Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 98

Search results for: eradication

98 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: microwave, wool, fabric, moth, eradication, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
97 The Long-Run Effects of In-Utero Exposure to Malaria: Evidence from the Brazilian Eradication Campaign

Authors: Henrique Veras De Paiva Fonseca

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This paper investigates the long-term relationship between early life exposure to malaria and adult socioeconomic outcomes in Brazil. The identification strategy relies on exogenous variation in the risk of malaria outbreaks in different states and seasons of the year to identify early life exposure according to the timing and location of birth. Furthermore, Brazil has undergone a successful campaign of malaria eradication during the late 1950s, which allows for comparing outcomes of birth cohorts born just prior to and just after eradication to identify the extent of in utero exposure. Instrumental variables estimates find consistent negative treatment effects of in utero exposure to malaria on socioeconomic outcomes, such as educational attainment and health status. The effects are stronger for exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy than during other periods of gestation. Additionally, consistent with previous findings, men are more likely to exhibit larger long-term effects.

Keywords: malaria, exposure, eradication, instrumental variables, education, health

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96 Using a Hybrid Method to Eradicate Bamboo Growth along the Route of Overhead Power Lines

Authors: Miriam Eduful

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The Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) is under obligation, demanded by the Public Utility and Regulation Commission to meet set performance indices. However, in certain parts of the country, bamboo related power interruptions have become a challenge. Growth rate of the bamboo is such that the cost of regular vegetation maintenance along route of the overhead power lines has become prohibitive. To address the problem, several methods and techniques of bamboo eradication have being used. Some of these methods involved application of chemical compounds that are considered inimical and dangerous to the environment. In this paper, three methods of bamboo eradication along the route of the ECG overhead power lines have been investigated. A hybrid method has been found to be very effective and ecologically friendly. The method is locally available and comparatively inexpensive to apply.

Keywords: bamboo, eradication, hybrid method, gly gold

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95 Partnership in Eradicating Corruption: Case Study of Indonesia’s Corruption Eradication Commission Partnership with Dompet Dhuafa in Preventing Corruption

Authors: Asriana Issa Sofia, Retno Hendrowati, Dewi Kurniaty

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This study aims at analyzing the role of Corruption Eradication Commission in combating corruption cases including punishing high-profile corruptors and changing the culture of corruption in Indonesia by strengthening the relations with other agencies. Corruption Eradicating Commission was created in 2002 as Indonesia’s most trusted government institution as the anti-corruption agency that will exercise investigatory and prosecutorial power independently from the executive, legislature, and judiciary. The analysis of partnership addressed the role of collaboration with other institutions including Non-Government Organization, Youth Organization, Governmental Institution and Society. The collaboration is needed due to the limitations of Corruption Eradication Commission in preventing corruption. The collaboration focuses on the intensive communication, strengthening leadership, commitment, and creating trust. The research method used the qualitative study by employing the literature study and having a semi-structured interview with the key informant in Corruption Eradication Commission and its partners. The analysis found that intensive communication, leadership, communication, and creating trust were the important pillars in assisting Corruption Eradication Commission to prevent the incoming seed of corruption. The pillars will support the Indonesian Government to deliver better services for society.

Keywords: corruption, corruption eradicating commission, partnership, preventing actions

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
94 Poverty Eradication Program in Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Mamat, Wan Mohd Zaifurin Wan Nawang

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Malaysia's poverty eradication program is a long-term plan that was initially implemented by the government after the riots of the races on May 13, 1969. The incident broke out due to the huge economic gap between the majority of Malaysians,Malays and non-Malays minorities. As a result of the event, the government drafted the New Economic Policy(NEP) in 1970 to reduce the differences in economic status among races in Malaysia. At the end of this policy period (NEP) in 1990, the incidence of poverty in Malaysia was around 6.5 per cent. The incidence of poverty in Malaysia continued to decline to 0.6 per cent (2014) through some other policy after the NEP. The decline in poverty has been the result of the government's efforts to implement the New Economic Policy (1970-1990), National Development Policy (1991-2000), NationalVision Policy (2001-2010), and National Transformation Policy (2011-2020).This article also explains the meaning, concepts and measurements of poverty in order to identify the Poverty Level and measure the Poverty Index using various dimensions. This explanation is very important for a country like Malaysia who has some people living below the poverty line. In such a context, an effective poverty eradication policy can benefit the poor.Consequently, this article examines the continuing involvement of the government and non-governmental organizations through the empowerment program of the hardcore poor to change their lifestyle and culture as well as the vicious circle of poverty is indispensable to ensure that poverty eradication programs are in line with current economic and social changes. In addition, the involvement of non-governmental organizations and the State Islamic Religious Council to provide assistance to the poor is appropriate as the institution has its own distinctive interpretation of poverty to determine the type of assistance, criteria and so on to enable the rights of the poor to be ensured and protected.

