Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 272

Search results for: genotypes

272 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality, polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
271 Water Use Efficiency of Sunflower Genotypes Under Drip Irrigation

Authors: Adel M. Mahmoud

Abstract:

This Investigation was conducted to determine the productivity and water use efficiency for new sunflower genotypes. Ten sunflower genotypes were evaluated under drip irrigation using two treatments of. Results indicate that decreasing the amount of irrigation water from 1500 to 1130 mm/hectar significantly reduced all studied traits. Mutation (M1-63) surpassed all the other one genotypes in seed yield and WUE. Lines which gave the highest yield of the seed have water use efficiency under drought conditions higher than water use efficiency under normal irrigation. The lowest depression in seed yield due to drought conditions has been registered for Line 20, Line M1-63 and Sakha 53 genotypes (11 , 18 and 16 %, respectively). Genotypes (Line 20 , Line M1-63 and Sakha 53) are more tolerant to drought than others and we can used its in breeding program to develop sunflower hybrids suitable for cultivation under drought condition.

Keywords: sunflower genotypes, water use efficiency, mutation, inbred lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
270 Showing Broccoli and Cabbage Genotypes Biodiversity Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)

Authors: M. M. A. Abdalla, M. H. Aboul-Nasr, Shimaa H. Mosallam

Abstract:

Ten RAPD markers were used to detect the genetic variability and relationships among four broccoli and three cabbage genotypes. The results of RAPD analysis showed that all the five primers surveyed detected polymorphism for all broccoli genotypes. A total of 39 DNA bands were amplified by the 5 primers from all genotype and 21 of these fragments showed polymorphism (53.85%). The rest of these bands (46.15%) were common between the four genotypes. On the other hand, all of the 7 primers surveyed, used with cabbage, detected polymorphism among all cabbage genotype. A total of 69 DNA bands were amplified by the 7 primers from all genotypes and 23 of these fragments showed polymorphism (33.33%). The rest of these bands (66.67%) were common between the three genotypes. The investigation suggested that the RAPD approach showed considerable potential for identifying and discriminating broccoli and cabbage genotypes.

Keywords: Brassica oleracea, genotypes, genetic markers, varietal identification, DNA polymorphism, RAPD markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
269 Comparison of Chlorophyll Contents in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Runner Bean (P. coccineous L.) Genotypes

Authors: Huseyin Canci

Abstract:

Chlorophylls are green photosynthetic pigment in plants. Therefore, photosynthesis in plants occurs in the leaves. Roles of chlorophylls help plants to get energy from light. The aim of the present study is to compare of chlorophyll contents in some bean species including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner bean (P. coccineous L.) and genotypes. This research was carried out in fields of Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University in Antalya. Species and genotypes were grown in 2 m single row and 50 cm row spacing. A randomized blocks design was used with two replications. Totally, 124 beans species and genotypes which 122 common beans and 2 runner beans were sown on February, 17th 2014 by hand. Chlorophyll a + b (SPAD values) were determined seedling stage, days to flowering 50% and pod setting stage on bean genotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences for genotypes, stages and interaction of genotypes X stages. There was statistically significant relationships between yield and chlorophyll content of bean species and genotypes.

Keywords: bean, chlorophyll, Phaseolus, SPAD values

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
268 Salinity Response of Some Cowpea Genotypes in Germination of Periods

Authors: Meryem Aydin, Serdar Karadas, Ercan Ceyhan

Abstract:

The research was conducted to determine effects of salt concentrations on emergence of cowpea genotypes. Trials were performed during the year of 2014 on the laboratory of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University. Emergency trial was set up according to “Randomized Plots Design” by two factors and four replications with three replications. Samandag, Akkiz-86, Karnikara and Sarigobek cowpea genotypes have been used as trial material in this study. Effects of the five doses of salt concentrations (control, 30 mM, 60 mM, 90 mM and 120 mM) on the ratio of emergency, speed of emergency, average time for emergency, index of sensibility were evaluated. Responses of the cowpea genotypes for salt concentrations were found different. Comparing to the control, all of the investigated characteristics on the cowpea genotypes showed significant reduction by depending on the increasing salt application. According to the effects of salt application, the cowpea genotypes Samandag and Karnikara were the most tolerant in respect to index of sensibility while the Sarigobek genotypes was the most sensitive.

