Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: basketball

54 Application of 3-6 Years Old Children Basketball Appropriate Forms of Teaching Auxiliary Equipment in Early Childhood Basketball Game

Authors: Hai Zeng, Anqing Liu, Shuguang Dan, Ying Zhang, Yan Li, Zihang Zeng

Abstract:

Children are strong; the country strong, the development of children Basketball is a strategic advantage. Common forms of basketball equipment has been difficult to meet the needs of young children teaching the game of basketball, basketball development for 3-6 years old children in the form of appropriate teaching aids is a breakthrough basketball game teaching children bottlenecks, improve teaching critical path pleasure, but also the development of early childhood basketball a necessary requirement. In this study, literature, questionnaires, focus group interviews, comparative analysis, for domestic and foreign use of 12 kinds of basketball teaching aids (cloud computing MINI basketball, adjustable basketball MINI, MINI basketball court, shooting assist paw print ball, dribble goggles, dribbling machine, machine cartoon shooting, rebounding machine, against the mat, elastic belt, ladder, fitness ball), from fun and improve early childhood shooting technique, dribbling technology, as well as offensive and defensive rebounding against technology conduct research on conversion technology. The results show that by using appropriate forms of teaching children basketball aids, can effectively improve children's fun basketball game, targeted to improve a technology, different types of aids from different perspectives enrich the connotation of children basketball game. Recommended for children of color psychology, cartoon and environmentally friendly material production aids, and increase research efforts basketball aids children, encourage children to sports teachers aids applications.

Keywords: appropriate forms of children basketball, auxiliary equipment, appli, MINI basketball, 3-6 years old children, teaching

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53 Study of the Mental Toughness of the Basketball Players

Authors: Jaswinder Singh

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to compare the mental toughness between male and female basketball players of District shri muktsar sahib Panjab. A sample of fifty male players (N=50) age ranging 18 to 25 years and Fifty female player(N=50) age ranging 18 to 25 years. The Data was collected by using mental toughness questionnaire developed by Goldberg (1998). The t-test was applied to assess the differences male and female basketball players. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Study revealed that there were significant differences male and female basketball players with regard to Rebound Ability, Ability to Handle Pressure, Confidence and Overall Mental Toughness and insignificant differences with regard to Concentration and Motivation.

Keywords: mental toughness, basketball, psychological, competitive

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
52 2016 Taiwan's 'Health and Physical Education Field of 12-Year Basic Education Curriculum Outline (Draft)' Reform and Its Implications

Authors: Hai Zeng, Yisheng Li, Jincheng Huang, Chenghui Huang, Ying Zhang

Abstract:

Children are strong; the country strong, the development of children Basketball is a strategic advantage. Common forms of basketball equipment has been difficult to meet the needs of young children teaching the game of basketball, basketball development for 3-6 years old children in the form of appropriate teaching aids is a breakthrough basketball game teaching children bottlenecks, improve teaching critical path pleasure, but also the development of early childhood basketball a necessary requirement. In this study, literature, questionnaires, focus group interviews, comparative analysis, for domestic and foreign use of 12 kinds of basketball teaching aids (cloud computing MINI basketball, adjustable basketball MINI, MINI basketball court, shooting assist paw print ball, dribble goggles, dribbling machine, machine cartoon shooting, rebounding machine, against the mat, elastic belt, ladder, fitness ball), from fun and improve early childhood shooting technique, dribbling technology, as well as offensive and defensive rebounding against technology conduct research on conversion technology. The results show that by using appropriate forms of teaching children basketball aids, can effectively improve children's fun basketball game, targeted to improve a technology, different types of aids from different perspectives enrich the connotation of children basketball game. Recommended for children of color psychology, cartoon and environmentally friendly material production aids, and increase research efforts basketball aids children, encourage children to sports teachers aids applications.

Keywords: health and physical education field of curriculum outline, health fitness, sports and health curriculum reform, Taiwan, twelve years basic education

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
51 Comparison of Isokinetic Powers (Flexion and Knee Extension) of Basketball and Football Players (Age 17–20)

Authors: Ugur Senturk, Ibrahım Erdemır, Faruk Guven, Cuma Ece

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to compare flexion and extension movements in knee-joint group by measuring isokinetic knee power of amateur basketball and football players. For this purpose, total 21 players were included, which consist of football players (n=12) and basketball players (n=9), within the age range of 17–20. After receiving the age, length, body weight, vertical jump, and BMI measurements of all subjects, the measurement of lower extremity knee-joint movement (Flexion-Extension) was made with isokinetic dynamometer (isomed 2000) at 60 o/sec. and 240 o/sec. angular velocity. After arrangement and grouping of collected information forms and knee flexion and extension parameters, all data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analyses of the parameters were made. Non-parametric t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the parameters of football players and basketball players and to find the inter-group differences. The comparisons and relations in the range p<0.05 and p<0.01 between the groups were surveyed. As a conclusion, no statistical differences were found between isokinetic knee flexion and extension parameters of football and basketball players. However, it was found that the football players were older than the basketball players. In addition to this, the average values of the basketball players in the highest torque and the highest torque average curve were found higher than football players in comparisons of left knee extension. However, it was found that fat levels of the basketball players were found to be higher than the football players.