Keywords: economic policy, poor, poverty eradication, poverty program

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93 Bifidobacterium lactis Fermented Milk Was Not Effective to Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

Authors: R. C. Barbuti, M. N. Oliveira, N. P. Perina, C. Haro, P. Bosch, C. S. Bogsan, J. N. Eisig, T. Navarro-Rodriguez

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Background: The management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is still a matter of discussion, full effectiveness is rarely achieved and it has many adverse effects. Probiotics are believed to have a role in eradicating and possibly preventing H. pylori infection as an adjunctive treatment. The present clinical study was undertaken to see the efficacy of a specially designed fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis B420 on the eradication of H. pylori infection in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in humans. Method: Four test products were specially designed fermented milks, counts of viable cells in all products were 1010 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Bifidobacterium lactis-Bifidobacterium species 420, and 1011 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Streptococcus thermophiles were administered to subjects infected with H. pylori with a previous diagnosis of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans. Results: After FM supplementation, not all subjects showed a reduction in H. pylori colonization. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium lactis B420, administered twice a day for 90 days did not show an increase in H. pylori eradication effectiveness in Brazilian patients with functional dyspepsia.

Keywords: antibacterial therapy, Bifidobacteria fermented milk, Helicobacter pylori, probiotics

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92 Eradicating Rural Poverty in Nigeria through Entrepreneurship Education

Authors: Nwachukwu Ihiejeto Celestine

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Rural poverty in Nigeria has been the bake of the society. It has been a canker worm which has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society. Different models and principles have been applied to eradicate it, such as operation feed the nation, green revolution, NAPEP etc. Little or nothing has been done in the area of entrepreneurship education to tame this monster. It is based on this that the author wants to x-ray the role entrepreneurship education which studies “the process of identifying, bringing a vision to life” could play in the eradication of rural poverty in Nigeria. This will go along in providing appropriate principles for poverty alleviation and eradication in Nigeria. Some selected states in the eastern Geo-political region could be x-rayed in this circumstance. It is hoped that policy makers etc will find the work cogent in formulating and implementing policy decisions.

Keywords: poverty, entrepreneurship, education, Nigeria

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91 Directors’ Liability for Losses Incurred in the Management of PT Merpati Nusantara Airlines, Persero

Authors: Eny Suastuti

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This paper is about state’s capital equity in establishing State-owned Company (PT Merpati Persero). Under private law regime, PT Merpati Persero equity is a state asset allocated separately from the State Budget. Consequently, it is no longer a state asset; rather, it becomes a part of company assets. The adoption of Act No. 17 of 2003 on State Finance, Act No. 31 of 1999, which is amended by Act No. 20 of 2001 on Eradication of Corrupt Practices, Act No. 15 of 2004 on Auditing, Management, and Accountability of State Finance, and Act No. 15 of 2006 Audit Board raises legal issues of whether State-owned Company’s (PT Merpati Persero) loss may be deemed as loss on state finance made by the Directors of PT Merpati Persero, which implication leads to corrupt practices conducted by the Directors. The principle of civil law states that state assets are separated from the state budget is not a government asset. Therefore the case of a lease agreement 2 (two) units of Boeing 737-400 and Boeing 737-500 between PT Merpati Nusantara Airlines with companies Third Stone Aircraft Leasing Group (TALG) the United States cannot be prosecuted under Articles 2 and 3 of Act No. 31 of 1999 Jo Act No. 20 of 2001 on Eradication of Corrupt Practices (Law PTPK). From this paper, three things are found. First, state’s capital equity, which has been allocated separately from state assets in establishing the PT Merpati Perserois not state asset; rather, it is company’s asset. Second, in the case of mismanagement leading to company loss, the Directors of PT Merpati Persero may not be charged with committing corrupt practice as prescribed in Articles 2 and 3 of Corrupt Practices Eradication Law. Third, misperception has been made by judicial practices since the courts consider loss in certain transaction made by Directors of PT Merpati Persero to be loss of state finance whose implication is applicability of Articles 2 and 3 of Corrupt Practices Eradication Law.

Keywords: corrupt practice, loss, state's capital equity, state finance (PT Merpati Persero)

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
90 Health Education and Information: A Panacea to Tuberculosis Prevention and Eradication in Nigeria

Authors: Afolabi Joseph Fasoranti

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Nigeria, being one of the ten leading causes of hospital admissions and a leading cause of death in adults, especially among the economically productive age group. This paper critically examined the importance of health education towards the eradication and prevention of tuberculosis in Nigeria. It was reviewed and discussed under the following subheadings; Global burden of tuberculosis in Nigeria, concept, definition and etiology of tuberculosis, Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, diagnosis of tuberculosis, causative agent, modes of infection and incubation period, risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis Dots and stop TB programmes in Nigeria Treatment and prevention of tuberculosis TB treatment strategies, Dealing with treatment problems in Nigeria Stigmatization against Tuberculosis Patients Health education as a tool for achieving free tuberculosis country. Emphasis for Tb control has been placed on the development of improved vaccines, diagnostic and treatment courses but less on health education and awareness. Although the need for these tools is indisputable, the obstacle facing the spread of TB go beyond technological. The findings of this study may stimulate health system policy makers, Government and non- governmental organizations, donor agencies and other stakeholders in planning and designing health education intervention programs on the control and eradication of tuberculosis. It therefore recommended that Government should implement health education as part of the DOTs, this will thus empower the tuberculosis patients on ways to live healthy, lifestyle, in doing this, they will recover fast and prevent them from spreading the disease.