Keywords: cowpea, Vigna sinensis, emergence, salt tolerant

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
267 Phenological and Molecular Genetic Diversity Analysis among Saudi durum Wheat Landraces

Authors: Naser B. Almari, Salem S. Alghamdi, Muhammad Afzal, Mohamed Helmy El Shal

Abstract:

Wheat landraces are a rich genetic resource for boosting agronomic qualities in breeding programs while also providing diversity and unique adaptation to local environmental conditions. These genotypes have grown increasingly important in the face of recent climate change challenges. This research aimed to look at the genetic diversity of Saudi Durum wheat landraces using morpho-phenological and molecular data. The principal components analysis (PCA) analysis recorded 78.47 % variance and 1.064 eigenvalues for the first six PCs of the total, respectively. The significant characters contributed more to the diversity are the length of owns at the tip relative to the length of the ear, culm: glaucosity of the neck, flag leaf: glaucosity of the sheath, flag leaf: anthocyanin coloration of auricles, plant: frequency of plants with recurved flag leaves, ear: length, and ear: shape in profile in the PC1. The significant wheat genotypes contributed more in the PC1 (8, 14, 497, 650, 569, 590, 594, 598, 600, 601, and 604). The cluster analysis recorded an 85.42 cophenetic correlation among the 22 wheat genotypes and grouped the genotypes into two main groups. Group, I contain 8 genotypes, however, the 2nd group contains 12 wheat genotypes, while two genotypes (13 and 497) are standing alone in the dendrogram and unable to make a group with any one of the genotypes. The second group was subdivided into two subgroups. The genotypes (14, 602, and 600) were present in the second sub-group. The genotypes were grouped into two main groups. The first group contains 17 genotypes, while the second group contains 3 (8, 977, and 594) wheat genotypes. The genotype (602) was standing alone and unable to make a group with any wheat genotype. The genotypes 650 and 13 also stand alone in the first group. Using the Mantel test, the data recorded a significant (R2 = 0.0006) correlation (phenotypic and genetic) among 22 wheat durum genotypes.

Keywords: durum wheat, PCA, cluster analysis, SRAP, genetic diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
266 Marker Assisted Selection of Rice Genotypes for Xa5 and Xa13 Bacterial Leaf Blight Resistance Genes

Authors: P. Sindhumole, K. Soumya, R. Renjimol

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple food crop over the world. It is prone to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, out of which Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is the most rampant. Management of this disease through chemicals or any other means is very difficult. The best way to control BLB is by the development of Host Plant Resistance. BLB resistance is not an activity of a single gene but it involves a cluster of more than thirty genes reported. Among these, Xa5 and Xa13 genes are two important ones, which can be diagnosed through marker assisted selection using closely linked molecular markers. During 2014, the first phase of field screening using forty traditional rice genotypes was carried out and twenty resistant symptomless genotypes were identified. Molecular characterisation of these genotypes using RM 122 SSR marker revealed the presence of Xa5 gene in thirteen genotypes. Forty-two traditional rice genotypes were used for the second phase of field screening for BLB resistance. Among these, sixteen resistant genotypes were identified. These genotypes, along with two susceptible check genotypes, were subjected to marker assisted selection for Xa13 gene, using the linked STS marker RG-136. During this process, presence of Xa13 gene could be detected in ten resistant genotypes. In future, these selected genotypes can be directly utilised as donors in Marker assisted breeding programmes for BLB resistance in rice.

Keywords: oryza sativa, SSR, STS, marker, disease, breeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
265 ISSR Based Molecular Phylogeny in Naturally Growing Suaeda Populations of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Abdullah Basahi

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to identify the phylogenetic relationships and determine genetic diversity among Suaeda genotypes growing in Saudi Arabia and to find out whether these could be a potential source for genetic diversity. A set of nineteen genotypes was analyzed using twenty-four ISSR primers. Clear amplified polymorphic DNA products were obtained from the screening of twenty-four ISSR primers on nineteen genotypes that allowed selection of ten primers and the results were reproducible. Nineteen genotypes were revealed a unique profile with ten ISSR primers and thus it can be used for the DNA fingerprinting. Different primers produced a different level of polymorphism among the nineteen genotypes. The number of polymorphic bands per primer varied from 5 to 14 with an average of 8 bands per primer. The results revealed that the genotypes differed for ISSR markers. The genetic similarity based on Nei and Li’s ranged from 0.450 to 0.930. Cluster analysis was conducted based on ISSR data to group the Suaeda genotypes and to construct a dendrogram. Four groups can be distinguished by truncating the dendrogram at GS value of 0.54. ISSR markers showed high level of polymorphism among the genotypes examined. The present study indicates that ISSR markers could be successfully used in genetic characterization and diversity in Suaeda.

Keywords: suaeda, DNA fingerprinting, ISSR, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
264 Genetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Genotypes as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Pangirayi Tongoona

Abstract:

Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown for food, feed and bioenergy. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for conservation of genetic resources and improvement of crop plants through breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among sorghum genotypes using microsatellite markers. A total of 103 accessions of sorghum genotypes obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the African Centre for Crop Improvement and Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute collections in South Africa were estimated using 30 microsatellite markers. For all the loci analysed, 306 polymorphic alleles were detected with a mean value of 6.4 per locus. The polymorphic information content had an average value of 0.50 with heterozygosity mean value of 0.55 suggesting an important genetic diversity within the sorghum genotypes used. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on Euclidian coefficients revealed two major distinct groups without allocating genotypes based on the source of collection or origin. The genotypes 4154.1.1.1, 2055.1.1.1, 4441.1.1.1, 4442.1.1.1, 4722.1.1.1, and 4606.1.1.1 were the most diverse. The sorghum genotypes with high genetic diversity could serve as important sources of novel alleles for breeding and strategic genetic conservation.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Genotypes, Microsatellites, Sorghum