Keywords: isokinetic contraction, isokinetic dynamometer, peak torque, flexion, extension, football, basketball

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50 Relationship between Deliberate Practice of Dribbling and Self-Regulatory Behavior of Male Basketball Players

Authors: Daud Abdia, Aqsa Shamim, Farhan Tabassum

Abstract:

In order to achieve specific goals, basketball players have to use different skills to enhance their motivation, one such skill is deliberate practice. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between deliberate practice of dribbling and self-regulatory behavior of male basketball players. For this purpose, a sample of 108 basketball players using stratified sampling was taken from public and private sector universities. Sample was divided into two groups that are experimental (n=54) and control group (n=54) using comparative experimental design. Experimental group was involved in the training of deliberate practice of dribbling for 5 weeks. Amounts of weekly practice activity and Self-Regulation of Learning Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS) were used for self-regulatory behavior to collect data after the deliberate practice. The reliability of amounts of weekly practice activity was found to be 0.852, whereas SRL-SRS was found to be 0.890. The results of the study indicated a strong positive correlation between deliberate practice of dribbling and self-regulatory behavior (r=0.755, n=54, p=.000). Whereas, paired sample t-test; t(53)=1.37, p < 0.005 shows statistically significant improvement in the self-regulatory behavior after the training program of deliberate practice from 3.02 ± 0.64m to 3.21 ± 0.75m (p < 0.005). It was concluded that in order to enhance the self-regulatory behavior of basketball players we should work on the deliberate practice of the players.

Keywords: self-regulatory behavior, deliberate practice, dribbling, basketball

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49 The Value of Dynamic Priorities in Motor Learning between Some Basic Skills in Beginner's Basketball, U14 Years

Authors: Guebli Abdelkader, Regiueg Madani, Sbaa Bouabdellah

Abstract:

The goals of this study are to find ways to determine the value of dynamic priorities in motor learning between some basic skills in beginner’s basketball (U14), based on skills of shooting and defense against the shooter. Our role is to expose the statistical results in compare & correlation between samples of study in tests skills for the shooting and defense against the shooter. In order to achieve this objective, we have chosen 40 boys in middle school represented in four groups, two controls group’s (CS1, CS2) ,and two experimental groups (ES1: training on skill of shooting, skill of defense against the shooter, ES2: experimental group training on skill of defense against the shooter, skill of shooting). For the statistical analysis, we have chosen (F & T) tests for the statistical differences, and test (R) for the correlation analysis. Based on the analyses statistics, we confirm the importance of classifying priorities of basketball basic skills during the motor learning process. Admit that the benefits of experimental group training are to economics in the time needed for acquiring new motor kinetic skills in basketball. In the priority of ES2 as successful dynamic motor learning method to enhance the basic skills among beginner’s basketball.

Keywords: basic skills, basketball, motor learning, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
48 Comparison of Anthropometric Measurements Between Handball and Basketball Female Players

Authors: Jasmina Pluncevic Gligoroska, Sanja Manchevska, Vaska Antevska, Lidija Todorovska, Beti Dejanova, Sunchica Petrovska, Ivanka Karagjozova, Elizabeta Sivevska

Abstract:

Introduction: Anthropometric measurements are integral part of regular medical examinations of athletes. In addition to the quantification of the size of the body, these measurements indicate the quality of the physical status, because of its association with sports performance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in anthropometric parameters and body mass components in female athletes who participate in two different types of sports. Methods: A total of 27 athletes, 15 handball players and 12 basketball players, at the average age of 22.7 years (age span from 17 to 30 years) entered the study. Anthropometric method by Matiegka was used for determination of body components. Sixteen anthropometric measures were taken: height, weight, four diameters of joints, four circumferences of limbs and six skin folds. Results: Handball players were 169.6±6.7 cm tall and 63,75±7.5 kg heavy. Their average relative muscle mass (absolute mass in kg) was 51% (32.5kg), while bone component was 16.8% (10.7kg) and fat component was 14.3% (7.74kg). The basketball players were 177.4±8.2cm tall and 70.37±12.1kg heavy. Their average relative muscle mass (absolute mass in kg) was 51.9 % (36.6kg), bone component was 16.37% (11.5kg) and fat component was 15.36% (9.4kg). The comparison of anthropometric values showed that basketball players were statistically significantly higher and heavier than handball players (p<0.05). Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the range of upper leg circumference (higher in basketball players) and the forearm skin fold (higher in the basketball players). Conclusion: Handball players and basketball players significantly differed in basic anthropometric measures (height and weight), but the body components had almost identical values. The anthropometric measurements that have been taken did not show significant difference between handball and basketball female players despite the different physical demands of the games.

Keywords: anthropometry, body components, basketball, handball female players

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47 Respiratory Indices and Sports Performance: A Comparision between Different Levels Basketballers

Authors: Ranjan Chakravarty, Satpal Yadav, Biswajit Basumatary, Arvind S. Sajwan

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The purpose of this study is to compare the basketball players of different level on selected respiratory indices. Ninety male basketball players from different universities those who participated in intercollegiate and inter- varsity championship. Selected respiratory indices were resting pulse rate, resting blood pressure, vital capacity and resting respiratory rate. Mean and standard deviation of selected respiratory indices were calculated and three different levels i.e. beginners, intermediate and advanced were compared by using analysis of variance. In order to test the hypothesis, level of significance was set at 0.05. It was concluded that variability does not exist among the basketball players of different groups with respect to their selected respiratory indices i.e. resting pulse rate, resting blood pressure, vital capacity and resting respiratory rate.

Keywords: respiratory indices, sports performance, basketball players, intervarsity level

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46 Predicting Shot Making in Basketball Learnt Fromadversarial Multiagent Trajectories

Authors: Mark Harmon, Abdolghani Ebrahimi, Patrick Lucey, Diego Klabjan

Abstract:

In this paper, we predict the likelihood of a player making a shot in basketball from multiagent trajectories. Previous approaches to similar problems center on hand-crafting features to capture domain-specific knowledge. Although intuitive, recent work in deep learning has shown, this approach is prone to missing important predictive features. To circumvent this issue, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach where we initially represent the multiagent behavior as an image. To encode the adversarial nature of basketball, we use a multichannel image which we then feed into a CNN. Additionally, to capture the temporal aspect of the trajectories, we use “fading.” We find that this approach is superior to a traditional FFN model. By using gradient ascent, we were able to discover what the CNN filters look for during training. Last, we find that a combined FFN+CNN is the best performing network with an error rate of 39%.

