Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: gastroenteritis

26 Paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) Arylesterase and Lactonase Activities, Polymorphism and Conjugated Dienes in Gastroenteritis in Paediatric Population

Authors: M. R. Mogarekar, Shraddha V. More, Pankaj Kumar

Abstract:

Gastroenteritis, the third leading killer of children in India today is responsible for 13% of all deaths in children <5 years of age and kills an estimated 300,000 children in India each year. We decided to investigate parameters which can help in early disease detection and prompt treatment. Serum paraoxonase is calcium dependent esterase which is widely distributed among tissues such as liver, kidney, and intestine and is located in the chromosomal region 7q21.3 22.1. Studies show the presence of excessive reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidant imbalance in the gastrointestinal tract leading to oxidative stress in gastroenteritis. To our knowledge, this is the first ever study done. The objective of present study is to investigate the role of paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) status i.e arylesterase and lactonase activities and Q192R polymorphism and conjugated dienes, in gastroenteritis of paediatric population. The study and control group consists of 40 paediatric patients with and without gastroenteritis. Paraoxonase arylesterase and lactonase activities were assessed and phenotyping was determined. Conjugated dienes were also assessed. PON 1 arylesterase activities in cases (61.494±13.220) and controls (70.942±15.385) and lactonase activities in cases (15.702±1.036) and controls (17.434±1.176) were significantly decreased (p<0.05). There is no significant difference of phenotypic distribution in cases and controls. Conjugated dienes were found significantly increased in patients (0.086±0.024) than the control group (0.064±0.019) (p<0.05). Paraoxonase 1 activities (arylesterase and lactonase) and conjugated dienes may be useful in risk assessment and management in gastroenteritis in paediatric population.

Keywords: paraoxonase 1 polymorphism, arylesterase, lactonase, conjugated dienes, p-nitrophenylacetate, DHC

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
25 Genotyping of Rotaviruses in Pediatric Patients with Gastroenteritis by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Aysegul Bukulmez

Abstract:

Objective: Acute diarrhea disease in children is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and is a leading cause of mortality, and it is the most common agent responsible for acute gastroenteritis in developing countries. With hospitalized children suffering from acute enteric disease up to 50% of the analyzed specimen were positive for rotavirus. Further molecular surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemic gastroenteritis and could provide data needed for the introduction of vaccination programmes in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of viral etiology of the gastroenteritis in children aged 0-6 years with acute gastroenteritis and to determine predominant genotypes of rotaviruses in the province of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Methods: An epidemiological study on rotavirus was carried out during 2016. Fecal samples obtained from the 144 rotavirus positive children with 0-6 years of ages and applied to the Pediatric Diseases Outpatient of ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University with the complaint of diarrhea. Bacterial agents causing gastroenteritis were excluded by using bacteriological culture methods and finally, no growth observed. Rotavirus antigen was examined by both the immunochromatographic (One Step Rotavirus and Adenovirus Combo Test, China) and ELISA (Premier Rotaclone, USA) methods in stool samples. Rotavirus RNA was detected by using one step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). G and P genotypes were determined using RT-PCR with consensus primers of VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results: Of the total 144 rotavirus antigen-positive samples with RT-PCR, 4 (2,8%) were rejected, 95 (66%) were examined, and 45 (31,2%) have not been examined for PCR yet. Ninety-one (95,8%) of the 95 examined samples were found to be rotavirus positive with RT-PCR. Rotavirus subgenotyping distributions in G, P and G/P genotype groups were determined as; G1:45%, G2:27%, G3:13%, G9:13%, G4:1% and G12:1% for G genotype, and P[4]:33%, P[8]:66%, P[10]:1% for P genotype, and G1P[8]:%37, G2P[4]:%21, G3P[8]:%10, G4P[8]:%1, G9P[8]:%8, G2P[8]:%3 for G/P genotype . Not common genotype combination were %20 in G/P genotype. Conclusions: This study subscribes to the global agreement of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus which will be useful in guiding the alternative and application of rotavirus vaccines or effective control and interception. Determining the diversity and rates of rotavirus genotypes will definitely provide guidelines for developing the most suitable vaccine.

Keywords: gastroenteritis, genotyping, rotavirus, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
24 Description of Reported Foodborne Diseases in Selected Communities within the Greater Accra Region-Ghana: Epidemiological Review of Surveillance Data

Authors: Benjamin Osei-Tutu, Henrietta Awewole Kolson

Abstract:

Background: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the frequently reported Out-Patient Department (OPD) cases. However, the causative pathogens of these cases are rarely identified at the OPD due to delay in laboratory results or failure to obtain specimens before antibiotics is administered. Method: A retrospective review of surveillance data from the Adentan Municipality, Accra, Ghana that were recorded in the National foodborne disease surveillance system of Ghana, was conducted with the main aim of describing the epidemiology and food practice of cases reported from the Adentan Municipality. The study involved a retrospective review of surveillance data kept on patients who visited health facilities that are involved in foodborne disease surveillance in Ghana, from January 2015 to December 2016. Results: A total of 375 cases were reviewed and these were classified as viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and E), cholera (Vibrio cholerae), dysentery (Shigella sp.), typhoid fever (Salmonella sp.) or gastroenteritis. Cases recorded were all suspected case and the average cases recorded per week was 3. Typhoid fever and dysentery were the two main clinically diagnosed foodborne illnesses. The highest number of cases were observed during the late dry season (Feb to April), which marks the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. Relatively high number of cases was also observed during the late wet seasons (Jul to Oct) when the rainfall is the heaviest. Home-made food and street vended food were the major sources of suspected etiological food, recording 49.01% and 34.87% of the cases respectively. Conclusion: Majority of cases recorded were classified as gastroenteritis due to the absence of laboratory confirmation. Few cases were classified as typhoid fever and dysentery based on clinical symptoms presented. Patients reporting with foodborne diseases were found to consume home meal and street vended foods as their predominant source of food.

