Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: malware

33 User’s Susceptibility Factors to Malware Attacks: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Awad A. Younis, Elise Stronberg, Shifa Noor

Abstract:

Malware attacks due to end-user vulnerabilities have been noticeably increased in the past few years. Investigating the factors that make an end-user vulnerable to those attacks is critical because they can be utilized to set up proactive strategies such as awareness and education to mitigate the impacts of those attacks. Some existing studies investigated demographic, behavioral, and cultural factors that make an end-user susceptible to malware attacks. However, it has been challenging to draw more general conclusions from individual studies due to the varieties in the type of end-users and different types of malware. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of the existing research for end-user susceptibility factors to malware attacks. The results showed while some demographic factors are mostly associated with malware infection regardless of the end users' type, age, and gender are not consistent among the same and different types of end-users. Besides, the association of culture and personality factors with malware infection are consistent in most of the selected studies and for all type of end-users. Moreover, malware infection varies based on age, geographic location, and host types. We propose that future studies should carefully take into consideration the type of end-users because different end users may be exposed to different threats or be targeted based on their user domains’ characteristics. Additionally, as different types of malware use different tactics to trick end-users, taking the malware types into consideration is important.

Keywords: cybersecurity, malware, end-users, demographics, personality, culture, systematic literature review

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32 A Study of Permission-Based Malware Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Ratun Rahman, Rafid Islam, Akin Ahmed, Kamrul Hasan, Hasan Mahmud

Abstract:

Malware is becoming more prevalent, and several threat categories have risen dramatically in recent years. This paper provides a bird's-eye view of the world of malware analysis. The efficiency of five different machine learning methods (Naive Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbor, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and TensorFlow Decision Forest) combined with features picked from the retrieval of Android permissions to categorize applications as harmful or benign is investigated in this study. The test set consists of 1,168 samples (among these android applications, 602 are malware and 566 are benign applications), each consisting of 948 features (permissions). Using the permission-based dataset, the machine learning algorithms then produce accuracy rates above 80%, except the Naive Bayes Algorithm with 65% accuracy. Of the considered algorithms TensorFlow Decision Forest performed the best with an accuracy of 90%.

Keywords: android malware detection, machine learning, malware, malware analysis

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31 Suggestion for Malware Detection Agent Considering Network Environment

Authors: Ji-Hoon Hong, Dong-Hee Kim, Nam-Uk Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Smartphone users are increasing rapidly. Accordingly, many companies are running BYOD (Bring Your Own Device: Policies to bring private-smartphones to the company) policy to increase work efficiency. However, smartphones are always under the threat of malware, thus the company network that is connected smartphone is exposed to serious risks. Most smartphone malware detection techniques are to perform an independent detection (perform the detection of a single target application). In this paper, we analyzed a variety of intrusion detection techniques. Based on the results of analysis propose an agent using the network IDS.

Keywords: android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment, android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment

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30 Automatic Intelligent Analysis of Malware Behaviour

Authors: Hermann Dornhackl, Konstantin Kadletz, Robert Luh, Paul Tavolato

Abstract:

In this paper we describe the use of formal methods to model malware behaviour. The modelling of harmful behaviour rests upon syntactic structures that represent malicious procedures inside malware. The malicious activities are modelled by a formal grammar, where API calls’ components are the terminals and the set of API calls used in combination to achieve a goal are designated non-terminals. The combination of different non-terminals in various ways and tiers make up the attack vectors that are used by harmful software. Based on these syntactic structures a parser can be generated which takes execution traces as input for pattern recognition.

Keywords: malware behaviour, modelling, parsing, search, pattern matching

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29 Malware Detection in Mobile Devices by Analyzing Sequences of System Calls

Authors: Jorge Maestre Vidal, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba

Abstract:

With the increase in popularity of mobile devices, new and varied forms of malware have emerged. Consequently, the organizations for cyberdefense have echoed the need to deploy more effective defensive schemes adapted to the challenges posed by these recent monitoring environments. In order to contribute to their development, this paper presents a malware detection strategy for mobile devices based on sequence alignment algorithms. Unlike the previous proposals, only the system calls performed during the startup of applications are studied. In this way, it is possible to efficiently study in depth, the sequences of system calls executed by the applications just downloaded from app stores, and initialize them in a secure and isolated environment. As demonstrated in the performed experimentation, most of the analyzed malicious activities were successfully identified in their boot processes.