Keywords: basketball, computer vision, image processing, convolutional neural network

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45 Single-Camera Basketball Tracker through Pose and Semantic Feature Fusion

Authors: Adrià Arbués-Sangüesa, Coloma Ballester, Gloria Haro

Abstract:

Tracking sports players is a widely challenging scenario, specially in single-feed videos recorded in tight courts, where cluttering and occlusions cannot be avoided. This paper presents an analysis of several geometric and semantic visual features to detect and track basketball players. An ablation study is carried out and then used to remark that a robust tracker can be built with Deep Learning features, without the need of extracting contextual ones, such as proximity or color similarity, nor applying camera stabilization techniques. The presented tracker consists of: (1) a detection step, which uses a pretrained deep learning model to estimate the players pose, followed by (2) a tracking step, which leverages pose and semantic information from the output of a convolutional layer in a VGG network. Its performance is analyzed in terms of MOTA over a basketball dataset with more than 10k instances.

Keywords: basketball, deep learning, feature extraction, single-camera, tracking

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44 A Comparative Study of Selected Psychological Variable of Basketball and Volleyball Sportsperson of Bangladesh Krirra Shiskha Protifsthan

Authors: M. Ashadur Rahman

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This study presents the psychological status of basketball and volleyball sportspersons of Bangladesh Krira Shikkha Protifsthan (BKSP) in Bangladesh. The subjects of the study were 34 sportspersons which were 20 Basketball and 14 Volleyball Sportspersons in BKSP. The age ranges of the subjects were 15 to 20 years. The subjects were all male sportspersons and regular students of BKSP. Anxiety control, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, and motivation were selected as psychological variables. Psychological Skill Inventory for Sport (PST) prepared by Mahoney Gabiel, Perking (1987) was used to assess the psychological skills of sportspersons to different sports. Mean standard deviation and independent t-test were used to analyze the data, and level of significance was set at 0.05. Significant differences were not found between psychological status between basketball and volleyball sportspersons of BKSP in Bangladesh.

Keywords: psychological variable, anxiety control, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
43 Development and Evaluation of Virtual Basketball Game Using Motion Capture Technology

Authors: Shunsuke Aoki, Taku Ri, Tatsuya Yamazaki

Abstract:

These days, along with the development of e-sports, video games as a competitive sport is attracting attention. But, in many cases, action in the screen does not match the real motion of operation. Inclusiveness of player motion is needed to increase reality and excitement for sports games. Therefore, in this study, the authors propose a method to recognize player motion by using the motion capture technology and develop a virtual basketball game. The virtual basketball game consists of a screen with nine targets, players, depth sensors, and no ball. The players pretend a two-handed basketball shot without a ball aiming at one of the nine targets on the screen. Time-series data of three-dimensional coordinates of player joints are captured by the depth sensor. 20 joints data are measured for each player to estimate the shooting motion in real-time. The trajectory of the thrown virtual ball is calculated based on the time-series data and hitting on the target is judged as success or failure. The virtual basketball game can be played by 2 to 4 players as a competitive game among the players. The developed game was exhibited to the public for evaluation on the authors' university open campus days. 339 visitors participated in the exhibition and enjoyed the virtual basketball game over the two days. A questionnaire survey on the developed game was conducted for the visitors who experienced the game. As a result of the survey, about 97.3% of the players found the game interesting regardless of whether they had experienced actual basketball before or not. In addition, it is found that women are easy to comfort for shooting motion. The virtual game with motion capture technology has the potential to become a universal entertainment between e-sports and actual sports.

Keywords: basketball, motion capture, questionnaire survey, video ga

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42 The Basketball Show in the North of France: When the NBA Globalized Culture Meets the Local Carnival Culture

Authors: David Sudre

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Today, the National Basketball Association (NBA) is the cultural model of reference for most of the French basketball community stakeholders (players, coaches, team and league managers). In addition to the strong impact it has on how this sport is played and perceived, the NBA also influences the ways professional basketball shows are organized in France (within the Jeep Elite league). The objective of this research is to see how and to what extent the NBA show, as a globalized cultural product, disrupts Jeep Elite's professional basketball cultural codes in the organization of its shows. The article will aim at questioning the intercultural phenomenon at stake in sports cultures in France through the prism of the basketball match. This angle will shed some light on the underlying relationships between local and global elements. The results of this research come from a one-year survey conducted in a small town in northern France, Le Portel, where the Etoile Sportive Saint Michel (ESSM), a Jeep Elite's club, operates. An ethnographic approach was favored. It entailed many participating observations and semi-directive interviews with supporters of the ESSM Le Portel. Through this ethnographic work with the team's fan groups (before the games, during the games and after the games), it was possible for the researchers to understand better all the cultural and identity issues that play out in the "Cauldron," the basketball arena of the ESSM Le Portel. The results demonstrate, at first glance, that many basketball events organized in France are copied from the American model. It seems difficult not to try to imitate the American reference that the NBA represents, whether it be at the French All-Star Game or a Jeep Elite Game at Le Portel. In this case, an acculturation process seems to occur, not only in the way people play but also in the creation of the show (cheerleaders, animations, etc.). However, this American culture of globalized basketball, although re-appropriated, is also being modified by the members of ESSM Le Portel within their locality. Indeed, they juggle between their culture of origin and their culture of reference to build their basketball show within their sociocultural environment. In this way, Le Portel managers and supporters introduce elements that are characteristic of their local culture into the show, such as carnival customs and celebrations, two ingredients that fully contribute to the creation of their identity. Ultimately, in this context of "glocalization," this research will ascertain, on the one hand, that the identity of French basketball becomes harder to outline, and, on the other hand, that the "Cauldron" turns out to be a place to preserve (fantasized) local identities, or even a place of (unconscious) resistance to the dominant model of American basketball culture.