Keywords: accra, etiologic food, food poisoning, gastroenteritis, illness, surveillance

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
23 Campylobacteriosis as a Zoonotic Disease

Authors: A. Jafarzadeh, G. R. Hashemi Tabar

Abstract:

Campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter organisms. This is most commonly caused by C. jejuni, It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain. It is found in cattle, swine, and birds, where it is non-pathogenic. But the illness can also be caused by C. coli (also found in cattle, swine, and birds) C. upsaliensis (found in cats and dogs) and C. lari (present in seabirds in particular). Infection with a Campylobacter species is one of the most common causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis. For instance, an estimated 2 million cases of Campylobacter enteritis occur annually in the U.S., accounting for 5-7% of cases of gastroenteritis. Furthermore, in the United Kingdom during 2000 Campylobacter jejuni was involved in 77.3% in all cases of foodborne illness. 15 out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with campylobacteriosis every year, and with many cases going unreported, up to 0.5% of the general population may unknowingly harbor Campylobacter in their gut annually. A large animal reservoir is present as well, with up to 100% of poultry, including chickens, turkeys, and waterfowl, having asymptomatic infections in their intestinal tracts. An infected chicken may contain up to 109 bacteria per 25 grams, and due to the installations, the bacteria is rapidly spread to other chicken. This vastly exceeds the infectious dose of 1000-10,000 bacteria for humans. In this article this disease is fully discussed in human and animals.

Keywords: campylobacteriosis, human, animal, zoonosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
22 Genetic Diversity of Norovirus Strains in Outpatient Children from Rural Communities of Vhembe District, South Africa, 2014-2015

Authors: Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Afsatou Ndama Traore, Paul R. Hunter, Natasha Potgieter

Abstract:

Norovirus is now considered the most common cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Limited data are available for Norovirus strains in Africa, especially in rural and peri-urban areas. Despite the excessive burden of diarrhea disease in developing countries, Norovirus infections have been to date mostly reported in developed countries. There is a need to investigate intensively the role of viral agents associated with diarrhea in different settings in Africa continent. To determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Norovirus strains circulating in the rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa and investigate the genetic relationship between Norovirus strains, a cross-sectional study was performed on human stools collected from rural communities. Between July 2014 and April 2015, outpatient children under 5 years of age from rural communities of Vhembe District, South Africa, were recorded for the study. A total of 303 stool specimens were collected from those with diarrhea (n=253) and without (n=50) diarrhea. NoVs were identified using real-time one-step RT-PCR. Partial Sequence analyses were performed to genotype the strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to compare identified NoVs genotypes to the worldwide circulating strains. Norovirus detection rate was 41.1% (104/253) in children with diarrhea. There was no significant difference (OR=1.24; 95% CI 0.66-2.33) in Norovirus detection between symptomatic and asymptomatic children. Comparison of the median CT values for NoV in children with diarrhea and without diarrhea revealed significant statistical difference of estimated GII viral load from both groups, with a much higher viral burden in children with diarrhea. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting on the differences in estimated viral load of GII and GI NoV positive cases and controls. GII.Pe (n=9) were the predominant genotypes followed by GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 (n=8) suspected recombinant and GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants(n=7). Two unassigned GII.4 variants and an unusual RdRp genotype GII.P15 were found. With note, the rare GIIP15 identified in this study has a common ancestor with GIIP15 strain from Japan previously reported as GII/untypeable recombinant strain implicated in a gastroenteritis outbreak. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this unusual genotype in the African continent. Though not confirmed predictive of diarrhea disease in this study, the high detection rate of NoV is an indication of subsequent exposure of children from rural communities to enteric pathogens due to poor sanitation and hygiene practices. The results reveal that the difference between asymptomatic and symptomatic children with NoV may possibly be related to the NoV genogroups involved. The findings emphasize NoV genetic diversity and predominance of GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012, indicative of increased NoV activity. An uncommon GII.P15 and two unassigned GII.4 variants were also identified from rural settings of the Vhembe District/South Africa. NoV surveillance is required to help to inform investigations into NoV evolution, and to support vaccine development programmes in Africa.

Keywords: asymptomatic, common, outpatients, norovirus genetic diversity, sporadic gastroenteritis, South African rural communities, symptomatic

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
21 Impact Evaluation of Vaccination against Eight-Child-Killer Diseases on under-Five Children Mortality at Mbale District, Uganda

Authors: Lukman Abiodun Nafiu

Abstract:

This study examines the impact evaluation of vaccination against eight-child-killer diseases on under-five children mortality at Mbale District. It was driven by three specific objectives which are to determine the proportion of under-five children mortality due to the eight-child-killer diseases to the total under-five children mortality; establish the cause-effect relationship between the eight-child-killer diseases and under-five children mortality; as well as establish the dependence of under-five children mortality in the location at Mbale District. A community based cross-sectional and longitudinal (panel) study design involving both quantitative and qualitative (focus group discussion and in-depth interview) approaches was employed over a period of 36 months. Multi-stage cluster design involving Health Sub-District (HSD), Forms of Ownership (FOO) and Health Facilities Centres (HFC) as the first, second and third stages respectively was used. Data was collected regarding the eight-child-killer diseases namely: measles, pneumonia, pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, poliomyelitis (polio), tetanus, haemophilus influenza, rotavirus gastroenteritis and mortality regarding immunized and non-immunized children aged 0-59 months. We monitored the children over a period of 24 months. The study used a sample of 384 children out of all the registered children for each year at Mbale Referral Hospital and other Primary Health Care Centres (HCIV, HCIII and HCII) at Mbale District between 2015 and 2019. These children were followed from birth to their current state (living or dead). The data collected in this study was analysed using cross tabulation and the chi-square test. The study concluded that majority of mothers at Mbale district took their children for immunization and thus reducing the occurrence of under-five children mortality. Overall, 2.3%, 4.6%, 3.1%, 5.4%, 1.5%, 3.8%, 0.0% and 0.0% of under-five children had polio, tetanus, diphtheria, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, haemophilus influenzae and rotavirus gastroenteritis respectively across all the sub counties at Mbale district during the period considered. Also, different locations (sub counties) do not have significant influence on the occurrence of these eight-child-killer diseases among the under-five children at Mbale district. Therefore, the study recommended that government and agencies should continue to work together to implement measures of vaccination programs and increasing access to basic health care with a continuous improvement on the social interventions to progress child survival.