Keywords: android, information security, intrusion detection systems, malware, mobile devices

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28 Research on Malware Application Patterns of Using Permission Monitoring System

Authors: Seung-Hwan Ju, Yo-Han Choi, Hee-Suk Seo, Tae-Kyung Kim

Abstract:

This study investigates the permissions requested by Android applications, and the possibility of identifying suspicious applications based only on information presented to the user before an application is downloaded. The pattern analysis is based on a smaller data set consisting of confirmed malicious applications. The method is evaluated based on its ability to recognize malicious potential in the analyzed applications. In this study, we develop a system to monitor that mobile application permission at application update. This study is a service-based malware analysis. It will be based on the mobile security study.

Keywords: malware patterns, application permission, application analysis, security

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27 Towards an Enhanced Compartmental Model for Profiling Malware Dynamics

Authors: Jessemyn Modiini, Timothy Lynar, Elena Sitnikova

Abstract:

We present a novel enhanced compartmental model for malware spread analysis in cyber security. This paper applies cyber security data features to epidemiological compartmental models to model the infectious potential of malware. Compartmental models are most efficient for calculating the infectious potential of a disease. In this paper, we discuss and profile epidemiologically relevant data features from a Domain Name System (DNS) dataset. We then apply these features to epidemiological compartmental models to network traffic features. This paper demonstrates how epidemiological principles can be applied to the novel analysis of key cybersecurity behaviours and trends and provides insight into threat modelling above that of kill-chain analysis. In applying deterministic compartmental models to a cyber security use case, the authors analyse the deficiencies and provide an enhanced stochastic model for cyber epidemiology. This enhanced compartmental model (SUEICRN model) is contrasted with the traditional SEIR model to demonstrate its efficacy.

Keywords: cybersecurity, epidemiology, cyber epidemiology, malware

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26 Malware Beaconing Detection by Mining Large-scale DNS Logs for Targeted Attack Identification

Authors: Andrii Shalaginov, Katrin Franke, Xiongwei Huang

Abstract:

One of the leading problems in Cyber Security today is the emergence of targeted attacks conducted by adversaries with access to sophisticated tools. These attacks usually steal senior level employee system privileges, in order to gain unauthorized access to confidential knowledge and valuable intellectual property. Malware used for initial compromise of the systems are sophisticated and may target zero-day vulnerabilities. In this work we utilize common behaviour of malware called ”beacon”, which implies that infected hosts communicate to Command and Control servers at regular intervals that have relatively small time variations. By analysing such beacon activity through passive network monitoring, it is possible to detect potential malware infections. So, we focus on time gaps as indicators of possible C2 activity in targeted enterprise networks. We represent DNS log files as a graph, whose vertices are destination domains and edges are timestamps. Then by using four periodicity detection algorithms for each pair of internal-external communications, we check timestamp sequences to identify the beacon activities. Finally, based on the graph structure, we infer the existence of other infected hosts and malicious domains enrolled in the attack activities.

Keywords: malware detection, network security, targeted attack, computational intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
25 Application of Federated Learning in the Health Care Sector for Malware Detection and Mitigation Using Software-Defined Networking Approach

Authors: A. Dinelka Panagoda, Bathiya Bandara, Chamod Wijetunga, Chathura Malinda, Lakmal Rupasinghe, Chethana Liyanapathirana

Abstract:

This research takes us forward with the concepts of Federated Learning and Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to introduce an efficient malware detection technique and provide a mitigation mechanism to give birth to a resilient and automated healthcare sector network system by also adding the feature of extended privacy preservation. Due to the daily transformation of new malware attacks on hospital Integrated Clinical Environment (ICEs), the healthcare industry is at an undefinable peak of never knowing its continuity direction. The state of blindness by the array of indispensable opportunities that new medical device inventions and their connected coordination offer daily, a factor that should be focused driven is not yet entirely understood by most healthcare operators and patients. This solution has the involvement of four clients in the form of hospital networks to build up the federated learning experimentation architectural structure with different geographical participation to reach the most reasonable accuracy rate with privacy preservation. While the logistic regression with cross-entropy conveys the detection, SDN comes in handy in the second half of the research to stack up the initial development phases of the system with malware mitigation based on policy implementation. The overall evaluation sums up with a system that proves the accuracy with the added privacy. It is no longer needed to continue with traditional centralized systems that offer almost everything but not privacy.

