Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Sona Lorencova

12 The Importance of Compulsory Pre-School Education from the Parents’ Perspective in the Czech Republic

Authors: Beata Horníckova, Sona Lorencova


The study deals with the presentation of the results of quantitatively oriented research. The research was conducted as part of a questionnaire survey with the aim to find out what are the attitudes of parents to compulsory preschool education in the Czech Republic. This research presents results from the area of importance of compulsory pre-school education from the parents’ perspective. The research method was a questionnaire, which was distributed to respondents through an online platform. The research involved 107 parents, who answered a total of 36 questions that found out their attitudes to last year’s compulsory preschool attendance. The results show that compulsory pre-school attendance has increased the importance of pre-school education. However, the results also show that the compulsory last year of pre-school education is not more important according to parents than in previous years. Most participants consider compulsory pre-school attendance to be important and are happy that their child attends it. The results reveal the fact that the introduction of compulsory pre-school attendance has contributed to the importance of parents’ perceptions of pre-primary education.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education of pre-school children, kindergarten, parents

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11 Parents' Expectations from Compulsory Pre-School Education in the Slovak Republic

Authors: Sona Lorencova, Beata Hornickova


The study deals with the presentation of the results of qualitatively oriented research, the aim of which was to find out the attitudes of parents to the planned compulsory pre-school education in the Slovak Republic. The research was conceived as an entry into the field of the researched issue and its aim was to support the validity and effectiveness of items in the questionnaire, which was created based on the statements of parents. The research method was an interview with 15 parents whose children attended kindergarten. The main question of the interviews was to find out what are the parents' expectations from compulsory pre-school education, which will be compulsory in the Slovak Republic from 2021 for all 5-year-old children. From the introduction of compulsory pre-school education, the professional public expects in particular greater participation of children from marginalized Roma communities in pre-school education, as well as children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, better preparation of children for primary school and better results in international testing. The research found that the expectations of parents are different and depend on their socio-economic status, in accordance with which they place greater importance on the upbringing and education of children. The findings from interviews with parents contributed to the formulation of items in the questionnaire, which will be distributed to parents whose children will attend compulsory pre-school education in the Slovak Republic from 2021.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, kindergarten, education of pre-school children, parental expectations from pre-school education

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10 Parents' Attitude toward Compulsory Pre-School Education in Slovakia

Authors: Sona Lorencova, Beata Hornickova


Compulsory pre-school education in Slovakia will be established by the Education Act for all five-year-old children from September 2021. The implementation of this law will change pre-school education in our country from optional to compulsory, and children will be able to complete this education either in institutional form school facilities or in the form of individual education at the request of the parent. The primary purpose of this change is that all children achieve pre-school education before entering primary school, thus eliminating differences between children before entering primary school. The benefits of introducing compulsory pre-school education are obvious to the professional public. However, as this fundamental change in children's education is perceived by parents who have a prime position in the upbringing and education of their children, research pays minimal attention. The aim of the study is to interpret the findings of quantitatively oriented research, which was focused on finding out the attitudes of parents to the planned introduction of compulsory preschool education in Slovakia. The data were obtained through questionnaires primarily intended for parents of preschool children. In the distributed questionnaire, the degree of agreement or disagreement with individual items could be expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of the research present how perceived compulsory pre-school education is perceived by the parental public in Slovakia and what perspectives and limitations parents anticipate after its introduction.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education act, childs' learning and development, kindergarten, parents' perspectives

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9 Parents’ Opinions on Compulsory Pre-school Attendance in the Czech Republic

Authors: Beata Hornickova, Sona Lorencova


The study deals with the presentation of the results of qualitatively oriented research, which was carried out in the scope of determining the attitudes of parents to preschool education in the Czech Republic. The research is conceived as an entry into the field of the researched issue and aimed to support the effectiveness of the items of the questionnaire, which was subsequently created based on the parents’ statements from interviews. The research method was interview with 15 parents of preschool children. The main aim of the interviews was to find out their views on the compulsory attendance of their children in kindergarten. Compulsory pre-school attendance has been introduced in the Czech Republic since 2017/18 with the aim of reducing delays in the entry of children into primary school and eliminating subsequent school failures. The findings offered a look at the differing views on compulsory kindergarten school influenced by the different socio-economic status of parents. Parents with a higher socio-economic status attached greater importance to the educational component of compulsory preschool attendance as a preparation for primary school, while parents with a lower socio-economic status emphasized the educational component. An interesting finding is also a statement from interviews of a parent who does not find benefits in compulsory preschool attendance.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education of pre-school children, kindergarten, parents’ opinions on pre-school education

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8 Effect of Moisture Removal from Molten Salt on Corrosion of Alloys

Authors: Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye, Divya Raghunandanan, C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


Molten fluoride salt FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a promising candidate as high temperature coolant for next generation nuclear reactors due to its superior thermophysical properties. Corrosion of alloys in molten FLiNaK has however been recognized as a serious issue in the selection of structural materials. Corrosion experiments of alloys Inconel-625 (Fe-Ni alloy) and Hastelloy-B (Ni-Mo alloy) were performed in FLiNaK salt. The tests were carried out at a temperature of 650°C in graphite crucibles for 60 hours under inert atmosphere. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of moisture removal in the salt by pre heating and vacuum drying. Weight loss of the alloy samples due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloy samples was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. A significant decrease in the corrosion rate was observed for the alloys studied in moisture removed salt.