Keywords: tuberculosis, health education, panacea, Nigeria, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
89 Propranalol is Not Effective in Preventing the Progression to Severe Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Cirrhotic Patients who Had Undergone Variceal Eradication: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Jeffey George, Varghese Thomas

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Background and Objectives: PHG is an important source of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. Aim: To assess the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy(PHG) in patients with cirrhosis who were treated with maximum tolerated dose of propranalol, after variceal eradication to grade II or below. Methods: Cirrhotic patients(child A and B) presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with endoscopic findings of mild or no PHG were followed up over 6 months after variceal eradication to assess the progression to severe PHG. Included patients were randomised to either maximum tolerated doses of propranalol (group A) or to no treatment (group B). Primary end point of the study were the development of gastrointestinal bleed, evidence of hepatic decompensation and death. Progression to severe PHG were compared between the two groups. Results: 56 patients (49 males) were enrolled (group A = 28, group B = 28). 8 patients were excluded from final analysis (gi bleed=5, encephalopathy=2,HCC=1 including 4 deaths).3 patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 developed intolerance to propranalol. Mean dose of propranalol used was 60 mg per day. Progression to severe PHG in the fundus over 6 months was 23.8% in group A versus 15.8 % in group B (p = 0.52). Severe PHG was noted in body in 14.3% in group A versus 21.1% in group B (p = 0.57). 23.8 % in group A had progression to severe PHG compared with 15.8 % in group B (p =0.52). There was no statistically significant difference in the progression of PHG between the two groups(p=0.43). Conclusion: In this short term study propranalol was found not to prevent the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy in cirrhotic patients who had undergone endotherapy for esophageal varices.

Keywords: propranalol, portal hypertensive gastropathy, cirrhotic patients, gastroenterology

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88 Analysis of Peoples' Adherence to Safety Measures that Curb Ebola Virus Diseases in Nigeria (A Case Study of State of Osun)

Authors: Shittu Bisi Agnes

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Ebola virus Diseases outbreak in Nigeria caused a lot of concerns considering the mode of transmission and no known cure discovered. Therefore a lot of safety measures were taken which eventually led to the eradication of the virus in Nigeria. This therefore attempted to determine the various safety measures, how socio-economic characteristic of the people affected adherence to safety measures. And provide reasonable recommendations for total eradication of the virus, future outbreak and general environmental safety Data were collected with the aid of well structured questionnaires and administered 180 randomly selected of the state and oral interview was also utilize. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive tools and inferential statistics vis-a-vis regression analysis. Finding showed that 70.5% was strongly adhere to almost all the measures, 15.2% was fairly advent, 3% was poorly observing the selected measures while 1.3% was in different. 65% of the respondents was strongly aware of the advent of ebola virus diseases, 20% was fairly in awareness, 8.5% was poorly in awareness while 6.55% was in aware of any disease outbreak. Safety measures put forwards were; hand washing, use of hand sanitize-rs, no shaking of hands non-consumption of wildlife games(Bush Meat) and general health and environmental safety measures. It was recommended that policy instrument to increase peoples income will accelerate eradication of diseases as this will enable households to pay for monetary safety measures, health and environmental education, in form of talk shop, workshop, lectures could be organised at the political ward levels, schools, market women, religious bodies functional unions and mass media.

Keywords: ebola diseases, pay, safety, outbreak

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87 Folliculitis Decalvans: Update

Authors: Abdullah Alyoussef

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Folliculitis decalvans is a rare inflammatory scalp disorder. This paper gives an update to patient management and treatment modalities. Folliculitis decalvans is classified as primary neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia and predominantly occurs in middle-aged adults. The cause of folliculitis decalvans (FD) remains unknown. Staphylococcus aureus and a deficient host immune response seem to play an important role in the development of this disfiguring scalp disease. Lesions occur mainly in the vertex and occipital area. Clinically, the lesions present with follicular pustules, lack of ostia, diffuse and perifollicular erythema, follicular tufting, and, oftentimes, hemorrhagic crusts and erosions. Histology displays a mainly neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate in early lesions and additionally lymphocytes and plasma cells in advanced lesions. Treatment is focused on the eradication of S. aureus and anti-inflammatory agents. Although the etiology of FD is unclear, S. aureus is almost always isolated from affected areas, and eradication is an important part of therapeutic management, in combination with systemic and ⁄ or topical anti-inflammatory treatment.