Keywords: software-defined network, federated learning, privacy, integrated clinical environment, decentralized learning, malware detection, malware mitigation

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24 A Static Android Malware Detection Based on Actual Used Permissions Combination and API Calls

Authors: Xiaoqing Wang, Junfeng Wang, Xiaolan Zhu

Abstract:

Android operating system has been recognized by most application developers because of its good open-source and compatibility, which enriches the categories of applications greatly. However, it has become the target of malware attackers due to the lack of strict security supervision mechanisms, which leads to the rapid growth of malware, thus bringing serious safety hazards to users. Therefore, it is critical to detect Android malware effectively. Generally, the permissions declared in the AndroidManifest.xml can reflect the function and behavior of the application to a large extent. Since current Android system has not any restrictions to the number of permissions that an application can request, developers tend to apply more than actually needed permissions in order to ensure the successful running of the application, which results in the abuse of permissions. However, some traditional detection methods only consider the requested permissions and ignore whether it is actually used, which leads to incorrect identification of some malwares. Therefore, a machine learning detection method based on the actually used permissions combination and API calls was put forward in this paper. Meanwhile, several experiments are conducted to evaluate our methodology. The result shows that it can detect unknown malware effectively with higher true positive rate and accuracy while maintaining a low false positive rate. Consequently, the AdaboostM1 (J48) classification algorithm based on information gain feature selection algorithm has the best detection result, which can achieve an accuracy of 99.8%, a true positive rate of 99.6% and a lowest false positive rate of 0.

Keywords: android, API Calls, machine learning, permissions combination

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23 A Comparative Study of Malware Detection Techniques Using Machine Learning Methods

Authors: Cristina Vatamanu, Doina Cosovan, Dragos Gavrilut, Henri Luchian

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In the past few years, the amount of malicious software increased exponentially and, therefore, machine learning algorithms became instrumental in identifying clean and malware files through semi-automated classification. When working with very large datasets, the major challenge is to reach both a very high malware detection rate and a very low false positive rate. Another challenge is to minimize the time needed for the machine learning algorithm to do so. This paper presents a comparative study between different machine learning techniques such as linear classifiers, ensembles, decision trees or various hybrids thereof. The training dataset consists of approximately 2 million clean files and 200.000 infected files, which is a realistic quantitative mixture. The paper investigates the above mentioned methods with respect to both their performance (detection rate and false positive rate) and their practicability.

Keywords: ensembles, false positives, feature selection, one side class algorithm

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22 Survey Based Data Security Evaluation in Pakistan Financial Institutions against Malicious Attacks

Authors: Naveed Ghani, Samreen Javed

Abstract:

In today’s heterogeneous network environment, there is a growing demand for distrust clients to jointly execute secure network to prevent from malicious attacks as the defining task of propagating malicious code is to locate new targets to attack. Residual risk is always there no matter what solutions are implemented or whet so ever security methodology or standards being adapted. Security is the first and crucial phase in the field of Computer Science. The main aim of the Computer Security is gathering of information with secure network. No one need wonder what all that malware is trying to do: It's trying to steal money through data theft, bank transfers, stolen passwords, or swiped identities. From there, with the help of our survey we learn about the importance of white listing, antimalware programs, security patches, log files, honey pots, and more used in banks for financial data protection but there’s also a need of implementing the IPV6 tunneling with Crypto data transformation according to the requirements of new technology to prevent the organization from new Malware attacks and crafting of its own messages and sending them to the target. In this paper the writer has given the idea of implementing IPV6 Tunneling Secessions on private data transmission from financial organizations whose secrecy needed to be safeguarded.