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
263 PRKAG3 and RYR1 Gene in Latvian White Pigs

Authors: Daina Jonkus, Liga Paura, Tatjana Sjakste, Kristina Dokane

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyse PRKAG3 and RYR1 gene and genotypes frequencies in Latvian White pigs’ breed. Genotypes of RYR1 gene two loci (rs196953058 and rs323041392) in 89 exon and PRKAG3 gene two loci (rs196958025 and rs344045190) in gene promoter were detected in 103 individuals of Latvian white pigs’ breed. Analysis of RYR1 gene loci rs196953058 shows all individuals are homozygous by T allele and all animals are with genotypes TT, its mean - in 2769 position is Phenylalanine. Analysis of RYR1 gene loci rs323041392 shows all individuals are homozygous by G allele and all animals are with genotypes GG, its mean - in 4119 positions is Asparagine. In loci rs196953058 and rs323041392, there were no gene polymorphisms. All analysed individuals by two loci rs196953058-rs323041392 have TT-GG genotypes or Phe-Asp amino acids. In PRKAG3 gene loci rs196958025 and rs344045190 there was gene polymorphisms. In both loci frequencies for A allele was higher: 84.6% for rs196958025 and 73.0% for rs344045190. Analysis of PRKAG3 gene loci rs196958025 shows 74% of individuals are homozygous by An allele and animals are with genotypes AA. Only 4% of individuals are homozygous by G allele and animals are with genotypes GG, which is associated with pale meat colour and higher drip loss. Analysis of PRKAG3 gene loci rs344045190 shows 46% of individuals are homozygous with genotypes AA and 54% of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AG. There are no individuals with GG genotypes. According to the results, in Latvian white pigs population there are no rs344435545 (RYR1 gene) CT heterozygous or TT recessive homozygous genotypes, which is related to the meat quality and pigs’ stress syndrome; and there are 4% rs196958025 (PRKAG3 gene) GG recessive homozygote genotypes, which is related to the meat quality. Acknowledgment: the investigation is supported by VPP 2014-2017 AgroBioRes Project No. 3 LIVESTOCK.

Keywords: genotype frequencies, pig, PRKAG3, RYR1

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
262 Investigation of Genetic Diversity of Tilia tomentosa Moench. (Silver Lime) in Duzce-Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Seda Birbilener, Semsettin Kulac, Zeki Severoglu

Abstract:

In this study, we have performed genetic diversity analysis of Tilia tomentosa genotypes by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. A total of 28 genotypes, including 25 members from the urban ecosystem and 3 genotypes from forest ecosystem as outgroup were used. 8 RAPD primers produced a total of 53 bands, of which 48 (90.6 %) were polymorphic. Percentage of polymorphic loci (P), observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's (1973) gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were found as 94.29 %, 1.94, 1.60, 0.34, and 0.50, respectively. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis revealed that two major groups were observed. The genotypes of urban and forest ecosystems showed a high genetic similarity between 28% and 92% and these genotypes did not separate from each other in UPGMA tree. Also, urban and forest genotypes clustered together in principal component analysis (PCA).

Keywords: Tilia tomentosa, genetic diversity, urban ecosystem, RAPD, UPGMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
261 Identification of Superior Cowpea Mutant Genotypes, Their Adaptability, and Stability Under South African Conditions

Authors: M. Ntswane, N. Mbuma, M. Labuschagne, A. Mofokeng, M. Rantso

Abstract:

Cowpea is an essential legume for the nutrition and health of millions of people in different regions. The production and productivity of the crop are very limited in South Africa due to a lack of adapted and stable genotypes. The improvement of nutritional quality is made possible by manipulating the genes of diverse cowpea genotypes available around the world. Assessing the adaptability and stability of the cowpea mutant genotypes for yield and nutritional quality requires examining them in different environments. The objective of the study was to determine the adaptability and stability of cowpea mutant genotypes under South African conditions and to identify the superior genotypes that combine grain yield components, antioxidants, and nutritional quality. Thirty-one cowpea genotypes were obtained from the Agricultural Research Council grain crops (ARC-GC) and were planted in Glen, Mafikeng, Polokwane, Potchefstroom, Taung, and Vaalharts during the 2021/22 summer cropping season. Significant genotype by location interactions indicated the possibility of genetic improvement of these traits. The genotype plus genotype by environment indicated broad adaptability and stability of mutant genotypes. The principal component analysis identified the association of the genotypes with the traits. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed that Zn and protein content were significant and positively correlated and suggested the possibility of indirect selection of these traits. Results from this study could be used to help plant breeders in making informed decisions and developing nutritionally improved cowpea genotypes with the aim of addressing the challenges of poor nutritional quality.