Keywords: FLiNaK, hastelloy, inconel, weight loss

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7 Effect of Nickel Coating on Corrosion of Alloys in Molten Salts

Authors: Divya Raghunandanan, Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye, C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


Molten fluoride salts are considered as potential coolants for next generation nuclear plants where the heat can be utilized for production of hydrogen and electricity. Among molten fluoride salts, FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a potential candidate for the coolant due to its superior thermophysical properties such as high temperature stability, boiling point, volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Major technical challenge in implementation is the selection of structural material which can withstand corrosive nature of FLiNaK. Corrosion study of alloys SS 316L, Hastelloy B, Ni-201 was performed in molten FLiNaK at 650°C. Nickel was found to be more resistant to corrosive attack in molten fluoride medium. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of nickel coating on corrosion of alloys SS 316L and Hastelloy B. Weight loss of the alloys due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloys was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Keywords: corrosion, FLiNaK, hastelloy, weight loss

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6 CFD simulation of Near Wall Turbulence and Heat Transfer of Molten Salts

Authors: C. S. Sona, Makrand A. Khanwale, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


New generation nuclear power plants are currently being developed to be highly economical, to be passive safe, to produce hydrogen. An important feature of these reactors will be the use of coolants at temperature higher than that being used in current nuclear reactors. The molten fluoride salt with a eutectic composition of 46.5% LiF - 11.5% NaF - 42% KF (mol %) commonly known as FLiNaK is a leading candidate for heat transfer coolant for these nuclear reactors. CFD simulations were carried out using large eddy simulations to investigate the flow characteristics of molten FLiNaK at 850°C at a Reynolds number of 10,500 in a cylindrical pipe. Simulation results have been validated with the help of mean velocity profile using direct numerical simulation data. Transient velocity information was used to identify and characterise turbulent structures which are important for transfer of heat across solid-fluid interface. A wavelet transform based methodology called wavelet transform modulus maxima was used to identify and characterise the singularities. This analysis was also used for flow visualisation, and also to calculate the heat transfer coefficient using small eddy model. The predicted Nusselt number showed good agreement with the available experimental data.

Keywords: FLiNaK, heat transfer, molten salt, turbulent structures

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5 Effect of Cabbage and Cauliflower Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds on Foraging Response of Plutella xylostella

Authors: Sumbul Farhat, Pratyay Vaibhav, Sarah Jain, Kapinder Kumar, Archna Kumar


The Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a major pest of cole crops that causes approximately 50% loss in global production. The utilization of inorganic pesticides is reflected in the development of resistance to this pest. Thus, there is a great need for an eco-friendly, sustainable strategy for the control of this pest. Although this pest, several natural enemies are reported worldwide, none of them can control it efficiently. Therefore, a proposed study is planned to understand the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) mediated signaling interaction mechanism of the plant, pest, and natural enemy. For VOCs collection during different deployment stages of Cabbage POI, Green Ball, Pusa Cabbage, Cabbage Local, Snowball 16, Kanchan Plus, Pusa Meghna, Farm Sona Hybrid F1, and Samridhi F1 Hybrid, the Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was employed. Characterization of VOCs was conducted by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The impact of collected VOCs was assessed through Y-Tube Bioassays. The results indicate that the Cabbage variety Green Ball shows maximum repellency for P. xylostella (-100%). The cues present in this variety may be exploited for efficient management of P. xylostella in the cole crop ecosystem.

Keywords: Plutella xylostella, cole crops, volatile organic compounds, GC-MS, Green Ball

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4 Effects of Drought on Microbial Activity in Rhizosphere, Soil Hydrophobicity and Leaching of Mineral Nitrogen from Arable Soil Depending on Method of Fertilization

Authors: Jakub Elbl, Lukáš Plošek, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Soňa Javoreková, Jaroslav Záhora, Libor Kalhotka, Olga Urbánková, Ivana Charousová