Keywords: Diseases, Mortality, Children, Vaccination

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
20 A Retrospective Cohort Study on an Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Linked to a Buffet Lunch Served during a Conference in Accra

Authors: Benjamin Osei Tutu, Sharon Annison

Abstract:

On 21st November, 2016, an outbreak of foodborne illness occurred after a buffet lunch served during a stakeholders’ consultation meeting held in Accra. An investigation was conducted to characterise the affected people, determine the etiologic food, the source of contamination and the etiologic agent and to implement appropriate public health measures to prevent future occurrences. A retrospective cohort study was conducted via telephone interviews, using a structured questionnaire developed from the buffet menu. A case was defined as any person suffering from symptoms of foodborne illness e.g. diarrhoea and/or abdominal cramps after eating food served during the stakeholder consultation meeting in Accra on 21st November, 2016. The exposure status of all the members of the cohort was assessed by taking the food history of each respondent during the telephone interview. The data obtained was analysed using Epi Info 7. An environmental risk assessment was conducted to ascertain the source of the food contamination. Risks of foodborne infection from the foods eaten were determined using attack rates and odds ratios. Data was obtained from 54 people who consumed food served during the stakeholders’ meeting. Out of this population, 44 people reported with symptoms of food poisoning representing 81.45% (overall attack rate). The peak incubation period was seven hours with a minimum and maximum incubation periods of four and 17 hours, respectively. The commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (97.73%, 43/44), vomiting (84.09%, 37/44) and abdominal cramps (75.00%, 33/44). From the incubation period, duration of illness and the symptoms, toxin-mediated food poisoning was suspected. The environmental risk assessment of the implicated catering facility indicated a lack of time/temperature control, inadequate knowledge on food safety among workers and sanitation issues. Limited number of food samples was received for microbiological analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that illness was significantly associated with the consumption of the snacks served (OR 14.78, P < 0.001). No stool and blood or samples of etiologic food were available for organism isolation; however, the suspected etiologic agent was Staphylococcus aureus or Clostridium perfringens. The outbreak could probably be due to the consumption of unwholesome snack (tuna sandwich or chicken. The contamination and/or growth of the etiologic agent in the snack may be due to the breakdown in cleanliness, time/temperature control and good food handling practices. Training of food handlers in basic food hygiene and safety is recommended.

Keywords: Accra, buffet, conference, C. perfringens, cohort study, food poisoning, gastroenteritis, office workers, Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
19 Survey of Campylobacter Contamination in Poultry Meat and By-Products in Khuzestan Province

Authors: Ali Bagherpour, Masoud Soltanialvar

Abstract:

Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis which are generally transmitted through foods of animal origin. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in poultry meat and by products in the city of Dezful in Iran. Since April 2012 to July 2013, a total of 400 samples including meat (n = 100), liver (n = 100), gizzard (n = 100), and poultry heart (n = 100), were randomly collected from Dezful industrial poultry abattoir and were experimented in order to investigate presence of Campylobacter species. According to culture test, 251 samples out of 400 samples under study (69%) were contaminated with Campylobacter species. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter species was observed in poultry's liver (78.3%) and then in gizzard (75.8%), heart (65%) and meat (56.7%). The most common isolated Campylobacter were C. jejuni (90.9%) and the rest were C. coli (9.1%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the prevalence of Campylobacter species between the meat samples taken in the summer (86.7%). The results of this study indicate the importance of edible offal of poultries as the potential source of Campylobacter infections.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, poultry, meat, products

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
18 Genotyping of G/P No Typable Group a Rotavirus Strains Revealed G2 and G9 Genotype Circulations in Moroccan Children Fully Vaccinated with Rotarix™

Authors: H. Boulahyaoui, S. Alaoui Amine, C. Loutfi, H. El Annaz, N. Touil, El M. El Fahim, S. Mrani

Abstract:

Three Moroccan children fully vaccinated with Rotarix™ have been hospitalized for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE) in the pediatric division of the Farabi Hospital, Oujda. Rotavirus G/P genotypes could not be typed because of their delayed crossing threshold (Ct) resolute with a group A rotavirus (RVA) real time RT-PCR. These strains were adapted to cell culture. All viruses replicated and caused extensive cytopathic effects after four or five passages in MA104 cell lines. Significant improvements have been obtained in the amount of viral particles. Each virus multiplied to a high titer (7.5 TCID50/ml). VP7 and VP4 partial gene sequencing revealed distinct genotypes compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Two strains were of G2P[4] genotype whereas the third was G9P[8] genotype. Virus isolation while labor intensive, is recommended as a second test, especially when higher sensitivity for conventional RVA genotyping RT-PCR is needed. VP7 antigenic similarities between these strains and Rotarix were determined.