Keywords: basketball, carnival, culture, globalization, identity, show, sport, supporters.

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41 Anthropometry in Macedonian Senior Football and Basketball Players

Authors: L. Todorovska, E. Sivevska, B. Dejanova, J. Pluncevic, S. Petrovska, V. Antevska, S. Mancevska, I. Karadjozova

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Objective: The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe anthropometric and performance characteristics and to explore their differences between senior football (F) and basketball (B) players. Subjects and methods: 25 F (aged 23±2.5 y) and 25 B (aged 22±4.2 y) from Macedonian national teams and elite sport clubs were annually tested during 2 consecutive years. Full anthropometric profiles (stature, weight, five circumferences, four bone diameters, seven skin-folds and nine calculated parameters with standard formulas) were collected. Body composition was determined with InBody720 System. Physical capacity was tested with ergo metric test of Bruce (Custo med GmbH, Germany). Results: B were taller (p<0.001) and heavier (p<0.01), but leaner (p<0.001). F had higher percentage of muscle mass (p<0.01) and body fat (p< 0.001). F had higher VO2max (p<0.05) and lower hard rate (p<0.01). The differences in physical performance were not significant (p>0.05) within the groups during the 2-years period. Conclusions: These results suggest that there are distinct differences in anthropometric profile between Macedonian senior football and basketball players during the two competitive seasons.

Keywords: anthropometry, basketball players, football players, Macedonia

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40 Developing a Multi-Modal Choking Intervention

Authors: R. Maher, D. Marchant, F. Fazel

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The initial aim of the study was to capitalize on the depth of athletes’ and coaches’ knowledge pertaining to the phenomenon of choking in basketball, free-throw shooting in particular, from an ‘insiders’ perspective. The findings of this study have developed a deeper understanding of how basketball players and coaches deal with choking and potentially contribute new knowledge relevant to designing useful interventions for alleviating choking. A key element was thus, knowledge, transfer, and exchange (KTE). KTE is the process of acquiring, developing, sharing and applying knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were conducted employing a composed sample of eight elite basketball players and four elite coaches who have been experiencing the choking episode previously. All interviews have been digitally recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Then the interviews have been content analyzed. Participants of the present study have provided useful information regarding the underlying mechanisms and antecedents of choking and also suggested applicable antidotes to conquer the phenomenon of choking. According to the results of the present study, self-confidence, mental and physical preparation, and coping styles should be considered as influential factors in athletes’ performance under pressure. Moreover, using all noteworthy information and preventative strategies suggested by participants of the present study, an effective multi-modal intervention has been introduced that should be taken into account by sports psychologists, coaches and athletes.

Keywords: anxiety, basketball, choking, free-throw shooting, psychological intervention

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39 The Investigation of Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Levels in Adolescents

Authors: Arda Ozturk, Turgay Ozgur, Mursit Aksoy, Bahar O. Ozgur, Ozan Yilmaz

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of basic basketball and volleyball exercises to Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (BKI) levels in 245 (92 girls and 154 boys) adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. Data collected via Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence scale as a subdimension of Multiple Intelligences Inventory. BKI levels were not different between basketball and volleyball groups. Statistical analyses were made based on gender, age groups (12, 13, 14 years) and exercise type. Independent samples t-test revealed that there was no significant difference between boy’s and girl’s BKI levels. One way ANOVA test revealed that there was significant difference between age group’s (12, 13, 14) BKI levels in post-test. However, Paired samples t-test revealed no significant differences between pre-post test results of adolescent’s BKI levels. In conclusion, despite the relatively long-term (8 weeks) physical activity. BKI levels have not shown significant differences.

Keywords: bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, adolescent, basketball, volleyball

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38 Load Comparison between Different Positions during Elite Male Basketball Games: A Sport Metabolomics Approach

Authors: Kayvan Khoramipour, Abbas Ali Gaeini, Elham Shirzad, Øyvind Sandbakk

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Basketball has different positions with individual movement profiles, which may influence metabolic demands. Accordingly, the present study aimed to compare the movement and metabolic load between different positions during elite male basketball games. Five main players of 14 teams (n = 70), who participated in the 2017-18 Iranian national basketball leagues, were selected as participants. The players were defined as backcourt (Posts 1-3) and frontcourt (Posts 4-5). Video based time motion analysis (VBTMA) was performed based on players’ individual running and shuffling speed using Dartfish software. Movements were classified into high and low intensity running with and without having the ball, as well as high and low-intensity shuffling and static movements. Mean frequency, duration, and distance were calculated for each class, except for static movements where only frequency was calculated. Saliva samples were collected from each player before and after 40-minute basketball games and analyzed using metabolomics. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) (for metabolomics data) and independent T-tests (for VBTMA) were used as statistical tests. Movement frequency, duration, and distance were higher in backcourt players (all p ≤ 0.05), while static movement frequency did not differ. Saliva samples showed that the levels of Taurine, Succinic acid, Citric acid, Pyruvate, Glycerol, Acetoacetic acid, Acetone, and Hypoxanthine were all higher in backcourt players, whereas Lactate, Alanine, 3-Metyl Histidine, and Methionine were higher in frontcourt players Based on metabolomics, we demonstrate that backcourt and frontcourt players have different metabolic profiles during games, where backcourt players move clearly more during games and therefore rely more on aerobic energy, whereas frontcourt players rely more on anaerobic energy systems in line with less dynamic but more static movement patterns.