Keywords: network worms, malware infection propagating malicious code, virus, security, VPN

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21 Strategic Workplace Security: The Role of Malware and the Threat of Internal Vulnerability

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Christopher C. Ezema, Christian C. Ugwu, Udoka F. Eze, Florence M. Babalola

Abstract:

Some employees knowingly or unknowingly contribute to loss of data and also expose data to threat in the process of getting their jobs done. Many organizations today are faced with the challenges of how to secure their data as cyber criminals constantly devise new ways of attacking the organization’s secret data. However, this paper enlists the latest strategies that must be put in place in order to protect these important data from being attacked in a collaborative work place. It also introduces us to Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) and how it works. The empirical study was conducted to collect data from the employee in data centers on how data could be protected from malicious codes and cyber criminals and their responses are highly considered to help checkmate the activities of malicious code and cyber criminals in our work places.

Keywords: data, employee, malware, work place

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
20 Using Social Network Analysis for Cyber Threat Intelligence

Authors: Vasileios Anastopoulos

Abstract:

Cyber threat intelligence assists organizations in understanding the threats they face and helps them make educated decisions on preparing their defenses. Sharing of threat intelligence and threat information is increasingly leveraged by organizations and enterprises, and various software solutions are already available, with the open-source malware information sharing platform (MISP) being a popular one. In this work, a methodology for the production of cyber threat intelligence using the threat information stored in MISP is proposed. The methodology leverages the discipline of social network analysis and the diamond model, a model used for intrusion analysis, to produce cyber threat intelligence. The workings are demonstrated with a case study on a production MISP instance of a real organization. The paper concluded with a discussion on the proposed methodology and possible directions for further research.

Keywords: cyber threat intelligence, diamond model, malware information sharing platform, social network analysis

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19 The Proactive Approach of Digital Forensics Methodology against Targeted Attack Malware

Authors: Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah Mohd Ariffin

Abstract:

Each individual organization has their own mechanism to build up cyber defense capability in protecting their information infrastructures from data breaches and cyber espionage. But, we can not deny the possibility of failing to detect and stop cyber attacks especially for those targeting credential information and intellectual property (IP). In this paper, we would like to share the modern approach of effective digital forensic methodology in order to identify the artifacts in tracing the trails of evidence while mitigating the infection from the target machine/s. This proposed approach will suit the digital forensic investigation to be conducted while resuming the business critical operation after mitigating the infection and minimizing the risk from the identified attack to transpire. Therefore, traditional digital forensics methodology has to be improvised to be proactive which not only focusing to discover the root caused and the threat actor but to develop the relevant mitigation plan in order to prevent from the same attack.

Keywords: digital forensic, detection, eradication, targeted attack, malware

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18 Improving Search Engine Performance by Removing Indexes to Malicious URLs

Authors: Durga Toshniwal, Lokesh Agrawal

Abstract:

As the web continues to play an increasing role in information exchange, and conducting daily activities, computer users have become the target of miscreants which infects hosts with malware or adware for financial gains. Unfortunately, even a single visit to compromised web site enables the attacker to detect vulnerabilities in the user’s applications and force the downloading of multitude of malware binaries. We provide an approach to effectively scan the so-called drive-by downloads on the Internet. Drive-by downloads are result of URLs that attempt to exploit their visitors and cause malware to be installed and run automatically. To scan the web for malicious pages, the first step is to use a crawler to collect URLs that live on the Internet, and then to apply fast prefiltering techniques to reduce the amount of pages that are needed to be examined by precise, but slower, analysis tools (such as honey clients or antivirus programs). Although the technique is effective, it requires a substantial amount of resources. A main reason is that the crawler encounters many pages on the web that are legitimate and needs to be filtered. In this paper, to characterize the nature of this rising threat, we present implementation of a web crawler on Python, an approach to search the web more efficiently for pages that are likely to be malicious, filtering benign pages and passing remaining pages to antivirus program for detection of malwares. Our approaches starts from an initial seed of known, malicious web pages. Using these seeds, our system generates search engines queries to identify other malicious pages that are similar to the ones in the initial seed. By doing so, it leverages the crawling infrastructure of search engines to retrieve URLs that are much more likely to be malicious than a random page on the web. The results shows that this guided approach is able to identify malicious web pages more efficiently when compared to random crawling-based approaches.

