Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: poliovirus

5 Inactivation Kinetics of DNA and RNA Viruses by Ozone-Air Mixture in a Flow Mixer

Authors: Nikolai Nosik, Vladislav Podmasterjev, Nina Kondrashina, Marina Chataeva, Olga Lobach, Dmitry Noosik, Sergei Razumovskii

Abstract:

Virucidal activity of ozone is well known: dissolved in water it kill viruses very fast. The virucidal capacity of ozone in ozone-air mixture is less known. The goal of the study was to investigate the virucidal potentials of the ozone–air mixture and kinetics of virus inactivation. Materials and methods. Ozone (O3 ) was generated from oxygen with ozonizer ( 1.0 – 75.0 mg\l). The ozone concentration was determined by the spectrophotometric methods. Virus contaminated samples were placed into the flowing reactor. Viruses: poliovirus type 1, vaccine strain (Sabin) and adenovirus, type 5, were obtained from the State virus collection. Titrations of viruses were carried out in appropriate cell cultures. CxT value ( mg\l x min) was calculated. Results. Metallic, polycarbonic and fiber “Kevlar” samples were contaminated with virus, dried and treated with ozone-air mixture in the flowing reactor. Kinetics of poliovirus inactivation: in 15 min at 5.0 mg\l -2.0 lg TCID50 inhibition , in 15 min at 10 mg\l – 2.5 lg TCID50 , 4.0 lg TCID50 inactivation of poliovirus was achieved after 75min at ozone concentration 20.0mg\l (99.99%). ( CxT = 75, 150 and 1500 mg\l x min on all three types of surfaces). It was found that the inactivation of poliovirus was more effective when the virus contaminated samples were wet (in 15 min at 20mg\l inhibition of virus in dry samples was 2.0 TCID50 , in wet samples – 4.0 TCID50). Adenovirus was less resistant to ozone treatment then poliovirus: 4.0 lg TCID50 inhibition was observed after 30 min of the treatment with ozone at 20mg\l ( CxT mg\l x min = 300 for adenovirus as for poliovirus it was 1500). Conclusion. It was found that ozone-air mixture inactivates viruses at rather high concentrations (compared to the reported effect of ozone dissolved in water). Despite of that there is a difference in the resistance to ozone action between viruses – poliovirus is more resistant then adenovirus-ozone-air mixture can be used for disinfection of large rooms. The maintaining of the virus-contaminated surfaces in wet condition allow to decrease the ozone load for virus inactivation.

Keywords: adenovirus, disinfection, ozone, poliovirus

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4 Diverse Sensitivity to Ultraviolet Radiation of DNA and RNA Viruses

Authors: Nickolay Nosik, Dmitry Nosik, Marina Bochkova, Nina Kondrashina, Olga Lobach

Abstract:

The bactericidal effect of UV radiation is known for long time and widely used for inactivation of pathogens but for viruses it is not so uniform. Due to a wide variety of viruses their sensitivity to UV radiation is quite different and not quite predictable. The goal of the study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of UV radiation ( 254 nm) of the viruses of social importance (HIV), as well as test-viruses (poliovirus, adenovirus) used for the evaluation of the viral inactivation efficacy of germicides. Methods: DNA viruses- adenovirus, type 5; Herpes simplex virus (HSV), type 1, and RNA viruses–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), type 1 and poliovirus, type 1 (Sabin strain) were obtained from State collection of viruses ( The D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology). The source of UV radiation was a 15-watt low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (over 60% 254nm). The samples of 5cm2 were placed direct under the UV lamp flow (h-0.3m). Log reduction value was used as a marker for the rate of virus inactivation. Results: The data obtained indicate that poliovirus (one of the viruses most resistant to chemical germicides) and HSV are rather sensitive to UV radiation ( D90 =250-311 J/m2). Adenovirus is much more resistant to UV radiation (750 J/m2 ). The kinetics of adenovirus inactivation : 0 min- 5.0 lg TCID50, 10 min - 5,0, 15 min -4,0, 30 min – 3.5, 60 min – 1,0, 75 min -0,5 lg TCID50, 90 min –virus not detectable. HIV is most resistant to UV radiation among the studied viruses. It takes more than 4 hrs to inactivate the virus on the surface. D90 = 2000 J/m2 Conclusion: The results of the study show that there is no direct dependence between sensitivity to UV light and the size of the virion or presence\absence of the envelope of the virus. Poliovirus and adenovirus are small viruses (20-30nm poliovirus and 70-90nm adenovirus) and both are non-enveloped viruses but adenovirus 3-fold more resistant to UV radiation than poliovirus. It can be expected that viruses with more complicate structure, like Herpes virus (200nm) or HIV (80-100 nm), would be more sensitive to UV light. However, the very high resistance of HIV to UV radiation needs further investigation. The diverse resistance of the different viruses to UV radiation should be taken into the account when UV light is used to inactivate infectious viruses in hospitals and other public environments.