Keywords: cowpea seeds, adaptability, stability, mineral elements, protein content

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
260 Glycine Betaine Affects Antioxidant Response and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Genotypes under Water-Deficit Conditions

Authors: S. K. Thind, Neha Gupta

Abstract:

Glycine betaine (N, N’, N’’– trimethyl glycine), (GB) as aqueous solution (100 mM) containing 0.1% TWEEN-20 (Ploythylene glycol sorbitan monolaurate) was sprayed on selected nineteen wheat genotypes at maximum tillering and anthesis stages. Water-deficit conditions resulted in lipid peroxidation. GB applications reduced lipid peroxidation in all wheat genotypes at both the stages. Catalase (CAT) activity was recorded more in control than under stressed conditions in selected wheat genotypes at both the stages; GB had no effect. The ascorbic acid content in leaves of selected genotypes increased under water deficit. A genotypic variability in Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) activity was recorded and GB treatment decreased it. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased significantly under water-deficit at both stages in all genotypes. In present study, prolonged water-deficit conditions caused CAT deficiency/suppression which was compensated by APX and SOD; and GB exogenous application mitigated negative effect of water-deficit stress on lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: glycine-betaine, lipid peroxidation, ROS, water deficit stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
259 Genomic and Proteomic Variation in Glycine Max Genotypes towards Salinity

Authors: Faheema Khan

Abstract:

In order to investigate the influence of genetic background on salt tolerance in Soybean (Glycine max) ten soybean genotypes released/notified in India were selected. (Pusa-20, Pusa-40, Pusa-37, Pusa-16, Pusa-24, Pusa-22, BRAGG, PK-416, PK-1042, and DS-9712). The 10-day-old seedlings were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mM NaCl for 15 days. Plant growth, leaf osmotic adjustment, and RAPD analysis were studied. In comparison to control plants, the plant growth in all genotypes was decreased by salt stress, respectively. Salt stress decreased leaf osmotic potential in all genotypes however the maximum reduction was observed in genotype Pusa-24 followed by PK-416 and Pusa-20. The difference in osmotic adjustment between all the genotypes was correlated with the concentrations of ion examined such as Na+ and the leaf proline concentration. These results suggest that the genotypic variation for salt tolerance can be partially accounted for by plant physiological measures. The genetic polymorphisms between soybean genotypes differing in response to salt stress were characterized using 25 RAPD primers. These primers generated a total of 1640 amplification products, among which 1615 were found to be polymorphic. A very high degree of polymorphism (98.30%) was observed. UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity indices grouped all the genotypes into two major clusters. Intra-clustering within the two clusters precisely grouped the 10 genotypes in sub-cluster as expected from their physiological findings. Our results show that RAPD technique is a sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis in soybean genotypes.

Keywords: glycine max, NaCl, RAPD, proteomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
258 RAPD Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean

Authors: M. Vivodík, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 40 castor genotypes using 8 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 40 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded in 66 fragments, with an average of 8.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. Values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.556 to 0.895 with an average of 0.784 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.621 to 0.896 with an average of 0.798. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared and analyzed genotypes were grouped into two main clusters and only two genotypes could not be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production for industrial uses.

Keywords: dendrogram, polymorphism, RAPD technique, Ricinus communis L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
257 Genetic Polymorphism of Milk Protein Gene and Association with Milk Production Traits in Local Latvian Brown Breed Cows

Authors: Daina Jonkus, Solvita Petrovska, Dace Smiltina, Lasma Cielava

Abstract:

The beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein are milk proteins which are important for milk composition. Cows with beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein gene BB genotypes have highest milk crude protein and fat content. The aim of the study was to determinate the frequencies of milk protein gene polymorphisms in local Latvian Brown (LB) cows breed and analyze the influence of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genotypes to milk productivity traits. 102 cows’ genotypes of milk protein genes were detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and electrophoresis on 3% agarose gel. For beta-lactoglobulin were observed 2 types of alleles A and B and for kappa-casein 3 types: A, B and E. Highest frequency in beta-lactoglobulin gene was observed for B allele – 0.926. Molecular analysis of beta-lactoglobulin gene shows 86.3% of individuals are homozygous by B allele and animals are with genotypes BB and 12.7% of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AB. The highest milk yield 4711.7 kg was for 1st lactation cows with AB genotypes, whereas the highest milk protein content (3.35%) and fat content (4.46 %) was for BB genotypes. Analysis of the kappa-casein locus showed a prevalence of the A allele – 0.750. The genetic variant of B was characterized by a low frequency – 0.240. Moreover, the frequency of E occurred in the LB cows’ population with very low frequency – 0.010. 54.9 % of cows are homozygous with genotypes AA, and only 4.9 % are homozygous with genotypes BB. 32.8 % of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AB, and 2.0 % are with AE. The highest milk productivity was for 1st lactation cows with AB genotypes: milk yield 4620.3 kg, milk protein content 3.39% and fat content 4.53 %. According to the results, in local Latvian brown there are only 2.9% of cows are with BB-BB genotypes, which is related to milk coagulation ability and affected cheese production yield. Acknowledgment: the investigation is supported by VPP 2014-2017 AgroBioRes Project No. 3 LIVESTOCK.

