation, tin coating, microstructure, crystal grain, stainless steel

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1017 Investigating the Effects of Hydrogen on Wet Cement for Underground Hydrogen Storage Applications in Oil and Gas Wells

Authors: Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Hossein Emadi, Athar Hussain

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Green hydrogen is quickly emerging as a new source of renewable energy for the world. Hydrogen production using water electrolysis is deemed as an environmentally friendly and safe source of energy for transportation and other industries. However, storing a high volume of hydrogen seems to be a significant challenge. Abandoned hydrocarbon reservoirs are considered as viable hydrogen storage options because of the availability of the required infrastructure such as wells and surface facilities. However, long-term wellbore integrity in these wells could be a serious challenge. Hydrogen reduces the compressive strength of a set cement if it gets in contact with the cement slurry. Also, mixing hydrogen with cement slurry slightly increases its density and rheological properties, which need to be considered to have a successful primary cementing operation.

Keywords: hydrogen, well bore integrity, clean energy, cementing

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1016 Influence of Vacuum Pressure on the Thermal Bonding Energy of Water in Wood

Authors: Aleksandar Dedic, Dusko Salemovic, Milorad Danilovic, Radomir Kuzmanovic

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This paper takes into consideration the influence of bonding energy of water on energy demand of vacuum wood drying using the specific method of obtaining sorption isotherms. The experiment was carried out on oak wood at vacuum pressures of: 0.7 bar, 0.5bar and 0.3bar. The experimental work was done to determine a mathematical equation between the moisture content and energy of water-bonding. This equation helps in finding the average amount of energy of water-bonding necessary in calculation of energy consumption by use of the equation of heat balance in real drying chambers. It is concluded that the energy of water-bonding is large enough to be included into consideration. This energy increases at lower values of moisture content, when drying process approaches to the end, and its average values are lower on lower pressure.

Keywords: bonding energy, drying, isosters, oak, vacuum

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1015 Parental Bonding and Cognitive Emotion Regulation

Authors: Fariea Bakul, Chhanda Karmaker

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of parental bonding on adult’s cognitive emotion regulation and also to investigate gender differences in parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulation. Data were collected by using convenience sampling technique from 100 adult students (50 males and 50 females) of different universities of Dhaka city, ages between 20 to 25 years, using Bengali version of Parental Bonding Inventory and Bengali version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. The results revealed that fathers care (β =0.317, p < 0.05) was only significantly positively associated with adult’s cognitive emotion regulation. Adjusted R² indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in adult’s adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. No significant association was found between parental bonding and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulations. Results from independent samples t-test also revealed that there was no significant gender difference in both parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulations.

Keywords: cognitive emotion regulation, parental bonding, parental care, parental over-protection

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1014 Hydrogen Storage in Carbonized Coconut Meat (Kernel)

Authors: Viney Dixit, Rohit R. Shahi, Ashish Bhatnagar, P. Jain, T. P. Yadav, O. N. Srivastava

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Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen absorption kinetics and low cost. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to synthesize carbon based material which shows moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of natural precursor coconut kernel is studied in this work. The hydrogen storage measurement reveals that the as-synthesized materials have good hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with fast kinetics. The synthesized material absorbs 8 wt.% of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature and 2.3 wt.% at room temperature. This could be due to the presence of certain elements (KCl, Mg, Ca) which are confirmed by TEM.