Keywords: cicatricial alopecia, folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, erosion

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86 Challenges in the Last Mile of the Global Guinea Worm Eradication Program: A Systematic Review

Authors: Getahun Lemma

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Introduction Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), also known as dracunculiasisis, is one of the oldest diseases in the history of mankind. Dracunculiasis is caused by a parasitic nematode, Dracunculus medinensis. Infection is acquired by drinking contaminated water with copepods containing infective Guinea Worm (GW) larvae). Almost one year after the infection, the worm usually emerges out through the skin on a lower, causing severe pain and disabilities. Although there is no effective drug or vaccine against the disease, the chain of transmission can be effectively prevented with simple and cost effective public health measures. Death due to dracunculiasis is very rare. However, it results in a wide range of physical, social and economic sequels. The disease is usually common in the rural, remote places of Sub-Saharan African countries among the marginalized societies. Currently, GWD is one of the neglected tropical diseases, which is on the verge of eradication. The global Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) was started in 1980. Since then, the program has achieved a tremendous success in reducing the global burden and number of GW case from 3.5 million to only 28 human cases at the end of 2018. However, it has recently been shown that not only humans can become infected, with a total of 1,105 animal infections have been reported at the end of 2018. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the existing challenges in the last mile of the GWEP in order To inform Policy makers and stakeholders on potential measures to finally achieve eradication. Method Systematic literature review on articles published from January 1, 2000 until May 30, 2019. Papers listed in Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, ProQuest PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched and reviewed. Results Twenty-five articles met inclusion criteria of the study and were selected for analysis. Hence, relevant data were extracted, grouped and descriptively analyzed. Results showed the main challenges complicating the last mile of global GWEP: 1. Unusual mode of transmission; 2. Rising animal Guinea Worm infection; 3. Suboptimal surveillance; 4. Insecurity; 5. Inaccessibility; 6. Inadequate safe water points; 7. Migration; 8. Poor case containment measures, 9. Ecological changes; and 10. New geographic foci of the disease. Conclusion This systematic review identified that most of the current challenges in the GWEP have been present since the start of the campaign. However, the recent change in epidemiological patterns and nature of GWD in the last remaining endemic countries illustrates a new twist in the global GWEP. Considering the complex nature of the current challenges, there seems to be a need for a more coordinated and multidisciplinary approach of GWD prevention and control measures in the last mile of the campaign. These new strategies would help to make history by eradicating dracunculiasis as the first ever parasitic disease.

Keywords: dracunculiasis, eradication program, guinea worm, last mile

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85 Eradication of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Photosensitizers Immobilized in Polymers

Authors: Marina Nisnevitch, Anton Valkov, Faina Nakonechny, Kate Adar Raik, Yamit Mualem

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Photosensitizers are dye compounds belonging to various chemical groups that in all the cases have a developed structure of conjugated double bonds. Under illumination with visible light, the photosensitizers are excited and transfer the absorbed energy to the oxygen dissolved in an aqueous phase, leading to production of a reactive oxygen species which cause irreversible damage to bacterial cells. When immobilized onto a solid phase, photosensitizers preserve their antibacterial properties. In the present study, photosensitizers were immobilized in polyethylene or propylene and tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus sp. For this purpose, water-soluble photosensitizers, Rose Bengal sodium salt, and methylene blue as well as water-insoluble hematoporphyrin and Rose Bengal lactone, were immobilized by dissolution in melted polymers to yield 3 mm diameter rods and 3-5 mm beads. All four photosensitizers were found to be effective in the eradication of Gram-positive bacteria under illumination by a white luminescent lamp or sunlight. The immobilized photosensitizers can be applied for continuous water disinfection; they can be easily removed at the end of the treatment and reused.

Keywords: antimicrobial polymers, gram-positive bacteria, immobilization of photosensitizers, photodynamic antibacterial activity

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84 Partnership Brokering as a Driver of Social Business

Authors: Lani Fraizer, Faiz Shah

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Extreme poverty continues to plague the world. Forty-seven million people live well-below the poverty line in Bangladesh, enduring poor quality of life, often with no access to basic human needs like shelter and healthcare. It is not surprising that poverty eradication is central to the mission of social change makers, such as Muhammad Yunus, who have demonstrated how enterprise-led development initiatives empower individuals at the grassroots, and can galvanize entire communities to emerge out of poverty. Such strategies call for system-wide change, and like a number of systems leaders, social business champions have typically challenged the status quo, and broken out of silos to catalyze vibrant multi-stakeholder partnerships across sectors. Apart from individual charisma, social change makers succeed because they garner collaborative impact through socially beneficial partnerships. So while enterprise-led social development evolves in scope and complexity, in step with the need to create and sustain partnerships, Partnership Brokering is emerging as an approach to facilitate collaborative processes. As such, it may now be possible for anyone motivated by the idea of social business to acquire the skills and sophistication necessary for building enriching partnerships that harness the power of the market to address poverty. This paper examines dimensions of partnership brokering in the context of social business, and explores the implications of this emerging approach on fostering poverty eradication.