Keywords: esacpe-vaccine, Morocco, Rotarix, G2P[4], G9P[8]

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
17 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan

Abstract:

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
16 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Thermophilic Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Humans and Poultry in Batna

Authors: Baali Mohamed

Abstract:

Campylobacter are among the most common human bacterial gastroenteritis cases in many countries, and poultry meat is considered as a major source of human campylobacteriosis. This study is conducted, on one hand, to determine the prevalence of infection with thermotolerant Campylobacter both in broiler flocks and men, and to study their sensitivity to antibiotics, and secondly for comparing the two methods of isolation of Campylobacter thermotolerant: technique of passive filtration and selective isolation technique using the Karmali medium. This study examined 310 samples, 260 of avian origin and 50 of human origin, during the period from June 2011 to March 2012. Detecting Campylobacter thermotolerant is conducted using the standard ISO 10272. The results show that 66% (95% CI : 60-72%) of avian samples are contaminated with C. TT (172/260). The study of antibiotic susceptibility revealed that all strains (100%) are resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 90% to erythromycin, 66.3% to tetracycline, 53.3% to chloramphenicol and 46.7% to enrofloxacin. However, no resistance is noted to gentamycin. In human samples, three strains of C. thermotolerant are detected, with a contamination rate of 6%. The results of the statistical analysis using the chi-square test (χ2) showed that Campylobacter infection, on the one hand, had seasonal variation with a summer peak (p < 0.05) and, on the other hand, are not influenced by the size of the herd.

Keywords: thermotolerant campylobacter, broiler, man, Karmali

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
15 Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection among Egyptian Children by Using Different Laboratory Techniques

Authors: Mohamed A. Alhammad, Hadia A. Abou-Donia, Mona H. Hashish, Mohamed N. Massoud

Abstract:

Background: Rotavirus is the leading etiologic agent of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children worldwide. The present study was aimed 1) to detect rotavirus infection as a cause of diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age using the two serological methods (ELISA and LA) and the PCR technique (2) to evaluate the three methodologies used for human RV detection in stool samples. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 247 children less than 5 years old, diagnosed clinically as acute gastroenteritis and attending Alexandria University Children Hospital at EL-Shatby. Rotavirus antigen was screened by ELISA and LA tests in all stool samples, whereas only 100 samples were subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of rotavirus RNA. Results: Out of the 247 studied cases with diarrhoea, rotavirus antigen was detected in 83 (33.6%) by ELISA and 73 (29.6%) by LA, while the 100 cases tested by RT-PCR showed that 44% of them had rotavirus RNA. Rotavirus diarrhoea was significantly presented with a marked seasonal peak during autumn and winter (61.4%). Conclusion: The present study confirms the huge burden of rotavirus as a major cause of acute diarrhoea in Egyptian infants and young children. It was concluded that; LA is equal in sensitivity to ELISA, ELISA is more specific than LA, and RT-PCR is more specific than ELISA and LA in diagnosis of rotavirus infection.

Keywords: rotavirus, diarrhea, immunoenzyme techniques, latex fixation tests, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
14 Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Resistance to Nitric Oxide in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Authors: Yantao Li, Jun Zheng

Abstract:

Food poison caused by consumption of contaminated food, especially seafood, is one of most serious public health threats worldwide. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is emerging bacterial pathogen and the leading cause of human gastroenteritis associated with food poison, especially in the southern coastal region of China. To successfully cause disease in host, bacterial pathogens need to overcome the host-derived stresses encountered during infection. One of the toxic chemical species elaborated by the host is nitric oxide (NO). NO is generated by acidified nitrite in the stomach and by enzymes of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the host cell, and is toxic to bacteria. Bacterial pathogens have evolved some mechanisms to battle with this toxic stress. Such mechanisms include genes to sense NO produced from immune system and activate others to detoxify NO toxicity, and genes to repair the damage caused by toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated during NO toxic stress. However, little is known about the NO resistance in V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, a transposon coupled with next generation sequencing (Tn-seq) technology will be utilized to identify genes for NO resistance in V. parahaemolyticus. Our strategy will include construction the saturating transposon insertion library, transposon library challenging with NO, next generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics analysis and verification of the identified genes in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords: vibrio parahaemolyticus, nitric oxide, tn-seq, virulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
13 Sequence Analysis and Structural Implications of Rotavirus Capsid Proteins

Authors: Nishal Parbhoo, John B. Dewar, Samantha Gildenhuys

Abstract:

Rotavirus is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis worldwide in children aged 5 and younger. Death rates are high particularly in developing countries. The mature rotavirus is a non-enveloped triple-layered nucleocapsid containing 11 double-stranded RNA segments. Here a global view on the sequence and structure of the three main capsid proteins, VP7, VP6, and VP2 is taken by generating a consensus sequence for each of these rotavirus proteins, for each species obtained from published data of representative rotavirus genotypes from across the world and across species. The degree of conservation between species was represented on homology models for each of the proteins. VP7 shows the highest level of variation with 14 - 45 amino acids showing conservation of less than 60%. These changes are localized to the outer surface which is exposed to antibodies alluding to a possible mechanism in evading the immune system. The middle layer, VP6 shows lower variability with only 14-32 sites having lower than 70% conservation. The inner structural layer made up of VP2 showed the lowest variability with only 1-16 sites having less than 70% conservation across species. The results correlate with proteins’ multiple structural roles. Although the nucleotide sequences vary due to an error-prone replication and lack of proofreading, the corresponding amino acid sequence of VP2, 6 and 7 remains conserved. Sequence conservation maintained for the virus results in stable protein structures, fit for function. This can be exploited in drug design, molecular studies and biotechnological applications.