Keywords: basketball, metabolomics, saliva, sport loadomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
37 The Associations of Pes Planus Plantaris (Flat Foot) to the Postural Stability of Basketball Student-Athletes Through the Ground Reaction Force Vector (vGRF)

Authors: Def Primal, Sasanty Kusumaningtyas, Ermita I. Ibrahim

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Purpose: The main objective of this study is to determine the pes planus plantaris (flat foot) condition can contribute to the disturbance of postural stability in basketball athletes in static and dynamic activities. Methods: This cross-sectional quantitative analytical retrospective study on 47 subjects of basketball student-athletes identified the foot arch index by extensive footprint area and AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology Inc.) Force flat-form (force plate) determined their postural stability. Subjects were conducted in three activities (static, dynamic vertical jump, and dynamic loading response) for ground reaction force (GRF) resultant vectors towards the vertical plane of body mass (W). Results Analytical results obtained that 80.9% of subjects had pes planus plantaris. It shows no significant differences in pes planus plantaris incidence in both sexes subject (p>0.005); however, there are differences in athlete’s exercise period aspect. Athlete students who have practiced strictly for more than four years’ experience over 50% of pes planus plantaris; furthermore, a long period of exercise was believed to stimulate pes planus. The average value of GRF vectors of pes planus plantaris subjects on three different basketball movements shows a significant correlation to postural stability. Conclusions Pes planus plantaris affected almost basketball athletes regarding the length and intensity of exercise performed. The condition significantly contributes to postural stability disturbance on a static condition, dynamic vertical jump, and dynamic vertical jump loading response.

Keywords: pes planus plantaris, flatfoot, ground reaction force, static and dynamic stability

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36 Lineup Optimization Model of Basketball Players Based on the Prediction of Recursive Neural Networks

Authors: Wang Yichen, Haruka Yamashita

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In recent years, in the field of sports, decision making such as member in the game and strategy of the game based on then analysis of the accumulated sports data are widely attempted. In fact, in the NBA basketball league where the world's highest level players gather, to win the games, teams analyze the data using various statistical techniques. However, it is difficult to analyze the game data for each play such as the ball tracking or motion of the players in the game, because the situation of the game changes rapidly, and the structure of the data should be complicated. Therefore, it is considered that the analysis method for real time game play data is proposed. In this research, we propose an analytical model for "determining the optimal lineup composition" using the real time play data, which is considered to be difficult for all coaches. In this study, because replacing the entire lineup is too complicated, and the actual question for the replacement of players is "whether or not the lineup should be changed", and “whether or not Small Ball lineup is adopted”. Therefore, we propose an analytical model for the optimal player selection problem based on Small Ball lineups. In basketball, we can accumulate scoring data for each play, which indicates a player's contribution to the game, and the scoring data can be considered as a time series data. In order to compare the importance of players in different situations and lineups, we combine RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) model, which can analyze time series data, and NN (Neural Network) model, which can analyze the situation on the field, to build the prediction model of score. This model is capable to identify the current optimal lineup for different situations. In this research, we collected all the data of accumulated data of NBA from 2019-2020. Then we apply the method to the actual basketball play data to verify the reliability of the proposed model.

Keywords: recurrent neural network, players lineup, basketball data, decision making model

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35 Serum Anti-Oxidation Enzymes Response to L-Carnitine Supplementation

Authors: Farah Nameni, Hamidreza Poursadra, Maasumeh Nurani Pilehrud

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Exercise training induced Inflammation and stress. Antioxidant, for example L- Carnitine has beneficial effects in immune system and increased antioxidant enzymes activity. L- Carnitine protects the tissue against the oxidative side effect and helps the body to protect against stress during and after acute exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-Carnitine on the blood enzymes: GPX SOD, CAT and GR response. In this study, 20 basketball players girls participated. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; placebo and supplementation. Antioxidadision enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase) evaluated. L-Carnitine supplement group orally daily received 3000 mg powder for 14 dys. Then all participates trained basketball exercise acute. Blood samples were drawn vein before and immediately after exercise. Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase were measured, and data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and t-test. Our results showed: SOD, GPX and GPX (P < 0.05) have a significant increase. These results suggest L-Carnitine supplementation may increase GPX SOD, CAT, and basal anti oxidative capacity. L-Carnitine can modulate the alterations of exercise oxidative damage in girl basketball players.

Keywords: l-carnitine, GPX, SOD, CAT, exercise, GR, anti-oxidant

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34 Simulating the Hot Hand Phenomenon in Basketball with Bayesian Hidden Markov Models

Authors: Gabriel Calvo, Carmen Armero, Luigi Spezia

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A basketball player is said to have a hot hand if his/her performance is better than expected in different periods of time. A way to deal with this phenomenon is to make use of latent variables, which can indicate whether the player is ‘on fire’ or not. This work aims to model the hot hand phenomenon through a Bayesian hidden Markov model (HMM) with two states (cold and hot) and two different probability of success depending on the corresponding hidden state. This task is illustrated through a comprehensive simulation study. The simulated data sets emulate the field goal attempts in an NBA season from different profile players. This model can be a powerful tool to assess the ‘streakiness’ of each player, and it provides information about the general performance of the players during the match. Finally, the Bayesian HMM allows computing the posterior probability of any type of streak.