Keywords: web crawler, malwares, seeds, drive-by-downloads, security

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17 Metamorphic Computer Virus Classification Using Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Babak Bashari Rad

Abstract:

A metamorphic computer virus uses different code transformation techniques to mutate its body in duplicated instances. Characteristics and function of new instances are mostly similar to their parents, but they cannot be easily detected by the majority of antivirus in market, as they depend on string signature-based detection techniques. The purpose of this research is to propose a Hidden Markov Model for classification of metamorphic viruses in executable files. In the proposed solution, portable executable files are inspected to extract the instructions opcodes needed for the examination of code. A Hidden Markov Model trained on portable executable files is employed to classify the metamorphic viruses of the same family. The proposed model is able to generate and recognize common statistical features of mutated code. The model has been evaluated by examining the model on a test data set. The performance of the model has been practically tested and evaluated based on False Positive Rate, Detection Rate and Overall Accuracy. The result showed an acceptable performance with high average of 99.7% Detection Rate.

Keywords: malware classification, computer virus classification, metamorphic virus, metamorphic malware, Hidden Markov Model

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16 Security in Cyberspace: A Comprehensive Review of COVID-19 Continued Effects on Security Threats and Solutions in 2021 and the Trajectory of Cybersecurity Going into 2022

Authors: Mojtaba Fayaz, Richard Hallal

Abstract:

This study examines the various types of dangers that our virtual environment is vulnerable to, including how it can be attacked and how to avoid/secure our data. The terrain of cyberspace is never completely safe, and Covid- 19 has added to the confusion, necessitating daily periodic checks and evaluations. Cybercriminals have been able to enact with greater skill and undertake more conspicuous and sophisticated attacks while keeping a higher level of finesse by operating from home. Different types of cyberattacks, such as operation-based attacks, authentication-based attacks, and software-based attacks, are constantly evolving, but research suggests that software-based threats, such as Ransomware, are becoming more popular, with attacks expected to increase by 93 percent by 2020. The effectiveness of cyber frameworks has shifted dramatically as the pandemic has forced work and private life to become intertwined, destabilising security overall and creating a new front of cyber protection for security analysis and personal. The high-rise formats in which cybercrimes are carried out, as well as the types of cybercrimes that exist, such as phishing, identity theft, malware, and DDoS attacks, have created a new front of cyber protection for security analysis and personal safety. The overall strategy for 2022 will be the introduction of frameworks that address many of the issues associated with offsite working, as well as education that provides better information about commercialised software that does not provide the highest level of security for home users, allowing businesses to plan better security around their systems.

Keywords: cyber security, authentication, software, hardware, malware, COVID-19, threat actors, awareness, home users, confidentiality, integrity, availability, attacks

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15 Risks beyond Cyber in IoT Infrastructure and Services

Authors: Mattias Bergstrom

Abstract:

Significance of the Study: This research will provide new insights into the risks with digital embedded infrastructure. Through this research, we will analyze each risk and its potential negation strategies, especially for AI and autonomous automation. Moreover, the analysis that is presented in this paper will convey valuable information for future research that can create more stable, secure, and efficient autonomous systems. To learn and understand the risks, a large IoT system was envisioned, and risks with hardware, tampering, and cyberattacks were collected, researched, and evaluated to create a comprehensive understanding of the potential risks. Potential solutions have then been evaluated on an open source IoT hardware setup. This list shows the identified passive and active risks evaluated in the research. Passive Risks: (1) Hardware failures- Critical Systems relying on high rate data and data quality are growing; SCADA systems for infrastructure are good examples of such systems. (2) Hardware delivers erroneous data- Sensors break, and when they do so, they don’t always go silent; they can keep going, just that the data they deliver is garbage, and if that data is not filtered out, it becomes disruptive noise in the system. (3) Bad Hardware injection- Erroneous generated sensor data can be pumped into a system by malicious actors with the intent to create disruptive noise in critical systems. (4) Data gravity- The weight of the data collected will affect Data-Mobility. (5) Cost inhibitors- Running services that need huge centralized computing is cost inhibiting. Large complex AI can be extremely expensive to run. Active Risks: Denial of Service- It is one of the most simple attacks, where an attacker just overloads the system with bogus requests so that valid requests disappear in the noise. Malware- Malware can be anything from simple viruses to complex botnets created with specific goals, where the creator is stealing computer power and bandwidth from you to attack someone else. Ransomware- It is a kind of malware, but it is so different in its implementation that it is worth its own mention. The goal with these pieces of software is to encrypt your system so that it can only be unlocked with a key that is held for ransom. DNS spoofing- By spoofing DNS calls, valid requests and data dumps can be sent to bad destinations, where the data can be extracted for extortion or to corrupt and re-inject into a running system creating a data echo noise loop. After testing multiple potential solutions. We found that the most prominent solution to these risks was to use a Peer 2 Peer consensus algorithm over a blockchain to validate the data and behavior of the devices (sensors, storage, and computing) in the system. By the devices autonomously policing themselves for deviant behavior, all risks listed above can be negated. In conclusion, an Internet middleware that provides these features would be an easy and secure solution to any future autonomous IoT deployments. As it provides separation from the open Internet, at the same time, it is accessible over the blockchain keys.