Keywords: poverty, social business, partnership brokering, social entrepreneurship, systems change, enterprise-led development, change making

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83 Populism and National Unity: A Discourse Analysis of Poverty Eradication Strategies of Three Malaysian Prime Ministers

Authors: Khairil Ahmad, Jenny Gryzelius, Mohd Helmi Mohd Sobri

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With the waning support for centrist ‘third-way’ politics across the Western world, there has been an increase in political parties and individual candidates relying on populist political discourse and rhetoric in order to capitalize on the sense of frustration apparent within the electorate. What is of note is the divergence in the discourses employed. On the one hand, there is a polarization between a growing wave of populist right-wing parties and politicians, employing a mixture of economic populism with divisive nationalistic ideals such as restricted immigration, for example, the UK’s UKIP and Donald Trump in the US. On the other hand, there are resurgent, often grassroots-led, left-wing movements and politicians, such as Podemos in Spain and Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, focusing on anti-austerity measures and inclusive policies. In general, the concept of populism is often ascribed in a pejorative way. This is despite the success of populist left-wing governments across Latin America in recent times, especially in terms of reducing poverty. Nonetheless, recently, scholars such as Ernesto Laclau have tried to rethink populism as a social scientific concept which is essential in helping us make sense of contemporary political articulations. Using Laclau’s framework, this paper seeks to analyze poverty reduction policies in different iterations in the context of the tenures of three Prime Ministers of Malaysia. The first is Abdul Razak Hussein’s New Economic Policy, which focused on uplifting the economic position of Malaysia’s majority Malay population. The second is Mahathir Mohamad’s state-led neo-liberalization of the Malaysian economy, which focused on the creation of a core group of crony elites in order to spearhead economic development. The third is current Prime Minister Najib Razak’s targeted poverty eradication strategy through a focused program which directly provides benefits to recipients such as through direct cash transfers. The paper employs a discursive approach to trace elements of populism in these cases and highlight instances of how their strategies are articulated in ways that seek to appeal towards particular visions of national unity.

Keywords: discourse analysis, Malaysia, populism, poverty eradication

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82 Challenges of eradicating neglected tropical diseases

Authors: Marziye Hadian, Alireza Jabbari

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Background: Each year, tropical diseases affect large numbers of tropical or subtropical populations and give rise to irreparable financial and human damage. Among these diseases, some are known as Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) that may cause unusual dangers; however, they have not been appropriately accounted for. Taking into account the priority of eradication of the disease, this study explored the causes of failure to eradicate neglected tropical diseases. Method: This study was a systematized review that was conducted in January 2021 on the articles related to neglected tropical diseases on databases of Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid, Pro-Quest, and Google Scholar. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines as well as Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) for articles and AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) for grey literature (provides five criteria for judging the quality of grey information) were integrated. Finding: The challenges in controlling and eradicating neglected tropical diseases in four general themes are as follows: shortcomings in disease management policies and programs, environmental challenges, executive challenges in policy disease and research field and 36 sub-themes. Conclusion: To achieve the goals of eradicating forgotten tropical diseases, it seems indispensable to free up financial, human and research resources, proper management of health infrastructure, attention to migrants and refugees, clear targeting, prioritization appropriate to local conditions and special attention to political and social developments. Reducing the number of diseases should free up resources for the management of neglected tropical diseases prone to epidemics as dengue, chikungunya and leishmaniasis. For the purpose of global support, targeting should be accurate.

Keywords: neglected tropical disease, NTD, preventive, eradication

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81 Remedying the Scourge of Poverty as a Social Problem: The Islamic Perspective

Authors: Maryam Umar Ladan, Arshad Munir

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Poverty has always been a constant feature of society throughout history. It has existed in the lives of people and it is a fact that although the majority of people lives in poverty, the remaining minority lives in luxury. While some countries called the first World countries lives in luxury, the third World countries lives in poverty. It remains an undesirable phenomenon affecting a vast number of people across the globe despite governmental, institutional and private organizations’ interventions with measures aimed at cushioning its adverse effects. Unequal distribution of societal resources, accumulated wealth in the hands of few, lack of access to education and employment, individual responsibility among others, were highlighted as factors associated with poverty. Poverty predisposes the poor individual to malnutrition and starvation, exposure to disease, thereby resulting to violence, crimes, and experiencing lifelong problems. Evidence show that about 50 percent of the world population lives on less than 2.50 dollar a day, 90 percent of whom are from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia including countries where Islam is the major if not one adherent religion. As a solution to poverty, Islam prescribes a system of annual Zakat (charity). The Islamic law prescribes that every person who has a saving that reaches a certain limit should give out 2.5 percent of the total annual earning (as in income, money, farm produce) to deserving and prescribed citizens. This is to, among others; reduce the level of inequality through distribution of wealth among the Muslim Ummah (community). Furthermore, Islam encourages the rich in several places in the Qur’an to spend their wealth on poor people other than the compulsory 2.5%. Therefore, it is inarguable that the Islamic system of distribution of resources (as zakat) is the best strategy to poverty eradication. Thus, strongly recommended for desired results in poverty eradication efforts. If every rich person gives Zakat sincerely, poverty will be eradicated in the world, and not a single person will die of want of food or material things.