Keywords: Bernoulli trials, field goals, latent variables, posterior distribution

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33 The Intensity of Load Experienced by Female Basketball Players during Competitive Games

Authors: Tomas Vencurik, Jiri Nykodym

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This study compares the intensity of game load among player positions and between the 1st and the 2nd half of the games. Two guards, three forwards, and three centers (female basketball players) participated in this study. The heart rate (HR) and its development were monitored during two competitive games. Statistically insignificant differences in the intensity of game load were recorded between guards, forwards, and centers below and above 85% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) and in the mean HR as % of HRmax (87.81±3.79%, 87.02±4.37%, and 88.76±3.54%, respectively). Moreover, when the 1st and the 2nd half of the games were compared in the mean HR (87.89±4.18% vs. 88.14±3.63% of HRmax), no statistical significance was recorded. This information can be useful for coaching staff, to manage and to precisely plan the training process.

Keywords: game load, heart rate, player positions, the 1st, the 2nd half of the games

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32 Comparisons of Drop Jump and Countermovement Jump Performance for Male Basketball Players with and without Low-Dye Taping Application

Authors: Chung Yan Natalia Yeung, Man Kit Indy Ho, Kin Yu Stan Chan, Ho Pui Kipper Lam, Man Wah Genie Tong, Tze Chung Jim Luk

Abstract:

Excessive foot pronation is a well-known risk factor of knee and foot injuries such as patellofemoral pain, patellar and Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis. Low-Dye taping (LDT) application is not uncommon for basketball players to control excessive foot pronation for pain control and injury prevention. The primary potential benefits of using LDT include providing additional supports to medial longitudinal arch and restricting the excessive midfoot and subtalar motion in weight-bearing activities such as running and landing. Meanwhile, restrictions provided by the rigid tape may also potentially limit functional joint movements and sports performance. Coaches and athletes need to weigh the potential benefits and harmful effects before making a decision if applying LDT technique is worthwhile or not. However, the influence of using LDT on basketball-related performance such as explosive and reactive strength is not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the change of drop jump (DJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance before and after LDT application for collegiate male basketball players. In this within-subject crossover study, 12 healthy male basketball players (age: 21.7 ± 2.5 years) with at least 3-year regular basketball training experience were recruited. Navicular drop (ND) test was adopted as the screening and only those with excessive pronation (ND ≥ 10mm) were included. Participants with recent lower limb injury history were excluded. Recruited subjects were required to perform both ND, DJ (on a platform of 40cm height) and CMJ (without arms swing) tests in series during taped and non-taped conditions in the counterbalanced order. Reactive strength index (RSI) was calculated by using the flight time divided by the ground contact time measured. For DJ and CMJ tests, the best of three trials was used for analysis. The difference between taped and non-taped conditions for each test was further calculated through standardized effect ± 90% confidence intervals (CI) with clinical magnitude-based inference (MBI). Paired samples T-test showed significant decrease in ND (-4.68 ± 1.44mm; 95% CI: -3.77, -5.60; p < 0.05) while MBI demonstrated most likely beneficial and large effect (standardize effect: -1.59 ± 0.27) in LDT condition. For DJ test, significant increase in both flight time (25.25 ± 29.96ms; 95% CI: 6.22, 44.28; p < 0.05) and RSI (0.22 ± 0.22; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.36; p < 0.05) were observed. In taped condition, MBI showed very likely beneficial and moderate effect (standardized effect: 0.77 ± 0.49) in flight time, possibly beneficial and small effect (standardized effect: -0.26 ± 0.29) in ground contact time and very likely beneficial and moderate effect (standardized effect: 0.77 ± 0.42) in RSI. No significant difference in CMJ was observed (95% CI: -2.73, 2.08; p > 0.05). For basketball players with pes planus, applying LDT could substantially support the foot by elevating the navicular height and potentially provide acute beneficial effects in reactive strength performance. Meanwhile, no significant harmful effect on CMJ was observed. Basketball players may consider applying LDT before the game or training to enhance the reactive strength performance. However since the observed effects in this study could not generalize to other players without excessive foot pronation, further studies on players with normal foot arch or navicular height are recommended.

Keywords: flight time, pes planus, pronated foot, reactive strength index

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31 Effects of GRF on CMJ in Different Wooden Surface Systems

Authors: Yi-cheng Chen, Ming-jum Guo, Yang-ru Chen

Abstract:

Background and Objective: For safety and fair during basketball competition, FIBA proposes the definite level of physical functions in wooden surface system (WSS). There are existing various between different systems in indoor-stadium, so the aim of this study want to know how many effects in different WSS, especially for effects of ground reaction force(GRF) when player jumped. Materials and Methods: 12 participants acted counter-movement jump (CMJ) on 7 different surfaces, include 6 WSSs by 3 types rubber shock absorber pad (SAP) on cross or parallel fixed, and 1 rigid ground. GRFs of takeoff and landing had been recorded from an AMTI force platform when all participants acted vertical CMJs by counter-balance design. All data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA to evaluate whether the test variable differed significantly between surfaces. The significance level was set at α=0.05. Results: There were non-significance in GRF between surfaces when participants taken off. For GRF of landing, we found WSS with cross fixed SAP are harder than parallel fixed. Although there were also non-significance when participant was landing on cross or parallel fixed surfaces, but there have test variable differed significantly between WSS with parallel fixed to rigid ground. In the study, landing to WSS with the hardest SAP, the GRF also have test variable differed significantly to other WSS. Conclusion: Although official basketball competition is in the WSS certificated by FIBA, there are also exist the various in GRF under takeoff or landing, any player must to warm-up before game starting. Especially, there is unsafe situation when play basketball on uncertificated WSS.