Keywords: IoT, security, infrastructure, SCADA, blockchain, AI

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14 Automata-Based String Analysis for Detecting Malware in Android Programs

Authors: Assad Maalouf, Lunjin Lu, James Lynott

Abstract:

We design and implement a precise model of string operations using finite state machine transformers and state transformers to approximate the values string variables can take throughout the execution of the program.We use our model to analyze Android program string variables. Our experimental results show that our string analysis is very efficient at detecting the contextual effect of string operations on the string variables. Our model proved to be very useful when it came to verifying statements about the string variables of the program.

Keywords: abstract interpretation, android, static analysis, string analysis

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13 A Comparative Study of Virus Detection Techniques

Authors: Sulaiman Al amro, Ali Alkhalifah

Abstract:

The growing number of computer viruses and the detection of zero day malware have been the concern for security researchers for a large period of time. Existing antivirus products (AVs) rely on detecting virus signatures which do not provide a full solution to the problems associated with these viruses. The use of logic formulae to model the behaviour of viruses is one of the most encouraging recent developments in virus research, which provides alternatives to classic virus detection methods. In this paper, we proposed a comparative study about different virus detection techniques. This paper provides the advantages and drawbacks of different detection techniques. Different techniques will be used in this paper to provide a discussion about what technique is more effective to detect computer viruses.

Keywords: computer viruses, virus detection, signature-based, behaviour-based, heuristic-based

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12 An Enhanced Digital Forensic Model for Internet of Things Forensic

Authors: Tina Wu, Andrew Martin

Abstract:

The expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) brings a new level of threat. Attacks on IoT are already being used by criminals to form botnets, launch Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) and distribute malware. This opens a whole new digital forensic arena to develop forensic methodologies in order to have the capability to investigate IoT related crimes. However, existing proposed IoT forensic models are still premature requiring further improvement and validation, many lack details on the acquisition and analysis phase. This paper proposes an enhanced theoretical IoT digital forensic model focused on identifying and acquiring the main sources of evidence in a methodical way. In addition, this paper presents a theoretical acquisition framework of the different stages required in order to be capable of acquiring evidence from IoT devices.

Keywords: acquisition, Internet of Things, model, zoning

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11 Study on Network-Based Technology for Detecting Potentially Malicious Websites

Authors: Byung-Ik Kim, Hong-Koo Kang, Tae-Jin Lee, Hae-Ryong Park

Abstract:

Cyber terrors against specific enterprises or countries have been increasing recently. Such attacks against specific targets are called advanced persistent threat (APT), and they are giving rise to serious social problems. The malicious behaviors of APT attacks mostly affect websites and penetrate enterprise networks to perform malevolent acts. Although many enterprises invest heavily in security to defend against such APT threats, they recognize the APT attacks only after the latter are already in action. This paper discusses the characteristics of APT attacks at each step as well as the strengths and weaknesses of existing malicious code detection technologies to check their suitability for detecting APT attacks. It then proposes a network-based malicious behavior detection algorithm to protect the enterprise or national networks.