Keywords: coconut kernel, carbonization, hydrogenation, KCl, Mg, Ca

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1013 The Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Properties of Bisamide Organogels

Authors: Elmira Ghanbari, Jan Van Esch, Stephen J. Picken, Sahil Aggarwal

Abstract:

Organogels are formed by the assembly of low molecular weight gelators (LMWG) into fibrous structures. The assembly of these molecules into crystalline fibrous structures occurs as a result of reversible interactions such as π-stacking, hydrogen-bonding, and van der Waals interactions. Bisamide organogelators with two amide groups have been used as one of LMWGs which show efficient assembly behavior via hydrogen bonding for network formation, the formation of a crystalline network for solvent entrapment. In this study, different bisamide gelators with different lengths of alkyl chains have been added to the bisamide parent gels. The effect of the addition of bisamide additives on the gelation of bisamide gels is described. Investigation of the thermal properties of the gels by differential scanning calorimetry and dropping ball techniques indicated that the bisamide gels can be formed by the addition of a high concentration of the second bisamide components. The microstructure of the gels with different gelator components has been visualized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which has shown systematic woven, platelet-like, and a combination of those morphologies for different gels. Examining the addition of a range of bisamide additives with different structural characteristics than the parent bisamide gels has confirmed the effect of the molecular structure on the morphology of the bisamide gels and their final properties.

Keywords: bisamide organogelator additives, gel morphology, gel properties, self-assembly

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1012 A Study on the Relationship between Shear Strength and Surface Roughness of Lined Pipes by Cold Drawing

Authors: Mok-Tan Ahn, Joon-Hong Park, Yeon-Jong Jeong

Abstract:

Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in heat drawing even if the reduction in section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: drawing speed, FEM (Finite Element Method), diffusion bonding, temperature, heat drawing, lined pipe

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1011 The Influence of Fiber Fillers on the Bonding Safety of Wood-Adhesive Interfaces: A Fracture Energetic Approach

Authors: M. H. Brandtner-Hafner

Abstract:

Adhesives have established themselves as an innovative joining technology in the wood industry. The strengths of adhesive bonding lie in the realization of lightweight designs, the avoidance of material weakening, and the joining of different types of materials. There is now a number of ways to positively influence the properties of bonded joints. One way is to add fiber fillers. This leads to an improvement in adhesion, structural integrity, and fracture toughness. In this study, the effectiveness of fiber-modified adhesives for bonding wooden joints is reviewed. A series of experimental tests were performed using the fracture analytical GF-principle to study the adhesive bonding safety and performance of the wood-adhesive interface. Two different construction adhesives based on epoxy and PUR were modified with different fiber materials and applied to bond wooden joints. The results show that bonding efficiency by adding fibrous materials to the bonding matrix leads to significant improvements in structural material properties.

Keywords: fiber-modified adhesives, bonding safety, wood-adhesive interfaces, fracture analysis

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1010 Thermal Stability of Hydrogen in ZnO Bulk and Thin Films: A Kinetic Monte Carlo Study

Authors: M. A. Lahmer, K. Guergouri

Abstract:

In this work, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method was applied to study the thermal stability of hydrogen in ZnO bulk and thin films. Our simulation includes different possible events such as interstitial hydrogen (Hi) jumps, substitutional hydrogen (HO) formation and dissociation, oxygen and zinc vacancies jumps, hydrogen-VZn complexes formation and dissociation, HO-Hi complex formation and hydrogen molecule (H2) formation and dissociation. The obtained results show that the hidden hydrogen formed during thermal annealing or at room temperature is constituted of both hydrogen molecule and substitutional hydrogen. The ratio of this constituants depends on the initial defects concentration as well as the annealing temperature. For annealing temperature below 300°C hidden hydrogen was found to be constituted from both substitutional hydrogen and hydrogen molecule, however, for higher temperature it is composed essentially from HO defects only because H2 was found to be unstable. In the other side, our results show that the remaining hydrogen amount in sample during thermal annealing depend greatly on the oxygen vacancies in the material. H2 molecule was found to be stable for thermal annealing up to 200°C, VZnHn complexes are stable up to 350°C and HO was found to be stable up to 450°C.

Keywords: ZnO, hydrogen, thermal annealing, kinetic Monte Carlo

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1009 Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications

Authors: Julian David Hunt, Andreas Nascimento

Abstract:

Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.