Keywords: wooden surface system, counter-movement jump, ground reaction force, shock absorber pad

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30 A Measurement and Motor Control System for Free Throw Shots in Basketball Using Gyroscope Sensor

Authors: Niloofar Zebarjad

Abstract:

This research aims at finding a tool to provide basketball players with real-time audio feedback on their shooting form in free throw shots. Free throws played a pivotal role in taking the lead in fierce competitions. The major problem in performing an accurate free throw seems to be improper training. Since the arm movement during the free throw shot is complex, the coach or the athlete might miss the movement details during practice. Hence, there is a necessity to create a system that measures arm movements' critical characteristics and control for improper kinematics. The proposed setup in this study quantifies arm kinematics and provides real-time feedback as an audio signal consisting of a gyroscope sensor. Spatial shoulder angle data are transmitted in a mobile application in real-time and can be saved and processed for statistical and analysis purposes. The proposed system is easy to use, inexpensive, portable, and real-time applicable. Objectives: This research aims to modify and control the free throw using audio feedback and determine if and to what extent the new setup reduces errors in arm formations during throws and finally assesses the successful throw rate. Methods: One group of elite basketball athletes and two novice athletes (control and study group) participated in this study. Each group contains 5 participants being studied in three separate sessions over a week. Results: Empirical results showed enhancements in the free throw shooting style, shot pocket (SP), and locked position (LP). The mean values of shoulder angle were controlled on 25° and 45° for SP and LP, respectively, recommended by valid FIBA references. Conclusion: Throughout the experiments, the system helped correct and control the shoulder angles toward the targeted pattern of shot pocket (SP) and locked position (LP). According to the desired results for arm motion, adding another sensor to measure and control the elbow angle is recommended.

Keywords: audio-feedback, basketball, free-throw, locked-position, motor-control, shot-pocket

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29 Isolated and Combined Effects of Multimedia Computer Assisted Coaching and Traditional Coaching on Motor Ability Component and Physiological Variables among Sports School Basketball Players

Authors: Biju Lukose

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to identify the isolated and combined effect of multi-media computer assisted coaching and traditional coaching on selected motor ability component and physiological variables among sports school basketball players. Forty male basketball players aged between 14 to 18 years were selected randomly. They were divided into four groups of three experimental and one control. Isolated multi-media computer assisted coaching, isolated traditional coaching and combined coaching (multimedia computer assisted coaching and traditional coaching) are the three experimental groups. All the three experimental groups were given coaching for 24 weeks and control group were not allowed to participate in any coaching programme. The subjects were tested dependent variables such as speed and cardio vascular endurance; at the beginning (pre-test) in middle 12 week (mid-test) and after the coaching 24 week (post-test). The coaching schedule was for a period of 24 weeks. The data were collected two days before and after the coaching schedule and mid test after the 12 weeks of the coaching schedule. The data were analysed by applying ANCOVA and Scheffe’s Post hoc test. The result showed that there were significant changes in dependent variables such as speed and cardio vascular endurance. The results of the study showed that combined coaching (multimedia computer assisted coaching and traditional coaching) is more superior to traditional coaching and multimedia computer assisted coaching groups and no significant change in speed in the case of isolated multimedia computer assisted coaching group.

Keywords: computer, computer-assisted coaching, multimedia coaching, traditional coaching

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28 Comparison of Aggression Amount among Athletic Students of Different Sports

Authors: Seyed Hossein Alavi, Farshad Ghazalian, Soghra Jamshidi

Abstract:

Nowadays, athletic aggression discussion is considered as an important issue in sports psychology and sports effects have been noted by researchers from a long time ago. In this research, the amount of aggression among athletic students of different sport courses will be surveyed and compared. Statistics society in this research consists of all of boy athletic students in wrestling, taekwondo, football, and basketball of Mahmoudabad City that are 200 persons and the limitation of their ages are between 12-15 years old. Among all athletic students of different sport courses, 40 persons were chosen randomly for the sample. The method of research is a descriptive-comparative type that has been done according to field study and for measurement of examinations aggression amount, we have used Ayzank exam. In analysis step of foundations, for comparison of aggression of examined group, we have used Varian’s analysis exam. Research results show that among aggression amounts of athletic students of wrestling, taekwondo, football and basketball, there is no fundamental difference (p < 0.05). Stimulation of guest team with the host team fans, referees performance, exhaustion, physical confrontations, team position in the tournament table, and so on. There is no significant difference among aggression amount of selected sport athletic students.

Keywords: aggression, athletic, student, sports

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27 The Survey of Sports Injuries in Ten Sports

Authors: Najmeh Arabnejad, Mohammad Hossein Yousefi

Abstract:

The risk of injuring is possible in most sports. These injuries are inevitable in contact sports. Since sports injuries result in financial, physical, physiological and social problems for most athletes and endanger their professional future, studying the happening of sports injuries in sports changes to an important issue. This study can be conducted through different aspects including psychological, pathological, social, managerial, etc. Therefore, the present study was designed and conducted with the aim Survey of Sports Injuries In Ten Sports from 2006 to 2011.This descriptive study was carried out in a documentary form. Thus, data related to sports insurance and sport injuries happened in soccer, volleyball, basketball, handball, badminton, karate, track and field, taekwondo, gymnastics and wrestling was collected from Sports Medical Board of Kerman Province, as the largest province in Iran, and then was analyzed. Data collection method was library one. Furthermore, information related to 210406 insured athletes was analyzed using Descriptive Statistical Indexes in the level mean and SPSS20 Software. The research findings showed that the number of male athletes who injured was higher than female athletes in most sports within various years. Soccer, karate, volleyball, wrestling, handball, taekwondo, gymnastics, basketball, track and field, and badminton had the most injuries, respectively. Moreover, the number of injured athletes and their ratio to insured ones during six years were studied; in general, an increase in ratio of sports injuries was observed. Thus, upward movement of sports injuries in different sports, as the results of this study confirm it, is a warning which results in losing young forces and wasting of sports potential in Iran.