Keywords: Islam, charity, poverty, zakat

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80 Double Liposomes Based Dual Drug Delivery System for Effective Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari, Ashok Kumar Jain, Kamta Prasad Namdeo

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The potential use of liposomes as drug carriers by i.v. injection is limited by their low stability in blood stream. Firstly, phospholipid exchange and transfer to lipoproteins, mainly HDL destabilizes and disintegrates liposomes with subsequent loss of content. To avoid the pain associated with injection and to obtain better patient compliance studies concerning various dosage forms, have been developed. Conventional liposomes (unilamellar and multilamellar) have certain drawbacks like low entrapment efficiency, stability and release of drug after single breach in external membrane, have led to the new type of liposomal systems. The challenge has been successfully met in the form of Double Liposomes (DL). DL is a recently developed type of liposome, consisting of smaller liposomes enveloped in lipid bilayers. The outer lipid layer of DL can protect inner liposomes against various enzymes, therefore DL was thought to be more effective than ordinary liposomes. This concept was also supported by in vitro release characteristics i.e. DL formation inhibited the release of drugs encapsulated in inner liposomes. DL consists of several small liposomes encapsulated in large liposomes, i.e., multivesicular vesicles (MVV), therefore, DL should be discriminated from ordinary classification of multilamellar vesicles (MLV), large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). However, for these liposomes, the volume of inner phase is small and loading volume of water-soluble drugs is low. In the present study, the potential of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid anchored double liposomes (DL) to incorporate two drugs in a single system is exploited as a tool to augment the H. pylori eradication rate. Preparation of DL involves two steps, first formation of primary (inner) liposomes by thin film hydration method containing one drug, then addition of suspension of inner liposomes on thin film of lipid containing the other drug. The success of formation of DL was characterized by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Quantitation of DL-bacterial interaction was evaluated in terms of percent growth inhibition (%GI) on reference strain of H. pylori ATCC 26695. To confirm specific binding efficacy of DL to H. pylori PE surface receptor we performed an agglutination assay. Agglutination in DL treated H. pylori suspension suggested selectivity of DL towards the PE surface receptor of H. pylori. Monotherapy is generally not recommended for treatment of a H. pylori infection due to the danger of development of resistance and unacceptably low eradication rates. Therefore, combination therapy with amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX) as anti-H. pylori agent and ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) as antisecretory agent were selected for the study with an expectation that this dual-drug delivery approach will exert acceptable anti-H. pylori activity.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylorI, amoxicillin trihydrate, Ranitidine Bismuth citrate, phosphatidylethanolamine, multi vesicular systems

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79 Impact of the Action Antropic in the Desertification of Steppe in Algeria

Authors: Kadi-Hanifi Halima

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Stipa tenacissima is a plant with a big ecological value (against desertification) and economical stake (paper industry). It is important by its pastoral value due to the inflorescence. It occupied large areas between the Tellian atlas and the Saharian atlas, at the present, these areas of alfa have regressed a lot. This regression is estimated at 1% per year. The principal cause is a human responsibility. The drought is just an aggravating circumstance. The eradication of such a kind of species will have serious consequences upon the equilibrium of all the steppic ecosystem. Thus, we have thought necessary and urgent to know the alfa ecosystem, under all its aspects (climatic, floristic, and edaphic), this diagnostic could direct the fight actions against desertification

Keywords: desertification, anthropic action, soils, Stipa tenacissima

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78 Activity of Commonly Used Intravenous Nutrient and Bisolvon in Neonatal Intensive Care Units against Biofilm Cells and Their Synergetic Effect with Antibiotics

Authors: Marwa Fady Abozed, Hemat Abd El Latif, Fathy Serry, Lotfi El Sayed

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intravenous nutrient(soluvit, vitalipid, aminoven infant, lipovenos) and bisolvon commonly used in neonatal intensive care units against biofilm cells of staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aerguinosa and klebseilla pneumonia as they are the most commonly isolated organisms and are biofilm producers. Also, the synergetic acticity of soluvit, heparin, bisolvon with antibiotics and its effect on minimum biofilm eradication concentration(MBEC) was tested. Intravenous nutrient and bromohexine are widely used in newborns. Numbers of viable cell count released from biofilm after treatment with intravenous nutrient and bromohexine were counted to compare the efficacy. The percentage of reduction in biofilm regrowth in case of using soluvit was 43-51% and 36-42 % for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively, on adding the vitalipid the percentage was 45-50 %and 37-41% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, in case of using bisolvon the percentage was 46-52% and 47-48% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding lipovenos had a reduction percentage of 48-52% and 48-49% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, adding aminoven infant the percentage was 10-15% and 9-11% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding soluvit, heparin and bisolvon to antibiotics had synergic effect. soluvit with ciprofloxacin has 8-16 times decrease than minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for ciprofloxacin alone. While, by adding soluvit to vancomycin the MBEC reduced by 16 times than MBEC of vancomycin alone. In case of combination soluvit with cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamycin the reduction in MBEC was 16, 8 and 6-32 times respectively. The synergetic effect of adding heparin to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin was 2 times reduction with all except in case of gram negative the range of reduction was 0-2 with both gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. Bisolvon exihited synergetic effect with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin by 16, 32, 32, 8, 32-64 and 32 times decrease in MBEC respectively.