Keywords: beta-lactoglobulin, cows, genotype frequencies, kappa-casein

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
256 Evaluation of Potential Production of Maize Genotypes of Early Maturity in Rainfed Lowland

Authors: St. Subaedah, A. Takdir, Netty, D. Hidrawati

Abstract:

Maize development at the rainfed lowland after rice is often confronted with the occurrence of drought stress at the time of entering the generative phase, which will cause be hampered crop production. Consequently, in the utilization of the rainfed lowland areas optimally, an effort that can be done using the varieties of early maturity to minimize crop failures due to its short rainy season. The aim of this research was evaluating the potential yield of genotypes of candidates of maize early maturity in the rainfed lowland areas. The study was conducted during May to August 2016 at South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study used randomized block design to compare 12 treatments and consists of 8 genotypes namely CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, CH5, CH6, CH7, CH8 and the use of four varieties, namely Bima 3, Bima 7, Lamuru and Gumarang. The results showed that genotype of CH2, CH3, CH5, CH 6, CH7 and CH8 harvesting has less than 90 days. There are two genotypes namely genotypes of CH7 and CH8 that have a fairly high production respectively of 7.16 tons / ha and 8.11 tons/ ha and significantly not different from the superior varieties Bima3.

Keywords: evaluation, early maturity, maize, yield potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
255 Estimation of the Nutritive Value of Local Forage Cowpea Cultivars in Different Environments

Authors: Salem Alghamdi

Abstract:

Genotypes collected from farmers at a different region of Saudi Arabia as well as from Egyptian cultivar and a new line from Yamen. Seeds of these genotypes were grown in Dirab Agriculture Research Station, (Middle Region) and Al-Ahsa Palms and Dates Research Center (East region), during summer of 2015. Field experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design on the first week of June with three replications. Each experiment plot contained 6 rows 3m in length. Inter- and intra-row spacing was 60 and 25cm, respectively. Seed yield and its components were estimated in addition to qualitative characters on cowpea plants grown only in Dirab using cowpea descriptor from IPGRI, 1982. Seeds for chemical composite and antioxidant contents were analyzed. Highly significant differences were detected between genotypes in both locations and the combined of two locations for seed yield and its components. Mean data clearly show exceeded determine genotypes in seed yield while indeterminate genotypes had higher biological yield that divided cowpea genotypes to two main groups 1- forage genotypes (KSU-CO98, KSU-CO99, KSU-CO100, and KSU-CO104) that were taller and produce higher branches, biological yield and these are suitable to feed on haulm 2- food genotypes (KSU-CO101, KSU-CO102, and KSU-CO103) that produce higher seed yield with lower haulm and also these genotypes characters by high seed index and light seed color. Highly significant differences were recorded for locations in all studied characters except the number of branches, seed index, and biological yield, however, the interaction of genotype x location was significant only for plant height, the number of pods and seed yield per plant.

Keywords: Cowpea, genotypes, antioxidant contents, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
254 Developing Drought and Heat Stress Tolerant Chickpea Genotypes

Authors: Derya Yucel, Nigar Angın, Dürdane Mart, Meltem Turkeri, Volkan Catalkaya, Celal Yucel

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with high protein content is a vital food, especially in under-developed and developing countries for the people who do not consume enough meat due to low-income level. The objective of the proposed study is to evaluate growing, yield and yield components of chickpea genotypes under Mediterranean condition so determine tolerance of chickpea genotypes against drought and heat stress. For this purpose, a total of 34 chickpea genotypes were used as material. The experiment was conducted according to factorial randomized complete block design with 3 reps at the Eastern Mediterranean Research Institute, Adana, TURKEY for 2014-15 growing season under three different growing conditions (Winter sowing, irrigated-late sowing and non-irrigated- late sowing). According to results of this experiment, vegetative period, flowering time, poding time, maturity time, plant height, height of first pod, seed yield and 100 seed weight were ranged between 68.33 to 78.77 days, 94.22 to 85.00 days, 94.11 to 106.44 days, 198.56 to 214.44 days, 37.18 to 64.89 cm, 18.33 to 34.83 cm, 417.1 to 1746.4 kg/ha and 14.02 to 45.02 g, respectively. Among the chickpea genotypes, the Aksu, Arda, Çakır, F4 09 (X 05 TH 21-16189), FLIP 03-108 were least affected by drought and heat stress. Therefore, these genotypes can be used as sources of drought and heat tolerance in further breeding programme for evolving the drought and heat tolerant genotypes in chickpea.