Keywords: green hydrogen, electrolysis ship, renewable energies, seasonal variations

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1008 Effect of Citric Acid on Hydrogen-Bond Interactions and Tensile Retention Properties of Citric Acid Modified Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites

Authors: Da-Wei Wang, Liang Yang, Xuan-Long Peng, Mei-Chuan Kuo, Jen-Taut Yeh

Abstract:

The tensile retention and waterproof properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were significantly enhanced by modifying with proper amounts of citric acid (CA) and by melt-blending with poly(lactic acid) (PLA), although no distinguished chemical reaction occurred between CA and starch molecules. As evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analyses, disruption of intra and interhydrogen-bondings within starch molecules did occur during the modification processes of CA modified TPS (i.e. TPS100CAx) specimens. The tensile strength (σf) retention values of TPS specimens reduced rapidly from 27.8 to 20.5 and 0.4 MPa, respectively, as the conditioning time at 20°C/50% relative humidity (RH) increased from 0 to 7 and 70 days, respectively. While the elongation at break (εf) retention values of TPS specimens increased rapidly from 5.9 to 6.5 and 34.8%, respectively, as the conditioning time increased from 0 to 7 and 70 days. After conditioning at 20°C/50% RH for 70 days, the σf and εf retention values of the best prepared (TPS100CA0.1)30PLA70 specimen are equivalent to 85% and 167% of its initial σf and εf values, respectively, and are more than 105 times higher but 48% lower than those of TPS specimens conditioned at 20°C/50% RH for the same amount of time. Demarcated diffraction peaks, new melting endotherms of recrystallized starch crystals and distinguished ductile characteristics with drawn debris were found for many conditioned TPS specimens, however, only slight retrogradation effect and much less drawn debris was found for most conditioned TPS100CAx and/or (TPS100CA0.1)xPLAy specimens. The significantly improved water proof, tensile retention properties and relatively unchanged in retrogradation effect found for most conditioned TPS100CAx and/or (TPS100CA0.1)xPLAy specimens are apparently due to the efficient blocking of the moisture-absorbing hydroxyl groups (free or hydrogen bonded) by hydrogen-bonding CA with starch molecules during their modification processes.

Keywords: thermoplastic starch, hydrogen-bonding, water proof, strength retention

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1007 The Influence of Hydrogen Addition to Natural Gas Networks on Gas Appliances

Authors: Yitong Xie, Chaokui Qin, Zhiguang Chen, Shuangqian Guo

Abstract:

Injecting hydrogen, a competitive carbon-free energy carrier, into existing natural gas networks has become a promising step toward alleviating global warming. Considering the differences in properties of hydrogen and natural gas, there is very little evidence showing how many degrees of hydrogen admixture can be accepted and how to adjust appliances to adapt to gas constituents' variation. The lack of this type of analysis provides more uncertainty in injecting hydrogen into networks because of the short the basis of burner design and adjustment. First, the properties of methane and hydrogen were compared for a comprehensive analysis of the impact of hydrogen addition to methane. As the main determinant of flame stability, the burning velocity was adopted for hydrogen addition analysis. Burning velocities for hydrogen-enriched natural gas with different hydrogen percentages and equivalence ratios were calculated by the software CHEMKIN. Interchangeability methods, including single index methods, multi indices methods, and diagram methods, were adopted to determine the limit of hydrogen percentage. Cooktops and water heaters were experimentally tested in the laboratory. Flame structures of different hydrogen percentages and equivalence ratios were observed and photographed. Besides, the change in heat efficiency, burner temperature, emission by hydrogen percentage, and equivalence ratio was studied. The experiment methodologies and results in this paper provide an important basis for the introduction of hydrogen into gas pipelines and the adjustment of gas appliances.