Keywords: amino acid sequence conservation, capsid protein, protein structure, vaccine candidate

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
12 Distribution Pattern of Faecal Egg output and Herbage Larval Populations of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Scottish Blackface Lambs in East Scotland

Authors: M. Benothman, M. Stear, S. Mitchel, O. Abuargob, R. Vijayan, Sateesh Kumar

Abstract:

Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a serious pathological complication in lambs. The dispersion pattern of GIN influences their transmission dynamics. There is no proper study on this aspect in Scottish Blackface lambs in Scotland. This study undertaken on 758 naturally infected, weaned, straight bred Scottish Blackface lambs in high land pasture in East Scotland extending over three months (August, September and October) in a year, and for three successive years demonstrated that the distribution of faecal egg counts (FEC) followed negative binomial distribution, with the exception of a few samples. The inverse index of dispersion (k) ranged between 0.19 ± 0.51 and 1.09 ± 0.08. Expression of low k values resulting from aggregation in a few individuals, suggested that a small proportion of animals with heavy parasitic influx significantly influenced the level of pasture contamination and parasite transmission. There was no discernible trend in the mean faecal egg count (FEC) and mean herbage larval population (HLP) in different months and in different years. Teladorsagia was the highest pasture contaminant (85.14±14.30 L3/kdh) followed by Nematodirus (53.00±13.96), Ostertagia (28.21±10.18) and Cooperia (11.43±5.55). The results of this study would be useful in instituting gastrointestinal nematode control strategies for sheep in cool temperate agro-ecological zones.

Keywords: blackface lamb, faecal egg count, Gastrointestinal nematodes, herbage larval population, Scotland

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
11 Phytochemical Screening and Identification of Anti-Biological Activity Properties of Pelargonium graveolens

Authors: Anupalli Roja Rani, Saraswathi Jaggali

Abstract:

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.) is an erect, much-branched shrub. It is indigenous to various parts of southern Africa, and it is often called Geranium. Pelargonium species are widely used by traditional healers in the areas of Southern Africa by Sotho, Xhosa, Khoi-San and Zulus for its curative and palliative effects in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, fever, respiratory tract infections, liver complaints, wounds, gastroenteritis, haemorrhage, kidney and bladder disorders. We have used Plant materials for extracting active compounds from analytical grades of solvents methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and water by a soxhlet apparatus. The phytochemical screening reveals that extracts of Pelargonium graveolens contains alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, saponins and phenols in ethyl acetate solvent. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bleaching method and the total phenolic content in the extracts was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Due to the presence of different phytochemical compounds in Pelargonium the anti-microbial activity against different micro-organisms like E.coli, Streptococcus, Klebsiella and Bacillus. Fractionation of plant extract was performed by column chromatography and was confirmed with HPLC analysis, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy for the compound identification in different organic solvent extracts.

Keywords: Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér, DPPH, micro-organisms, HPLC analysis, NMR, FTIR spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
10 Multiple Etiologies and Incidences of Co-Infections in Childhood Diarrhea in a Hospital Based Screening Study in Odisha, India

Authors: Arpit K. Shrivastava, Nirmal K. Mohakud, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi S. Sahu

Abstract:

Acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years of age. Multiple etiologies have been implicated for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea. In our study fecal samples (n=165) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies such as Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, EHEC, STEC, O157, O111), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholera, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. The overall results from our study showed that 57% of children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were positive for at least one infectious etiology. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli was detected to be the major etiological agent (29.09%) followed by Rotavirus (24.24%), Shigella (21.21%), Adenovirus (5.45%), Cryptosporidium (2.42%), and Giardia (0.60%). Among the different DEC strains, EPEC was detected significantly higher in <2 years children in comparison to >2 years age group (p =0.001). Concurrent infections with two or more pathogens were observed in 47 of 160 (28.48%) cases with a predominant incidence particularly in <2-year-old children (66.66%) compared to children of 2 to 5 years age group. Co-infection of Rotavirus with Shigella was the most frequent combination, which was detected in 17.94% cases, followed by Rotavirus with EPEC (15.38%) and Shigella with STEC (12.82%). Detection of multiple infectious etiologies and diagnosis of the right causative agent(s) can immensely help in better management of acute childhood diarrhea. In future more studies focusing on the detection of cases with concurrent infections must be carried out, as we believe that the etiological agents might be complementing each other’s strategies of pathogenesis resulting in severe diarrhea.

Keywords: children, co-infection, infectious diarrhea, Odisha

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
9 Bacteremia Caused by Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in an Immunocompromised Patient in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Koksal Çakirlar, Si̇nem Ozdemir, Selcan Akyol, Revazi̇ye Gulesen, Murat Gunaydin, Nevri̇ye Gonullu, Belkis Levent, Nuri̇ Kiraz

Abstract:

Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 are the causative agent of epidemic or pandemic cholera. V. cholerae O1 is generally accepted as a non-invasive enterotoxigenic organism causing gastroenteritis of various severities. Non-O1 V. cholerae can cause small outbreaks of diarrhea due to consumption of contaminated food and water. Particularly, the patients with achlorydria have a risk for vibrio infections. There are numerous case reports of bacteremia caused by vibrio in patients with predisposing conditions like cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes, hematologic malignancy, gastrectomy, and AIDS. We described in this study the first case of nontoxigenic, non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae isolated from the blood culture of a 77-year-old female patient with hipertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, gout and about 9 years ago migrated breast cancer history. The patient with complaints of shortness of breath, fever and malaise admitted to our emergency clinic were evaluated. There was no diarrhea or abdominal symptoms in the patient. No growth in her urine culture, but blood culture (BACTEC 9120 system, Becton Dickinson, USA) was positive for non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that was identified by conventional methods and Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD). It does not secrete the cholera toxin. The agglutination test was negative with polyvalent O1 antisera and O139 antiserum. Empirically ceftriaxone was administered to the patient and she was discharged with improvement in general condition. In this study we report bacteremia by non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that is rare in the worldwide and first in Turkey.