Keywords: chickpea, drought stress, heat stress, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
253 Genetic Characterization of Barley Genotypes via Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat

Authors: Mustafa Yorgancılar, Emine Atalay, Necdet Akgün, Ali Topal

Abstract:

In this study, polymerase chain reaction based Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) from DNA fingerprinting techniques were used to investigate the genetic relationships among barley crossbreed genotypes in Turkey. It is important that selection based on the genetic base in breeding programs via ISSR, in terms of breeding time. 14 ISSR primers generated a total of 97 bands, of which 81 (83.35%) were polymorphic. The highest total resolution power (RP) value was obtained from the F2 (0.53) and M16 (0.51) primers. According to the ISSR result, the genetic similarity index changed between 0.64–095; Lane 3 with Line 6 genotypes were the closest, while Line 36 were the most distant ones. The ISSR markers were found to be promising for assessing genetic diversity in barley crossbreed genotypes.

Keywords: barley, crossbreed, genetic similarity, ISSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
252 Salinity Response of Some Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes in Germination and Seedling Growth of Periods

Authors: Onder Aldemir, Ercan Ceyhan

Abstract:

The research was conducted to determine effects of salt concentrations on emergence and seedling development of chickpea genotypes. Trials were performed during the year of 2013 on the laboratory and greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University. Emergency trial was set up according to ‘Randomized Plots Design’ by two factors and four replications; greenhouse trial was also set up according to ‘Randomized Plots Design’ by two factors with three replications. The chickpea genotypes; CA119, CA132, CA149, CA150, CA215, CA222, CA235, CA261, Bozkır and Gokce were used as material for both of the trials. Effects of the five doses of salt concentrations (control, 30 mM, 60 mM, 90 mM and 120 mM) on the ratio of emergency, speed of emergency, average time for emergency, index of sensibility, length of shoot and root, fresh weight of shoot and root, dry weight of shoot and root, index of salt tolerance were evaluated. Responses of the chickpea genotypes for salt concentrations were found different. Comparing to the control, all of the investigated characteristics on the chickpea genotypes showed significant reduction by depending on the increasing salt level. According to the effects of salt application, the chickpea genotypes Gokce, CA215 and CA222 were the most tolerant in respect to plant dry weights while the chickpea genotypes CA149 and CA150 were the most sensitive.

Keywords: chickpea, emergence, salt tolerant, seedling development

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
251 Screening of the Sunflower Genotypes for Drought Stress at Seedling Stage by Polyethylene Glycol under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Uzma Ayaz, Sanam Bashir, Shahid Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Fareed Khan

Abstract:

Drought stress directly affects growth along with the productivity of plants by altering plant water status. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The present study was carried out to characterize the genetic variability for seedling and morpho-physiological parameters in different sunflower genotypes under water-stressed conditions. A total of twenty-seven genotypes, including two hybrids, eight advanced lines and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were tested against drought stress at Seedling stages by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). Significant means were calculated among traits using analysis of variance (ANOVA) whereas, correlation and principal component analysis also confirmed that germination percentage, root length, shoot length, chlorophyll content, stomatal frequency are positively linked with each other hence, these traits were responsible for most of the variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis results showed that genotypes Ausun, line-3, line-2, and 17578, line-1, line-7, line-6 and 17562 as more diverse among all the genotypes. These most divergent genotypes could be utilized in the development of drought-tolerant inbreed lines which could be subsequently used in future heterosis breeding programs.

Keywords: sunflower, drought, stress, polyethylene- glycol, screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
250 Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav

Abstract:

Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

Keywords: genotypes, macronutrients, micronutrient, protein, seeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
249 Polymorphisms of STAT5A and DGAT1 Genes and Their Associations with Milk Trait in Egyptian Goats

Authors: Othman Elmahdy Othman

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the STAT5A using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and DGAT1 using Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism genes among three Egyptian goat breeds (Barki, Zaraibi, and Damascus) as well as investigate the effect of their genotypes on milk composition traits of Zaraibi goats. One hundred and fifty blood samples were collected for DNA extraction, 60 from Zaraibi, 40 from Damascus and 50 from Barki breeds. Fat, protein and lactose percentages were determined in Zaraibi goat milk using an automatic milk analyzer. Two genotypes, CC and CT (for STAT5A) and C-C- and C-C+ (for DGAT1), were identified in the three Egyptian goat breeds with different frequencies. The associations between these genotypes and milk fat, protein and lactose were determined in Zaraibi breed. The results showed that the STAT5A genotypes had significant effects on milk yield, protein, fat and lactose with the superiority of CT genotype over CC. Regarding DGAT1 polymorphism, the result showed the only association between it with milk fat where the animals with C-C+ genotype had greater milk fat than animals possess C-C- genotype. The association of combined genotypes with milk trait declared that the does with heterozygous genotypes for both genes are preferred than does with homozygous genotypes where the animals with CTC-C+ have more milk yield, fat and protein than those with CCC-C- genotype. In conclusion, the result showed that C/T and C-/C+ SNPs of STAT5A and DGAT1 genes respectively may be useful markers for assisted selection programs to improve goat milk composition