Keywords: biofilm, neonatal intensive care units, antibiofilm agents, intravenous nutrient

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77 Decent Work Agenda in the Philippines: A Capacity Assessment

Authors: Dianne Lyneth Alavado

Abstract:

At the turn of the millennium, development paradigms in the international scene revolved around one goal: elimination of global poverty without comprising human rights. One measure which achieved high endorsement and visibility in the world of work is the Decent Work Agenda (DWA) championed by the United Nation’s (UN) specialized agency for work, the International Labour Organization (ILO). The DWA has been thoroughly promoted and recommended as an ingredient of development planning and a poverty reduction strategy, particularly in developing countries such as the Philippines. The global imperative of economic growth is measurable not only in the numbers raked in by countries in terms of expanding economy but also by the development and realization of the full capacities of their people. Decent work (DW), as an outcome and not just a development approach, promises poverty eradication by means of providing both quantity and quality work that is accompanied by rights, representation, and protection. As a party to these international pacts, the Philippines is expected to heed the call towards a world free from poverty through well-endorsed measures such as the DWA with the aid of multilateral and donor organizations such as the ILO. This study aims to assess the capacity and readiness of the Philippines to achieve the goals of the DWA. This is a qualitative research using the sociological and juridical lens in the desk analysis of existing Philippine laws, policies, and programs vis-à-vis decent work indicators set forth by the ILO. Interview with experts on the Philippine labor situation is conducted for further validation. The paper identifies gaps within the Philippine legal system and its collection of laws, acts, presidential decrees, department orders and other policy instruments aimed towards achieving the goals of the DWA. Among the major findings of this paper are: the predisposition of Philippine labor laws towards the formal sector; the need for alternative solutions for the informal sector veering away from the usual dole-outs and livelihood projects; the needs for evaluation of policies and programs that are usually self-evaluated; the minimal reach of the labour inspectorate which ensures decent work; and the lack of substantial penalty for non-compliance with labor laws. The paper concludes with policy implications and recommendations towards addressing the potholes on the road to Decent Work.

Keywords: decent work agenda, labor laws, millennium development goals, poverty eradication, sustainable development goal

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76 Evaluation of Low Temperature as Treatment Tool for Eradication of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Artificial Diet

Authors: Farhan J. M. Al-Behadili, Vineeta Bilgi, Miyuki Taniguchi, Junxi Li, Wei Xu

Abstract:

Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is one of the most destructive pests of fruits and vegetables. Medfly originated from Africa and spread in many countries, and is currently an endemic pest in Western Australia. Medfly has been recorded from over 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, nuts and its main hosts include blueberries, citrus, stone fruit, pome fruits, peppers, tomatoes, and figs. Global trade of fruits and other farm fresh products are suffering from the damages of this pest, which prompted towards the need to develop more effective ways to control these pests. The available quarantine treatment technologies mainly include chemical treatment (e.g., fumigation) and non-chemical treatments (e.g., cold, heat and irradiation). In recent years, with the loss of several chemicals, it has become even more important to rely on non-chemical postharvest control technologies (i.e., heat, cold and irradiation) to control fruit flies. Cold treatment is one of the most potential trends of focus in postharvest treatment because it is free of chemical residues, mitigates or kills the pest population, increases the strength of the fruits, and prolongs storage time. It can also be applied to fruits after packing and ‘in transit’ during lengthy transport by sea during their exports. However, limited systematic study on cold treatment of Medfly stages in artificial diets was reported, which is critical to provide a scientific basis to compare with previous research in plant products and design an effective cold treatment suitable for exported plant products. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate and understand Medfly responses to cold treatments. Medfly stages were tested. The long-term goal was to optimize current postharvest treatments and develop more environmentally-friendly, cost-effective, and efficient treatments for controlling Medfly. Cold treatment with different exposure times is studied to evaluate cold eradication treatment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), that reared on carrot diet. Mortality is important aspect was studied in this study. On the other hand, study effects of exposure time on mortality means of medfly stages.

Keywords: cold treatment, fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, carrot diet, temperature effects

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75 Islamic Social Security: A Discourse

Authors: Safiyya A. Abba, Shehu U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

This paper deals with Islamic social security: a discourse explores the meaning and nature of Islamic social security system. The paper reviews the social security framework and operations during the early period. The paper further identifies the instruments of Islamic social security discusses its principles and objectives. The paper discovers that Islamic social security is a personification of a comprehensive welfare approach in view of its varied instruments that are deeply rooted in the Islamic law, unique principles and realistic and achievable objectives. Furthermore, the Islamic social security system has far reaching socioeconomic implications; social justice, cohesion, equity, a catalyst for poverty eradication, income redistribution, economic growth and development.