Keywords: HIV, HSV, inhibition of viruses, UV radiation

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3 Poliovirus Vaccine Immunity among Chronically Malnourished Pakistani Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial from Developing Country

Authors: Ali Faisal Saleem, Farheen Quadri, Mach Ondrej, Anita Zaidi

Abstract:

Purpose: Pakistan is the final frontier for a polio-free world. Chronic malnutrition is associated with lack of effective gut immunity, and possibly associated with poliomyelitis in children received multiple OPV. We evaluate IPV dose administered together with OPV results in higher immunogenicity and mucosal immunity compared to OPV alone in chronically malnourished infants. Methods AND Materials: A community-based, unblinded-randomized-trial, conducted in 5 peri-urban, low-middle-income households of Karachi, in infants 9-12 months. Two study groups were non-malnourished (HAZ= -2 or more) and chronic malnourished (HAZ <-2SD), with 2-arms each i) OPV and ii) OPV and IPV. Two blood specimens (2ml) at baseline and at day 28 and two stool specimens (6 gm.) at day 29 and after 7 days. All infants received a bOPV challenge dose after first stool specimen. Calculates sample size was 210 in each arm. Serological (baseline compared to 28 days post-vaccine) and mucosal immunity after one week of bOPV challenge dose were study outcomes. Results: Baseline seroprevalence in malnourished infants were low compared to non-malnourished (P1, P2 and P3 (p=<0.001). There is significant rise in antibody titer and P1 seroprevalence in Mal A and B after receiving study vaccine; much higher in Mal B. Infants randomized to bOPV + IPV study vaccine showed incremental immune response against P1 (Mal B, 92.2%; Nor B, 98.4%), P2 (Mal B, 90.4%; Nor B, 94.7%), and P3 (Mal B, 85.6% and Nor B, 93.5%) was observed. A significant proportion of infants in malnourished (P1, 13%; P2, 24%; P3, 26%) and normally nourished group (P1, 5%; P2, 11%; P3, 14%) were found to be seronegative at baseline. Infants who received BOPV + IPV as their study vaccine showed a very high seroconversion response after vaccine (p=<0.001 for P1, P2 and P3). Majority of the specimens were negative at baseline (Mal A, 2%, Mal B, 1%; Nor A, 2%; Nor B, 1%), and remains negative after bOPV challenge dose (Mal A, 8%, Mal B, 6%; Nor A, 11%; Nor B, 10%). Conclusion: Malnourished-infants have low poliovirus-seroprevalence that increased remarkably after IPV. There is less viral shedding after IPV in infants.

Keywords: chronic malnutrition, infants, IPV, OPV

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2 Factors Associated with Seroconversion of Oral Polio Vaccine among the Children under 5 Year in District Mirpurkhas, Pakistan 2015

Authors: Muhammad Asif Syed, Mirza Amir Baig

Abstract:

Background: Pakistan is one of the two remaining polio-endemic countries, posing a significant public health challenge for global polio eradication due to failure to interrupt polio transmission. Country specific seroprevalence studies help in the evaluation of immunization program performance, the susceptibility of population against polio virus and identification of existing level of immunity with factors that affect seroconversion of the oral polio vaccine (OPV). The objective of the study was to find out factors associated with seroconversion of the OPV among children 6-59 months in Pakistan. Methods: A Hospital based cross-sectional serosurvey was undertaken in May-June 2015 at District Mirpurkhas, Sindh-Pakistan. Total 180 children aged 6–59 months were selected by using systematic random sampling from Muhammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas. Demographic, vaccination history and risk factors information were collected from the parents/guardian. Blood sample was collected and tested for the detection of poliovirus IgG antibodies by using ELISA Kit. The IgG titer <10 IU/ml, 50 to <150 IU/ml and >150 IU/ml was defined as negative, weak positive and positive immunity respectively. Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the difference in seroprevalence in univariate analysis. Results: A total of 180 subjects were enrolled mean age was 23 months (7 -59 months). Off these 160 (89%) children were well and 18 (10%) partially protected against polio virus. Two (1.1%) children had no protection against polio virus as they had <10 IU/ml poliovirus IgG antibodies titer. Both negative cases belong from the female gender, age group 12-23 months, urban area and BMI <50 percentile. There was a difference between normal and the wasting children; it did attain statistical significance (χ2= 35.5, p=0.00). The difference in seroconversion was also observed in relation to the gender (χ2=6.23, p=0.04), duration of breast feeding (χ2=18.6, p=0.04), history of diarrheal disease before polio vaccine administration (χ2=7.7, p=0.02), and stunting (χ2= 114, p=0.00). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that near 90% children achieve seroconversion of OPV and well protected against polio virus. There is an urgent need to focus on factors like duration of breast feeding, diarrheal diseases and malnutrition (acute and chronic) among the children as an immunization strategy.

Keywords: seroconversion, oral polio vaccine, Polio, Pakistan

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1 Metagenomics-Based Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases

Authors: Vyacheslav Furtak, Merja Roivainen, Olga Mirochnichenko, Majid Laassri, Bella Bidzhieva, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Vladimir Chizhikov, Konstantin Chumakov

Abstract:

Molecular epidemiology and environmental surveillance are parts of a rational strategy to control infectious diseases. They have been widely used in the worldwide campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, which otherwise would be complicated by the inability to rapidly respond to outbreaks and determine sources of the infection. The conventional scheme involves isolation of viruses from patients and the environment, followed by their identification by nucleotide sequences analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships. This is a tedious and time-consuming process that yields definitive results when it may be too late to implement countermeasures. Because of the difficulty of high-throughput full-genome sequencing, most such studies are conducted by sequencing only capsid genes or their parts. Therefore the important information about the contribution of other parts of the genome and inter- and intra-species recombination to viral evolution is not captured. Here we propose a new approach based on the rapid concentration of sewage samples with tangential flow filtration followed by deep sequencing and reconstruction of nucleotide sequences of viruses present in the samples. The entire nucleic acids content of each sample is sequenced, thus preserving in digital format the complete spectrum of viruses. A set of rapid algorithms was developed to separate deep sequence reads into discrete populations corresponding to each virus and assemble them into full-length consensus contigs, as well as to generate a complete profile of sequence heterogeneities in each of them. This provides an effective approach to study molecular epidemiology and evolution of natural viral populations.

Keywords: poliovirus, eradication, environmental surveillance, laboratory diagnosis

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