Keywords: hydrogen, methane, combustion, appliances, interchangeability

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1006 The Effect of the Structural Arrangement of Binary Bisamide Organogelators on their Self-Assembly Behavior

Authors: Elmira Ghanbari, Jan Van Esch, Stephen J. Picken, Sahil Aggarwal

Abstract:

Low-molecular-weight organogelators form gels by self-assembly into the crystalline network which immobilizes the organic solvent. For single bisamide organogelator systems, the effect of the molecular structure on the molecular interaction and their self-assembly behavior has been explored. The spatial arrangement of bisamide molecules in the gel-state is driven by a combination of hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions. The hydrogen-bonding pattern between the amide groups of bisamide molecules is regulated by the number of methylene spacers; the even number of methylene spacers between two amide groups, in even-spaced bisamides, leads to the antiparallel position of amide groups within a molecule. An even-spaced bisamide molecule with antiparallel amide groups can make two pairs of hydrogen bonding with the molecules on the same plane. The odd-spaced bisamide with a parallel directionality of amide groups can form four independent hydrogen bonds with four other bisamide molecules on different planes. The arrangement of bisamide molecules in the crystalline state and the interaction of these molecules depends on the molecular structure, particularly the parity of the spacer length between the amide groups in the bisamide molecule. In this study, the directionality of amide groups has been exploited as a structural characteristic to affect the arrangement of molecules in the crystalline state and produce different binary bisamide gelators with different degrees of crystallinities. Single odd- and even-spaced single bisamides were synthesized and blended to produce binary bisamide organogelators to be characterized in order to understand the effect of the different directionality of amide groups on the molecular interaction in the crystalline state. The pattern of molecular interactions between these blended molecules, mixing or phase separation, has been monitored via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and crystallography techniques; X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The formation of lamellar structures for odd- and even-spaced bisamide gelators was confirmed by using SAXS and XRD techniques. DSC results have shown that binary bisamide organogelators with different parity of methylene spacers (odd-even binary blends) have a higher tendency for phase separation compared to the binary bisamides with the same parity (odd-odd or even-even binary blends). Phase separation in binary odd-even bisamides was confirmed by the presence of individual (100) reflections of odd and even lamellar structures. The structural characteristic of bisamide organogelators, the parity of spacer length in binary systems, is a promising tool to control the arrangement of molecules and their crystalline structure.

Keywords: binary bisamide organogelators, crystalline structure, phase separation, self-assembly behavior

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1005 Numerical Modeling Analysis for the Double-Layered Asphalt Pavement Structure Behavior with Interface Bonding

Authors: Minh Tu Le, Quang Huy Nguyen, Mai Lan Nguyen

Abstract:

Bonding characteristics between pavement layers have an important influence on responses of pavement structures. This paper deals with analytical solution for the stresses, strains, and deflections of double-layered asphalt pavement structure. This solution is based on the homogeneous half-space of layered theory developed by Burmister (1943). The partial interaction between the layers is taken into account by considering an interface bonding behavior which is obtained by push-out shear test. Numerical applications considering three cases of bonding (unbonded, partially bonded, and fully bonded overlays) are carried out to the influence of the interface bonding on the structural behavior of asphalt pavement under static loading. Further, it was observed that numerical results indicate that the horizontal shear reaction modulus at the interface (Ks) will significantly affect pavement structure behavior.

Keywords: analytical solution, interface bonding, shear test keyword, double-layered asphalt, shear reaction modulus

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1004 Comparison of Microleakage of Composite Restorations Using Fifth and Seventh Generation of Bonding Agents

Authors: Karina Nabilla, Dedi Sumantri, Nurul T. Rizal, Siti H. Yavitha

Abstract:

Background: Composite resin is the most frequently used material for restoring teeth, but still failure cases are seen which leading to microleakage. Microleakage might be attributed to various factors, one of them is bonding agent. Various generations of bonding agents have been introduced to overcome the microleakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of composite restorations using the fifth and seventh bonding agent. Methods: Class I cavities (3X2X2 mm) were prepared on the occlusal surfaces of 32 human upper premolars. Teeth were classified into two groups according to the type of bonding agent used (n =16). Group I: Fifth Generation of Bonding Agent-Adper Single Bond2. Group II: Seventh Generation of Bonding Agent-Single Bond Universal. All cavities were restored with Filtek Z250 XT composite resin, stored in sterile aquades water at 370C for 24 h. The root apices were sealed with sticky wax, and all the surfaces, except for 2 mm from the margins, were coated with nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in a 1% methylene blue dye solution for 24 h, and then rinsed in running water, blot-dried and sectioned longitudinally through the center of restorations from the buccal to palatal surface. The sections were blindly assessed for microleakage of dye penetration by using a stereomicroscope. Dye penetration along margin was measured in µm then calculated into the percentage and classified into scoring system 1 to 3. Data were collected and statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test. Result: There was no significant difference (p > 0,05) between two groups. Conclusion: Fifth generation of bonding agent revealed less leakage compared to the seventh generation even statistically there was no significant difference.

Keywords: composite restoration, fifth generation of bonding agent, microleakage, seventh generation of bonding agent

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1003 Recovery of Hydrogen Converter Efficiency Affected by Poisoning of Catalyst with Increasing of Temperature

Authors: Enayat Enayati, Reza Behtash

Abstract:

The purpose of the H2 removal system is to reduce a content of hydrogen and other combustibles in the CO2 feed owing to avoid developing a possible explosive condition in the synthesis. In order to reduce the possibility of forming an explosive gas mixture in the synthesis as much as possible, the hydrogen percent in the fresh CO2, will be removed in hydrogen converter. Therefore the partly compressed CO2/Air mixture is led through Hydrogen converter (Reactor) where the H2, present in the CO2, is reduced by catalytic combustion to values less than 50 ppm (vol). According the following exothermic chemical reaction: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + Heat. The catalyst in hydrogen converter consist of platinum on a aluminum oxide carrier. Low catalyst activity maybe due to catalyst poisoning. This will result in an increase of the hydrogen content in the CO2 to the synthesis. It is advised to shut down the plant when the outlet of hydrogen converter increased above 100 ppm, to prevent undesirable gas composition in the plant. Replacement of catalyst will be time exhausting and costly so as to prevent this, we increase the inlet temperature of hydrogen converter according to following Arrhenius' equation: K=K0e (-E_a/RT) K is rate constant of a chemical reaction where K0 is the pre-exponential factor, E_a is the activation energy, and R is the universal gas constant. Increment of inlet temperature of hydrogen converter caused to increase the rate constant of chemical reaction and so declining the amount of hydrogen from 125 ppm to 70 ppm.

Keywords: catalyst, converter, poisoning, temperature

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1002 Hydrogen Embrittlement Properties of the Hot Stamped Carbon Steels

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu, Lele Yang, Koji Shimotsu

Abstract:

The effects of microstructural characteristics on the mechanical and hydrogen embrittlement properties of 1,800MPa grade hot stamping carbon steel were investigated experimentally. The tensile strength increased with increasing the hot stamping temperature until around 921°C, but that decreased with increasing the temperature in more than 921°C due to the increment of the size of lath martensite and prior austenite. With the hot stamping process, internal strain was slightly created in the sample, which led to the slight increment of the hardness value although no clear change of the microstructural formation was detected. Severity of hydrogen embrittlement was investigated using the hot stamped carbon steels after the immersion in a hydrogen gas, and that was directly attributed to the infiltration of the hydrogen into their grain boundaries. The high strength carbon steel with tiny lath martensite microstructure could make severe hydrogen brittleness as the hydrogen was strongly penetrated in the grain boundaries in the hydrogen gas for a month. Because of weak embrittlement for the as-received carbon (ferrite and pearlite), hydrogen embrittlement is caused by the high internal strain and high dislocation density. The hydrogen embrittlement for carbon steel is attributed to amount of the hydrogen immersed in-between grain boundaries, which is caused by the dislocation density and internal strain.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, hot stamping process, carbon steel, mechanical property

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1001 Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.

Keywords: alternative fuels, hydrogen, methanol, performance, spark ignition engines

Procedia PDF Downloads 216