Keywords: sports, sports injuries, survey, Kerman

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26 Effects of Applying Low-Dye Taping in Performing Double-Leg Squat on Electromyographic Activity of Lower Extremity Muscles for Collegiate Basketball Players with Excessive Foot Pronation

Authors: I. M. K. Ho, S. K. Y. Chan, K. H. P. Lam, G. M. W. Tong, N. C. Y. Yeung, J. T. C. Luk

Abstract:

Low-dye taping (LDT) is commonly used for treating foot problems, such as plantar fasciitis, and supporting foot arch for runners and non-athletes patients with pes planus. The potential negative impact of pronated feet leading to tibial and femoral internal rotation via the entire kinetic chain reaction was postulated and identified. The changed lower limb biomechanics potentially leading to poor activation of hip and knee stabilizers, such as gluteus maximus and medius, may associate with higher risk of knee injuries including patellofemoral pain syndrome and ligamentous sprain in many team sports players. It is therefore speculated that foot arch correction with LDT might enhance the use of gluteal muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of applying LDT on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of superior gluteus maximus (SGMax), inferior gluteus maximus (IGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and tibialis anterior (TA) during double-leg squat. 12 male collegiate basketball players (age: 21.72.5 years; body fat: 12.43.6%; navicular drop: 13.72.7mm) with at least three years regular basketball training experience participated in this study. Participants were excluded if they had recent history of lower limb injuries, over 16.6% body fat and lesser than 10mm drop in navicular drop (ND) test. Recruited subjects visited the laboratory once for the within-subject crossover study. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) tests on all selected muscles were performed in randomized order followed by sEMG test on double-leg squat during LDT and non-LDT conditions in counterbalanced order. SGMax, IGMax, GMed and TA activities during the entire 2-second concentric and 2-second eccentric phases were normalized and interpreted as %MVIC. The magnitude of the difference between taped and non-taped conditions of each muscle was further assessed via standardized effect90% confidence intervals (CI) with non-clinical magnitude-based inference. Paired samples T-test showed a significant decrease (4.71.4mm) in ND (95% CI: 3.8, 5.6; p < 0.05) while no significant difference was observed between taped and non-taped conditions in sEMG tests for all muscles and contractions (p > 0.05). On top of traditional significant testing, magnitude-based inference showed possibly increase in IGMax activity (small standardized effect: 0.270.44), likely increase in GMed activity (small standardized effect: 0.340.34) and possibly increase in TA activity (small standardized effect: 0.220.29) during eccentric phase. It is speculated that the decrease of navicular drop supported by LDT application could potentially enhance the use of inferior gluteus maximus and gluteus medius especially during eccentric phase in this study. As the eccentric phase of double-leg squat is an important component of landing activities in basketball, further studies on the onset and amount of gluteal activation during jumping and landing activities with LDT are recommended. Since both hip and knee kinematics were not measured in this study, the underlying cause of the observed increase in gluteal activation during squat after LDT is inconclusive. In this regard, the investigation of relationships between LDT application, ND, hip and knee kinematics, and gluteal muscle activity during sports specific jumping and landing tasks should be focused in the future.

Keywords: flat foot, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, injury prevention

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25 Gymnastics-Oriented Training Program: Impact of 6 weeks Training on the Fitness and Performance of Basketball Players

Authors: Syed Ibrahim, Syed Muneer Ahmed

Abstract:

It is a global phenomenon that fitness is a pre-requisite to the desired end of optimum efficiency in elite class basketballers achieved through appropriate conditioning program. This study was undertaken to find out the effect of gymnastic oriented training program on the physical fitness and the level of technical performance of basketball players. Method: 27 basketballers were divided into 12 experimental and 15 control groups aged between 19 to 25 years. Physical fitness tests comprising of vertical jump, push-ups, chin ups, sit ups, back strength, 30 m sprint, boomerangs test, 600 m run, sit and reach, bridge up and shoulder rotation and technical skill tests like dribbling, layup shots and rebound collection were used for the study. A pre- and post-test was conducted before and after the training program of 6 weeks. Results: The results indicated no significant difference in the anthropometric measurements of age, height and weight between the experimental and control group as the ‘t’ values observed were 0.28, 1.63 and 1.60 respectively . There were significant improvements in vertical jump, push-ups, sit-ups, modified boomerang test, bridge test and shoulder rotation index with the ‘t’ values being 2.60, 3.41, 3.91, 4.02, 3.55 and 2.33 respectively. However, no significant differences existed in chin-ups, back strength, 30 m sprint and 6000 m run with the ‘t’ values being 2.08, 1.77, 1.28 and 0.80 respectively. There was significant improvement in the post-test for the technical skills tests in the experimental group with ‘t’ values being 3.65, 2.57, and 3.62 for the dribble, layup shots and rebound collection respectively. There was no significant difference in the values of the control group except in the rebound collection which showed significant difference. Conclusion: It was found that both the physical fitness and skill proficiency of the basketballers increased through the participation in the gymnastics oriented program.

Keywords: gymnastic, technical, pre-requisite, elite class

Procedia PDF Downloads 315