Keywords: Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), malware, network security, network packet, exploit kits

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10 Applications of AI, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning in Cyber Security

Authors: Hailyie Tekleselase

Abstract:

Deep learning is increasingly used as a building block of security systems. However, neural networks are hard to interpret and typically solid to the practitioner. This paper presents a detail survey of computing methods in cyber security, and analyzes the prospects of enhancing the cyber security capabilities by suggests that of accelerating the intelligence of the security systems. There are many AI-based applications used in industrial scenarios such as Internet of Things (IoT), smart grids, and edge computing. Machine learning technologies require a training process which introduces the protection problems in the training data and algorithms. We present machine learning techniques currently applied to the detection of intrusion, malware, and spam. Our conclusions are based on an extensive review of the literature as well as on experiments performed on real enterprise systems and network traffic. We conclude that problems can be solved successfully only when methods of artificial intelligence are being used besides human experts or operators.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, cyber security, big data

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9 Cybersecurity Protection Structures: The Case of Lesotho

Authors: N. N. Mosola, K. F. Moeketsi, R. Sehobai, N. Pule

Abstract:

The Internet brings increasing use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) services and facilities. Consequently, new computing paradigms emerge to provide services over the Internet. Although there are several benefits stemming from these services, they pose several risks inherited from the Internet. For example, cybercrime, identity theft, malware etc. To thwart these risks, this paper proposes a holistic approach. This approach involves multidisciplinary interactions. The paper proposes a top-down and bottom-up approach to deal with cyber security concerns in developing countries. These concerns range from regulatory and legislative areas, cyber awareness, research and development, technical dimensions etc. The main focus areas are highlighted and a cybersecurity model solution is proposed. The paper concludes by combining all relevant solutions into a proposed cybersecurity model to assist developing countries in enhancing a cyber-safe environment to instill and promote a culture of cybersecurity.

Keywords: cybercrime, cybersecurity, computer emergency response team, computer security incident response team

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8 Measurement of Susceptibility Users Using Email Phishing Attack

Authors: Cindy Sahera, Sarwono Sutikno

Abstract:

Rapid technological developments also have negative impacts, namely the increasing criminal cases based on technology or cybercrime. One technique that can be used to conduct cybercrime attacks are phishing email. The issue is whether the user is aware that email can be misused by others so that it can harm the user's own? This research was conducted to measure the susceptibility of selected targets against email abuse. The objectives of this research are measurement of targets’ susceptibility and find vulnerability in email recipient. There are three steps being taken in this research, (1) the information gathering phase, (2) the design phase, and (3) the execution phase. The first step includes the collection of the information necessary to carry out an attack on a target. The next step is to make the design of an attack against a target. The last step is to send phishing emails to the target. The levels of susceptibility are three: level 1, level 2 and level 3. Level 1 indicates a low level of targets’ susceptibility, level 2 indicates the intermediate level of targets’ susceptibility, and level 3 indicates a high level of targets’ susceptibility. The results showed that users who are on level 1 and level 2 more that level 3, which means the user is not too careless. However, it does not mean the user to be safe. There are still vulnerabilities that may occur, such as automatic location detection when opening emails and automatic downloaded malware as user clicks a link in the email.

Keywords: cybercrime, email phishing, susceptibility, vulnerability

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7 Resilient Machine Learning in the Nuclear Industry: Crack Detection as a Case Study

Authors: Anita Khadka, Gregory Epiphaniou, Carsten Maple

Abstract:

There is a dramatic surge in the adoption of machine learning (ML) techniques in many areas, including the nuclear industry (such as fault diagnosis and fuel management in nuclear power plants), autonomous systems (including self-driving vehicles), space systems (space debris recovery, for example), medical surgery, network intrusion detection, malware detection, to name a few. With the application of learning methods in such diverse domains, artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday modern human life. To date, the predominant focus has been on developing underpinning ML algorithms that can improve accuracy, while factors such as resiliency and robustness of algorithms have been largely overlooked. If an adversarial attack is able to compromise the learning method or data, the consequences can be fatal, especially but not exclusively in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of five adversarial attacks and three defence methods on a crack detection ML model. Our analysis shows that it can be dangerous to adopt machine learning techniques in security-critical areas such as the nuclear industry without rigorous testing since they may be vulnerable to adversarial attacks. While common defence methods can effectively defend against different attacks, none of the three considered can provide protection against all five adversarial attacks analysed.