Keywords: bacteremia, blood culture, immunocompromised patient, Non-O1 vibrio cholerae

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
8 Efficiency on the Enteric Viral Removal in Four Potable Water Treatment Plants in Northeastern Colombia

Authors: Raquel Amanda Villamizar Gallardo, Oscar Orlando Ortíz Rodríguez

Abstract:

Enteric viruses are cosmopolitan agents present in several environments including water. These viruses can cause different diseases including gastroenteritis, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, respiratory problems among others. Although in Colombia there are not regulations concerning to routine viral analysis of drinking water, an enhanced understanding of viral pollution and resistance to treatments is desired in order to assure pure water to the population. Viral detection is often complex due to the need of specialized and time-consuming procedures. In addition, viruses are highly diluted in water which is a drawback from the analytical point of view. To this end, a fast and selective detection method for detection enteric viruses (i.e. Hepatitis A and Rotavirus) were applied. Micro- magnetic particles were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies anti-Hepatitis and anti-Rotavirus and they were used to capture, concentrate and separate whole viral particles in raw water and drinking water samples from four treatment plants identified as CAR-01, MON-02, POR-03, TON-04 and located in the Northeastern Colombia. Viruses were molecularly by using RT-PCR One Step Superscript III. Each plant was analyzed at the entry and exit points, in order to determine the initial presence and eventual reduction of Hepatitis A and Rotavirus after disinfection. The results revealed the presence of both enteric viruses in a 100 % of raw water analyzed in all plants. This represents a potential health hazard, especially for those people whose use this water for agricultural purposes. However, in drinking water analysis, enteric viruses was only positive in CAR-01, where was found the presence of Rotavirus. As a conclusion, the results confirm Rotavirus as the best indicator to evaluate the efficacy of potable treatment plant in eliminating viruses. CAR potable water plant should improve their disinfection process in order to remove efficiently enteric viruses.

Keywords: drinking water, hepatitis A, rotavirus, virus removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
7 Levels of Microcystin in the Coastal Waters of Nigeria

Authors: Medina Kadiri

Abstract:

Blue-green otherwise called cyanobacteria, produce an array of biotoxins grouped into five categories notably hapatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins. Microcystins which are examples of hepatotoxins produced by blue-green algae Microcystins comprise the most common group of the cyanobacterial toxins. Blue-green algae flourish in aquatic environments, whether marine, brackish or freshwater, producing blooms in different forms such as microscopic, mats, or unsightly odoriferous scums. Microcystins biotoxins cause a plethora of animal and human hazards such as liver damage/cirrhosis and cancer, kidney damage, dermatitis, tinnitus, gastroenteritis, sore throat, nausea, myalgia, neurological problems, respiratory irritation and death. Water samples were collected from coastal regions of Nigeria in March 2014, June 2014, October 2014 and January 2015 and analyzed with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. Microcystin biotoxin was recorded in all sites both during dry and wet seasons. The range of microcystins found was 0.000041-There was a seasonal trend of increasing microcystin concentrations from March till Octobers and a decrease thereafter. Generally in the oceanic waters, microcystin levels were highest at Cross Rivers in March and January, Barbeach in June and Lekki in October. In the adjoining riverine ecosystems, on the other hand, the highest concentrations of microcystin were observed at Akwa Ibom in March, June and October and in Bayelsa in January. Continuous monitoring and screening of coastal water bodies is suggested to minimize the health risks of cyanobacterial biotoxins to coastal communities of Nigeria.

Keywords: biotoxins, harmful algae, marine, microcystin, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
6 Prevalence, Isolation and Identification of Feline Panleukopaenia Virus from Wild Felids in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha

Authors: Arun Kharate, Sarata Kumar Sahu, Susen Kumar Panda, Niranjan Sahoo, H. K. Panda

Abstract:

In the present study, an attempt has been made for isolation and identification of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) from wild felids of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, along with prevalence study of FPLV. Fecal samples collected from wild felids (26 tigers, 22 lions, 5 leopards, 3 hyenas, 1 jaguar, 2 foxes and 1 wild cat) were subjected to hemagglutinnation test and fluorescent antibody test. In hemagglutinnation test 13 (50%) samples from tiger, 14 (63.63%) samples from lions, 1 (20%) sample from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) samples from hyenas and 1 (100%) sample from wild cat were positive. On fluorescent antibody test (FAT), 15 (57.69%) samples from tiger, 18 (81.81%) from lions, 2 (40%) from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) from hyenas and 1 (100%) from wild cat were positive. FPLV was isolated using MDBK cell line and preliminary characterization was done on the basis of characteristic cytopathic effect. The virus samples were quantified through titration in MDBK cells. Serological confirmation of FPLV isolates was carried out by HI test, micro-SNT and indirect-ELISA. Physico-chemical characters like pH and temperature resistance along molecular identification using specific FPLV primers was carried out. Seroprevalence study of 36 serum samples employing HI test, micro SNT and indirect-ELISA revealed prevalence of 38.8, 44.4 and 72.2% respectively. During study period an adult tigress and a tiger cub died suspected of feline panleukopenia. The necropsy findings in both animals showed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The cytological examination revealed presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the intestinal epithelial cells. Spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestine were positive for feline panleukopenia by FAT. The investigation revealed that feline panleukopenia was prevalent in wild felines of Nandankanan zoo.