Keywords: DGAT1, genetic polymorphism, milk trait, STAT5A

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
248 Environmental Effect on Yield and Quality of French Bean Genotypes Grown in Poly-Net House of India

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Tarsem Singh Dhillon, Rajinder Kumar Dhall, Ruma Devi

Abstract:

French bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.) is an economically potential legume vegetable grown at high altitude (>1000 ft.). More recently, its cultivation in Northern Indian plans is gaining popularity but there is severe reduction in its yield and quality due to low temperature during extreme winter conditions of December-January in open field conditions. Therefore, present study was undertaken to evaluate 29 indeterminate French bean genotypes for various yield and quality traits in poly-net house with the objective to identify best performing genotypes during winter conditions. The significant variation was observed among all the genotypes for all the studied traits. The green pod yield was significantly higher in genotype Lakshmi (992.33 g/plant) followed by Star-I (955.50 g/plant) and FBK-4 (911.17 g/plant). However, the genotypes FBK-10 (105.50 days) and Lakshmi (106.83 days) took least number of days to first harvest and were significantly better than all other genotypes (109.00-136.83 days). The maximum numbers of 10 pickings were recorded in genotype Lakshmi whereas maximum harvesting span as also observed in Lakshmi (60.50 days) which was significantly higher than all other genotypes (31.17-56.50 days). Regarding quality traits, maximum dry matter was observed in FBK-13 (13.87%), protein content in FBK-1 (9.67%), sugar content in FBK-5 (9.60%) and minimum fiber content in FBK-12 (0.69%). It is hereby concluded that high productivity and better quality of French bean (genotypes: Lakshmi, Star-I, FBK-4) was produced in poly-net house conditions of Punjab, India and these pods fetches premium price in the market as there is no availability of green pods at that time in high altitudes. Hence, there is a great scope of cultivation of indeterminate French bean under poly-net house conditions in Punjab.

Keywords: earliness, pod, protected environment, quality, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
247 Evaluation of Different Cowpea Genotypes Using Grain Yield and Canning Quality Traits

Authors: Magdeline Pakeng Mohlala, R. L. Molatudi, M. A. Mofokeng

Abstract:

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important annual leguminous crop in semi-arid and tropics. Most of cowpea grain production in South Africa is mainly used for domestic consumption, as seed planting and little or none gets to be used in industrial processing; thus, there is a need to expand the utilization of cowpea through industrial processing. Agronomic traits contribute to the understanding of the association between yield and its component traits to facilitate effective selection for yield improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate cowpea genotypes using grain yield and canning quality traits. The field experiment was conducted in two locations in Limpopo Province, namely Syferkuil Agricultural Experimental farm and Ga-Molepo village during 2017/2018 growing season and canning took place at ARC-Grain Crops Potchefstroom. The experiment comprised of 100 cowpea genotypes laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Designs (RCBD). The grain yield, yield components, and canning quality traits were analysed using Genstat software. About 62 genotypes were suitable for canning, 38 were not due to their seed coat texture, and water uptake was less than 80% resulting in too soft (mushy) seeds. Grain yield for RV115, 99k-494-6, ITOOK1263, RV111, RV353 and 53 other genotypes recorded high positive association with number of branches, pods per plant, and number of seeds per pod, unshelled weight and shelled weight for Syferkuil than at Ga-Molepo are therefore recommended for canning quality.

Keywords: agronomic traits, canning quality, genotypes, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
246 Morphological Parameters and Selection of Turkish Edible Seed Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) Germplasm

Authors: Onder Turkmen, Musa Seymen, Sali Fidan, Mustafa Paksoy

Abstract:

There is a requirement for registered edible seed pumpkin suitable for eating in Turkey. A total of 81 genotypes collected from the researchers in 2005 originated from Eskisehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Tekirdag, Sakarya, Kayseri and Kirsehir provinces were utilized. The used genetic materials were brought to S5 generation by the research groups among 2006 and 2010 years. In this research, S5 stage reached in the genotype given some of the morphological features, and selection of promising genotypes generated scale were made. Results showed that the A-1 (420), A-7 (410), A-8 (420), A-32 (420), B-17 (410), B-24 (410), B-25 (420), B-33 (400), C-24 (420), C-25 (410), C-26 (410) and C-30 (420) genotypes are expected to be promising varieties.