Keywords: adversarial machine learning, attacks, defences, nuclear industry, crack detection

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6 Phishing Detection: Comparison between Uniform Resource Locator and Content-Based Detection

Authors: Nuur Ezaini Akmar Ismail, Norbazilah Rahim, Norul Huda Md Rasdi, Maslina Daud

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A web application is the most targeted by the attacker because the web application is accessible by the end users. It has become more advantageous to the attacker since not all the end users aware of what kind of sensitive data already leaked by them through the Internet especially via social network in shake on ‘sharing’. The attacker can use this information such as personal details, a favourite of artists, a favourite of actors or actress, music, politics, and medical records to customize phishing attack thus trick the user to click on malware-laced attachments. The Phishing attack is one of the most popular attacks for social engineering technique against web applications. There are several methods to detect phishing websites such as Blacklist/Whitelist based detection, heuristic-based, and visual similarity-based detection. This paper illustrated a comparison between the heuristic-based technique using features of a uniform resource locator (URL) and visual similarity-based detection techniques that compares the content of a suspected phishing page with the legitimate one in order to detect new phishing sites based on the paper reviewed from the past few years. The comparison focuses on three indicators which are false positive and negative, accuracy of the method, and time consumed to detect phishing website.

Keywords: heuristic-based technique, phishing detection, social engineering and visual similarity-based technique

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5 Web Proxy Detection via Bipartite Graphs and One-Mode Projections

Authors: Zhipeng Chen, Peng Zhang, Qingyun Liu, Li Guo

Abstract:

With the Internet becoming the dominant channel for business and life, many IPs are increasingly masked using web proxies for illegal purposes such as propagating malware, impersonate phishing pages to steal sensitive data or redirect victims to other malicious targets. Moreover, as Internet traffic continues to grow in size and complexity, it has become an increasingly challenging task to detect the proxy service due to their dynamic update and high anonymity. In this paper, we present an approach based on behavioral graph analysis to study the behavior similarity of web proxy users. Specifically, we use bipartite graphs to model host communications from network traffic and build one-mode projections of bipartite graphs for discovering social-behavior similarity of web proxy users. Based on the similarity matrices of end-users from the derived one-mode projection graphs, we apply a simple yet effective spectral clustering algorithm to discover the inherent web proxy users behavior clusters. The web proxy URL may vary from time to time. Still, the inherent interest would not. So, based on the intuition, by dint of our private tools implemented by WebDriver, we examine whether the top URLs visited by the web proxy users are web proxies. Our experiment results based on real datasets show that the behavior clusters not only reduce the number of URLs analysis but also provide an effective way to detect the web proxies, especially for the unknown web proxies.

Keywords: bipartite graph, one-mode projection, clustering, web proxy detection

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4 Cyber Security and Risk Assessment of the e-Banking Services

Authors: Aisha F. Bushager

Abstract:

Today we are more exposed than ever to cyber threats and attacks at personal, community, organizational, national, and international levels. More aspects of our lives are operating on computer networks simply because we are living in the fifth domain, which is called the Cyberspace. One of the most sensitive areas that are vulnerable to cyber threats and attacks is the Electronic Banking (e-Banking) area, where the banking sector is providing online banking services to its clients. To be able to obtain the clients trust and encourage them to practice e-Banking, also, to maintain the services provided by the banks and ensure safety, cyber security and risks control should be given a high priority in the e-banking area. The aim of the study is to carry out risk assessment on the e-banking services and determine the cyber threats, cyber attacks, and vulnerabilities that are facing the e-banking area specifically in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To collect relevant data, structured interviews were taken place with e-banking experts in different banks. Then, collected data where used as in input to the risk management framework provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which was the model used in the study to assess the risks associated with e-banking services. The findings of the study showed that the cyber threats are commonly human errors, technical software or hardware failure, and hackers, on the other hand, the most common attacks facing the e-banking sector were phishing, malware attacks, and denial-of-service. The risks associated with the e-banking services were around the moderate level, however, more controls and countermeasures must be applied to maintain the moderate level of risks. The results of the study will help banks discover their vulnerabilities and maintain their online services, in addition, it will enhance the cyber security and contribute to the management and control of risks that are facing the e-banking sector.

Keywords: cyber security, e-banking, risk assessment, threats identification

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