Keywords: Feline panleukopenia, fluorescent antibody test, hemagglutination test, indirect-ELISA, Nandankanan zoo

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
5 Inhibition of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. By Traditional Phytomedicines That Are Commonly Used to Treat Gastroenteritis in Zimbabwe

Authors: Constance Chivengwa, Tinashe Mandimutsira, Jephris Gere, Charles Magogo, Irene Chikanza, Jerneja Vidmar, Walter Chingwaru

Abstract:

The use of traditional methods in the management of diarrhoea has remained a common practice among the indigenous African tribes of Southern Africa. Despite the widespread use of traditional medicines in Zimbabwe, very little research validating the activities of phytomedicines against diarrhoea, as claimed by the Shona people of Zimbabwe, has been reported. This study sought to determine the efficacies of the plants that are frequently used to treat stomach complaints, namely Dicoma anomala, Cassia abbreviata, Lannea edulis and Peltophorum africanum against Escherichia coli (an indicator of faecal contamination of water, and whose strains such as EHEC (O157), ETEC and EPEC, are responsible for a number of outbreaks of diarrhoea) and Salmonella spp. Ethanol and aqueous extracts from these plants were obtained, evaporated, dried and stored. The dried extracts were reconstituted and diluted 10-fold in nutrient broth (from 100 to 0.1 microgram/mL) and tested for inhibition against the bacteria. L. edulis exhibited the best antimicrobial effect (minimum inhibition concentration = 10 microgram/mL for both extracts and microorganisms). Runners up to L. edulis were C. abbreviata (20 microgram/mL for both microorganisms) and P. africanum (20 and 30 microgram/mL respectively). Interestingly, D. anomala, which is widely considered panacea in African medicinal practices, showed low antimicrobial activity (60 and 100 microgram/mL respectively). The high antimicrobial activity of L. edulis can be explained by its content of flavonoids, tannins, alkylphenols (cardonol 7 and cardonol 13) and dihydroalkylhexenones. The antimicrobial activities of C. abbreviata can be linked to its content of anthraquinones and triterpenoids. P. africanum is known to contain benzenoids, flavanols, flavonols, terpenes, xanthone and coumarins. This study therefore demonstrated that, among the plants that are used against diarrhoea in African traditional medicine, L. edulis is a clear winner against E. coli and Salmonella spp. Activity guided extraction is encouraged to establish the complement of compounds that have antimicrobial activities.

Keywords: diarrhoea, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, phytomedicine, MIC, Zimbabwe

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
4 Molecular Detection of Acute Virus Infection in Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in North India during 2014-2016

Authors: Ali Ilter Akdag, Pratima Ray

Abstract:

Background:This acute gastroenteritis viruses such as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus are mainly responsible for diarrhea in children below < 5 years old. Molecular detection of these viruses is crucially important to the understand development of the effective cure. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of common these viruses in children < 5 years old presented with diarrhea from Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre (Meerut) North India, India Methods: Total 312 fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children duration 3 years: in year 2014 (n = 118), 2015 (n = 128) and 2016 (n = 66) ,< 5 years of age who presented with acute diarrhea at the Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre(Meerut) North India, India. All samples were the first detection by EIA/RT-PCR for rotaviruses, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: In 312 samples from children with acute diarrhea in sample viral agent was found, rotavirus A was the most frequent virus identified (57 cases; 18.2%), followed by Astrovirus in 28 cases (8.9%), adenovirus in 21 cases (6.7%). Mixed infections were found in 14 cases, all of which presented with acute diarrhea (14/312; 4.48%). Conclusions: These viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children <5 years old in North India. Rotavirus A is the most common etiological agent, follow by astrovirus. This surveillance is important to vaccine development of the entire population. There is variation detection of virus year wise due to differences in the season of sampling, method of sampling, hygiene condition, socioeconomic level of the entire people, enrolment criteria, and virus detection methods. It was found Astrovirus higher then Rotavirus in 2015, but overall three years study Rotavirus A is mainly responsible for causing severe diarrhea in children <5 years old in North India. It emphasizes the required for cost-effective diagnostic assays for Rotaviruses which would help to determine the disease burden.

Keywords: adenovirus, Astrovirus, hospitalized children, Rotavirus

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
3 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Serratia marcescens and Providencia Spp. from Various Clinical Specimens by Using Both the Conventional and Automated (VITEK2) Methods

Authors: Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Serratia species are identified as aerobic, motile Gram negative rods. The species Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) causes both opportunistic and nosocomial infections. The genus Providencia is Gram-negative bacilli and includes urease-producing that is responsible for a wide range of human infections. Although most Providencia infections involve the urinary tract, they are also associated with gastroenteritis, wound infections, and bacteremia. The aim of this study was evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates of S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains which had been isolated from various clinical materials obtained from different patients who belongs to intensive care units (ICU) and inpatient clinics. Methods: A total of 35 S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains isolated from various clinical samples admitted to Medical Microbiology Laboratory, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University between October 2013 and September 2015 were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and VITEK 2 system (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) was used additionally. Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: The distribution of clinical samples were as follows: upper and lower respiratory tract samples 26, 74.2 % wound specimen 6, 17.1 % blood cultures 3, 8.5%. Of the 35 S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains; 28, 80% were isolated from clinical samples sent from ICU. The resistance rates of S. marcescens strains against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime and amikacin were found to be 8.5 %, 22.8 %, 11.4 %, 2.8 %, 17.1 %, 40 %, 28.5 % and 5.7 % respectively. Resistance rates of Providencia spp. strains against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime and amikacin were found to be 10.2 %, 33,3 %, 18.7 %, 8.7 %, 13.2 %, 38.6 %, 26.7%, and 11.8 % respectively. Conclusion: S. marcescens is usually resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cephamycins, nitrofurantoin, and colistin. The most effective antibiotic on the total of S. marcescens strains was found to be gentamicin 2.8 %, of the totally tested strains the highest resistance rate found against to ceftazidime 40 %. The lowest and highest resistance rates were found against gentamiycin and ceftazidime with the rates of 8.7 % and 38.6 % for Providencia spp.