Keywords: candidate cultivar, edible seed pumpkin, morphologic parameters, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
245 Assessment of Relationships between Agro-Morphological Traits and Cold Tolerance in Faba Bean (vicia faba l.) and Wild Relatives

Authors: Nisa Ertoy Inci, Cengiz Toker

Abstract:

Winter or autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one the most efficient ways to overcome drought since faba bean is usually grown under rainfed where drought and high-temperature stresses are the main growth constraints. The objectives of this study were assessment of (i) relationships between cold tolerance and agro-morphological traits, and (ii) the most suitable agro-morphological trait(s) under cold conditions. Three species of the genus Vicia L. includes 109 genotypes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), three genotypes of narbon bean (V. narbonensis L.) and two genotypes of V. montbretii Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Davis and Plitmann were sown in autumn at highland of Mediterranean region of Turkey. All relatives of faba bean were more cold-tolerant than the faba bean genotypes. Three faba bean genotypes, ACV-42, ACV-84 and ACV-88, were selected as sources of cold tolerance under field conditions. Path and correlation coefficients and factor and principal component analyses indicated that biological yield should be evaluated in selection for cold tolerance under cold conditions ahead of many agro-morphological traits. The seed weight should be considered for selection in early breeding generations because they had the highest heritability.

Keywords: cold tolerance, faba bean, narbon bean, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
244 Evaluation of Two Earliness Cotton Genotypes in Three Ecological Regions

Authors: Gholamhossein Hosseini

Abstract:

Two earliness cotton genotypes I and II, which had been developed by hybridization and backcross methods between sindise-80 as an early maturing gene parent and two other lines i.e. Red leaf and Bulgare-557 as a second parent, are subjected to different environmental conditions. The early maturing genotypes with coded names of I and II were compared with four native cotton cultivars in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications in three ecological regions of Iran from 2016-2017. Two early maturing genotypes along with four native cultivars viz. Varamin, Oltan, Sahel and Arya were planted in Agricultural Research Station of Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar for evaluation. Earliness data were collected for six treatments during two years in the three regions except missing data for the second year of Kashmar. Therefore, missed data were estimated and imputed. For testing the homogeneity of error variances, each experiment at a given location or year is analyzed separately using Hartley and Bartlett’s Chi-square tests and both tests confirmed homogeneity of variance. Combined analysis of variance showed that genotypes I and II were superior in Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar regions. Earliness means and their interaction effects were compared with Duncan’s multiple range tests. Finally combined analysis of variance showed that genotypes I and II were superior in Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar regions. Earliness means and their interaction effects are compared with Duncan’s multiple range tests.

Keywords: cotton, combined, analysis, earliness

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
243 Responses of Grain Yield, Anthocyanin and Antioxidant Capacity to Water Condition in Wetland and Upland Purple Rice Genotypes

Authors: Supaporn Yamuangmorn, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai

Abstract:

Wetland and upland purple rice are the two major types classified by its original ecotypes in Northern Thailand. Wetland rice is grown under flooded condition from transplanting until the mutuality, while upland rice is naturally grown under well-drained soil known as aerobic cultivations. Both ecotypes can be grown and adapted to the reverse systems but little is known on its responses of grain yield and qualities between the 2 ecotypes. This study evaluated responses of grain yield as well as anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity between the wetland and upland purple rice genotypes grown in the submerged and aerobic conditions. A factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors of rice genotype and water condition were carried out in three replications. The two wetland genotypes (Kum Doi Saket: KDK and Kum Phayao: KPY) and two upland genotypes (Kum Hom CMU: KHCMU and Pieisu1: PES1) were used in this study by growing under submerged and aerobic conditions. Grain yield was affected by the interaction between water condition and rice genotype. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY grown in the submerged condition produced about 2.7 and 0.8 times higher yield than in the aerobic condition, respectively. The 0.4 times higher grain yield of upland genotype (PES1) was found in the submerged condition than in the aerobic condition, but no significant differences in KHCMU. In the submerged condition, all genotypes produced higher yield components of tiller number, panicle number and percent filled grain than in the aerobic condition by 24% and 32% and 11%, respectively. The thousand grain weight and spikelet number were affected by water condition differently among genotypes. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and upland genotype, PES1, grown in the submerged condition produced about 19-22% higher grain weight than in the aerobic condition. The similar effect was found in spikelet number which the submerged condition of wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and the upland genotype, KHCMU, had about 28-30% higher than the aerobic condition. In contrast, the anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant capacity were affected by both the water condition and genotype. Rice grain grown in the aerobic condition had about 0.9 and 2.6 times higher anthocyanin concentration than in the submerged condition was found in the wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU, respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU were 0.5 and 0.6 times higher in aerobic condition than in the submerged condition. There was a negative correlation between grain yield and anthocyanin concentration in wetland genotype KDK and upland genotype KHCMU, but it was not found in the other genotypes. This study indicating that some rice genotype can be adapted in the reverse ecosystem in both grain yield and quality, especially in the wetland genotype KPY and upland genotype PES1. To maximize grain yield and quality of purple rice, proper water management condition is require with a key consideration on difference responses among genotypes. Increasing number of rice genotypes in both ecotypes is needed to confirm their responses on water management.

Keywords: purple rice, water condition, anthocyanin, grain yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 77