Keywords: Islamic social security, basic needs, zakat, socioeconomic justice, equity

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74 Nineteenth Century Colonial Discourse and Marxist Theory

Authors: Nikolaos Mavropoulos

Abstract:

Imperialism and colonialism had and still have a predominantly negative nuisance. In many ways the two terms are synonyms of racist behavior, exploitation, and oppression, imposed by the supposedly civilized West at Africa’s and Asia’s expense. Paradoxically enough, imperialism was not thoroughly negative for some Marxist scholars. For them, in reality, it served a historical necessity as the only mean to liberate the backward societies from their millennial stagnation and to introduce them to industrialization and progress. To Marx as immoral and cruel the imposition of imperial rule and the eradication of traditional structures may have been, the process is still a progressive step towards the formation of class consciousness, global revolution and socialism in a world scale. Overlooking the fact that imperialism could actually delay and put an end to capitalist development, some Marxists proponents considered it as a positive development for the colonized peoples.

Keywords: Colonialism, , Marxist theory, Modern history, , 19th century Imperialism,

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73 An Analytical Study of the Concept of Emptiness Doctrine and Its Connection with Dependent Origination

Authors: Sanjoy Barua Chowdhury

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The aim of this paper is an attempt to analyze the concept of emptiness from the early Buddhist teachings to subsequent Buddhist developmental schools, namely, Madhyamaka and Yogācāra Schools, along with attempting to examine an insightful bridge between the Buddha’s major teaching on dependent origination and the notion of emptiness. The initial part of this qualitative research focuses on the etymological term of emptiness (śūnyatā) and the Buddha’s teaching of emptiness from the Early Buddhist standpoint. Next, this research will seek to explain the concept of emptiness in the Madhyamaka School and Yogācāra School. This study further demonstrates the eradication of suffering is meant of understanding the concept emptiness from an ultimate standpoint with special concerning to focus the connection to the Buddha’s central teaching Dependent Origination.

Keywords: emptiness, Madhyamaka, dependent origination, early Buddhism, Yogacara

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72 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar

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Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: heavy metal, adsorption isotherms, nanoparticles, wastewater

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71 Urbanization in Delhi: A Multiparameter Study

Authors: Ishu Surender, M. Amez Khair, Ishan Singh

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Urbanization is a multidimensional phenomenon. It is an indication of the long-term process for the shift of economics to industrial from rural. The significance of urbanization in modernization, socio-economic development, and poverty eradication is relevant in modern times. This paper aims to study the urbanization index model in the capital of India, Delhi using aspects such as demographic aspect, infrastructural development aspect, and economic development aspect. The urbanization index of all the nine districts of Delhi will be determined using multiple parameters such as population density and the availability of health and education facilities. The definition of the urban area varies from city to city and requires periodic classification which makes direct comparisons difficult. The urbanization index calculated in this paper can be employed to measure the urbanization of a district and compare the level of urbanization in different districts.

Keywords: multiparameter, population density, multiple regression, normalized urbanization index

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70 Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration of Lysostaphin on Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Authors: N. Nagalakshmi, Indira Bairy, M. Atulya, Jesil Mathew

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S. aureus has the ability to colonize and form biofilms on implanted biomaterials, which is difficult to disrupt, and current antimicrobial therapies for biofilms have largely proven unsuccessful in complete eradication of biofilm. The present study is aimed to determine the lysostaphin activity against biofilm producing MRSA clinical strains. The minimum biofilm inhibition activity of lysostaphin was studied against twelve strong biofilm producing isolates. The biofilm was produced in 96-wells micro-titer plate and biofilm was treated with lysostaphin (0.5 to 16 µg/ml), vancomycin (0.5 to 64 µg/ml) and linezolid (0.5 to 64 µg/ml). The biofilm inhibitory concentration of lysostaphin was found between 4 to 8 µg/ml whereas vancomycin and linezolid inhibited at concentration between 32 to 64 µg/ml. Results indicate that lysostaphin as potential antimicrobial activity against biofilm at lower concentration is comparable with routine antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid.

Keywords: biofilm, lysostaphin, MRSA, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration

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69 Engineering Practice in Nigerian University: A Microcosm of Engineering Development and Practice in Developing Countries

Authors: Sunday Olufemi Adesogan

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There is a strong link between engineering and development. Engineering as a profession is a call to service by the society. Perhaps next to soldiers, engineers are the most patriotic professionals. However, unlike soldiers, they remain servants of society at all times and in all circumstances. Despite their role to the society, engineering profession seems not to be enjoying the respect due to it probably because of failures associated with some engineering projects. This paper focuses on the need to improve on engineering practices for developments in developing countries using Engineering practice in Nigerian Universities as a tool for argument. Purposeful Survey, interview and focus group discussion were carried out among one hundred and twenty (120) reputable firms in Nigeria. The topic was approached through a few projects that the firms have been involved in from the planning stage, some to completion and beyond into the stage of maintenance and monitoring. It is revealed that some factors which are not determined by the engineers themselves impeded progress and full success of engineering practice in developing countries. The key culprit is corruption whose eradication will put the nation on the solid path of effective engineering development and poverty alleviation.

Keywords: development, engineering, practices, sustainable

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