Keywords: Serratia marcescens, Providencia spp., antibiotic resistance, intensive care unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2 Evidence for Replication of an Unusual G8P[14] Human Rotavirus Strain in the Feces of an Alpine Goat: Zoonotic Transmission from Caprine Species

Authors: Amine Alaoui Sanae, Tagjdid Reda, Loutfi Chafiqa, Melloul Merouane, Laloui Aziz, Touil Nadia, El Fahim, E. Mostafa

Abstract:

Background: Rotavirus group A (RVA) strains with G8P[14] specificities are usually detected in calves and goats. However, these strains have been reported globally in humans and have often been characterized as originating from zoonotic transmissions, particularly in area where ruminants and humans live side-by-side. Whether human P[14] genotypes are two-way and can be transmitted to animal species remains to be established. Here we describe VP4 deduced amino-acid relationships of three Moroccan P[14] genotypes originating from different species and the receptiveness of an alpine goat to a human G8P[14] through an experimental infection. Material/methods: the human MA31 RVA strain was originally identified in a four years old girl presenting an acute gastroenteritis hospitalized at the pediatric care unit in Rabat Hospital in 2011. The virus was isolated and propagated in MA104 cells in the presence of trypsin. Ch_10S and 8045_S animal RVA strains were identified in fecal samples of a 2-week-old native goat and 3-week-old calf with diarrhea in 2011 in Bouaarfa and My Bousselham respectively. Genomic RNAs of all strains were subjected to a two-step RT-PCR and sequenced using the consensus primers VP4. The phylogenetic tree for MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 and a set of published P[14] genotypes was constructed using MEGA6 software. The receptivity of MA31 strain by an eight month-old alpine goat was assayed. The animal was orally and intraperitonally inoculated with a dose of 8.5 TCID50 of virus stock at passage level 3. The shedding of the virus was tested by a real time RT-PCR assay. Results: The phylogenetic tree showed that the three Moroccan strains MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 were highly related to each other (100% similar at the nucleotide level). They were clustered together with the B10925, Sp813, PA77 and P169 strains isolated in Belgium, Spain and Italy respectively. The Belgian strain B10925 was the most closely related to the Moroccan strains. In contrast, the 8045_S and Ch_10S strains were clustered distantly from the Tunisian calf strain B137 and the goat strain cap455 isolated in South Africa respectively. The human MA31 RVA strain was able to induce bloody diarrhea at 2 days post infection (dpi) in the alpine goat kid. RVA virus shedding started by 2 dpi (Ct value of 28) and continued until 5 dpi (Ct value of 25) with a concomitant elevation in the body temperature. Conclusions: Our study while limited to one animal, is the first study proving experimentally that a human P[14] genotype causes diarrhea and virus shedding in the goat. This result reinforce the potential role of inter- species transmission in generating novel and rare rotavirus strains such G8P[14] which infect humans.

Keywords: interspecies transmission, rotavirus, goat, human

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1 Detection and Quantification of Viable but Not Culturable Vibrio Parahaemolyticus in Frozen Bivalve Molluscs

Authors: Eleonora Di Salvo, Antonio Panebianco, Graziella Ziino

Abstract:

Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human pathogen that is widely distributed in marine environments. It is frequently isolated from raw seafood, particularly shellfish. Consumption of raw or undercooked seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus may lead to acute gastroenteritis. Vibrio spp. has excellent resistance to low temperatures so it can be found in frozen products for a long time. Recently, the viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of bacteria has attracted great attention, and more than 85 species of bacteria have been demonstrated to be capable of entering this state. VBNC cells cannot grow in conventional culture medium but are viable and maintain metabolic activity, which may constitute an unrecognized source of food contamination and infection. Also V. parahaemolyticus could exist in VBNC state under nutrient starvation or low-temperature conditions. Aim: The aim of the present study was to optimize methods and investigate V. parahaemolyticus VBNC cells and their presence in frozen bivalve molluscs, regularly marketed. Materials and Methods: propidium monoazide (PMA) was integrated with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting the tl gene to detect and quantify V. parahaemolyticus in the VBNC state. PMA-qPCR resulted highly specific to V. parahaemolyticus with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10-1 log CFU/mL in pure bacterial culture. A standard curve for V. parahaemolyticus cell concentrations was established with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999 at the linear range of 1.0 to 8.0 log CFU/mL. A total of 77 samples of frozen bivalve molluscs (35 mussels; 42 clams) were subsequently subjected to the qualitative (on alkaline phosphate buffer solution) and quantitative research of V. parahaemolyticus on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar (DIFCO) NaCl 2.5%, and incubation at 30°C for 24-48 hours. Real-time PCR was conducted on homogenate samples, in duplicate, with and without propidium monoazide (PMA) dye, and exposed for 45 min under halogen lights (650 W). Total DNA was extracted from cell suspension in homogenate samples according to bolliture protocol. The Real-time PCR was conducted with species-specific primers for V. parahaemolitycus. The RT-PCR was performed in a final volume of 20 µL, containing 10 µL of SYBR Green Mixture (Applied Biosystems), 2 µL of template DNA, 2 µL of each primer (final concentration 0.6 mM), and H2O 4 µL. The qPCR was carried out on CFX96 TouchTM (Bio-Rad, USA). Results: All samples were negative both to the quantitative and qualitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus by the classical culturing technique. The PMA-qPCR let us individuating VBNC V. parahaemolyticus in the 20,78% of the samples evaluated with a value between the Log 10-1 and Log 10-3 CFU/g. Only clams samples were positive for PMA-qPCR detection. Conclusion: The present research is the first evaluating PMA-qPCR assay for detection of VBNC V. parahaemolyticus in bivalve molluscs samples, and the used method was applicable to the rapid control of marketed bivalve molluscs. We strongly recommend to use of PMA-qPCR in order to identify VBNC forms, undetectable by the classic microbiological methods. A precise knowledge of the V.parahaemolyticus in a VBNC form is fundamental for the correct risk assessment not only in bivalve molluscs but also in other seafood.

Keywords: food safety, frozen bivalve molluscs, PMA dye, Real-time PCR, VBNC state, Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Procedia PDF Downloads 59