This work presents the first results from the long-term laboratory experiment dealing with impact of drought on soil properties. Three groups of the treatment (A, B and C) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. The soil water content was maintained at 70 % of soil water holding capacity in group A, at 40 % in group B. In group C, soil water regime was maintained in the range of wilting point. Each group of the experiment was divided into three variants (A1 = B1, C1; A2 = B2, C2 etc.) with three repetitions: Variants A1 (B1, C1) were controls without addition of another fertilizer. Variants A2 (B2, C2) were fertilized with mineral nitrogen fertilizer DAM 390 (0.140 Mg of N per ha) and variants A3 (B3, C3) contained 45 g of Cp per a pot. The significant differences (ANOVA, P<0.05) in the leaching of mineral nitrogen and values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) were found. The highest values of Ksat were found in variants (within each group) with addition of compost (A3, B3, C3). Conversely, the lowest values of Ksat were found in variants with addition of mineral nitrogen. Low values of Ksat indicate an increased level of hydrophobicity in individual groups of the experiment. Moreover, all variants with compost addition showed lower amount of mineral nitrogen leaching and high level of microbial activity than variants without. This decrease of mineral nitrogen leaching was about 200 % in comparison with the control variant and about 300 % with variant, where mineral nitrogen was added. Based on these results, we can conclude that changes of soil water content directly have impact on microbial activity, soil hydrophobicity and loss of mineral nitrogen from the soil.

Keywords: drought, microbial activity, mineral nitrogen, soil hydrophobicity

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3 Calcium Release- Activated Calcium Channels as a Target in Treatment of Allergic Asthma

Authors: Martina Šutovská, Marta Jošková, Ivana Kazimierová, Lenka Pappová, Maroš Adamkov, Soňa Fraňová


Bronchial asthma is characterized by increased bronchoconstrictor responses to provoking agonists, airway inflammation and remodeling. All these processes involve Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ channels (CRAC) that are widely expressed in immune, respiratory epithelium and airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Our previous study pointed on possible therapeutic potency of CRAC blockers using experimental guinea pigs asthma model. Presented work analyzed complex anti-asthmatic effect of long-term administered CRAC blocker, including impact on allergic inflammation, airways hyperreactivity, and remodeling and mucociliary clearance. Ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation of the airways according to Franova et al. was followed by 14 days lasted administration of CRAC blocker (3-fluoropyridine-4-carboxylic acid, FPCA) in the dose 1.5 mg/kg bw. For comparative purposes salbutamol, budesonide and saline were applied to control groups. The anti-inflammatory effect of FPCA was estimated by serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) changes in IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α analyzed by Bio-Plex® assay as well as immunohistochemical staining focused on assessment of tryptase and c-Fos positivity in pulmonary samples. The in vivo airway hyperreactivity was evaluated by Pennock et al. and by organ tissue bath methods in vitro. The immunohistochemical changes in ASM actin and collagen III layer as well as mucin secretion evaluated anti-remodeling effect of FPCA. The measurement of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in vitro using LabVIEW™ Software determined impact on mucociliary clearance. Long-term administration of FPCA to sensitized animals resulted in: i. Significant decrease in cytokine levels, tryptase and c-Fos positivity similar to budesonide effect; ii.Meaningful decrease in basal and bronchoconstrictors-induced in vivo and in vitro airway hyperreactivity comparable to salbutamol; iii. Significant inhibition of airway remodeling parameters; iv. Insignificant changes in CBF. All these findings confirmed complex anti-asthmatic effect of CRAC channels blocker and evidenced these structures as the rational target in the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma.

Keywords: allergic asthma, CRAC channels, cytokines, respiratory epithelium

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2 InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiode Array ns-Response

Authors: Utpal Das, Sona Das


InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have recently seen rapid development. However, in small pixel size large format FPAs, the occurrence of high mesa sidewall surface leakage current is a major constraint necessitating proper surface passivation. A simple pixel isolation technique in InAs/GaSb T2SL detector arrays without the conventional mesa etching has been proposed to isolate the pixels by forming a more resistive higher band gap material from the SL, in the inter-pixel region. Here, a single step femtosecond (fs) laser anneal of the T2SL structure of the inter-pixel T2SL regions, have been used to increase the band gap between the pixels by QW-intermixing and hence increase isolation between the pixels. The p-i-n photodiode structure used here consists of a 506nm, (10 monolayer {ML}) InAs:Si (1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML) GaSb SL as the bottom n-contact layer grown on an n-type GaSb substrate. The undoped absorber layer consists of 1.3µm, (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL. The top p-contact layer is a 63nm, (10ML)InAs:Be(1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML)GaSb T2SL. In order to improve the carrier transport, a 126nm of graded doped (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL layer was added between the absorber and each contact layers. A 775nm 150fs-laser at a fluence of ~6mJ/cm² is used to expose the array where the pixel regions are masked by a Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) cap. Here, in the inter-pixel regions, the p+ layer have been reactive ion etched (RIE) using CH₄+H₂ chemistry and removed before fs-laser exposure. The fs-laser anneal isolation improvement in 200-400μm pixels due to spatially selective quantum well intermixing for a blue shift of ~70meV in the inter-pixel regions is confirmed by FTIR measurements. Dark currents are measured between two adjacent pixels with the Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) caps used as contacts. The T2SL quality in the active photodiode regions masked by the Ti-Au cap is hardly affected and retains the original quality of the detector. Although, fs-laser anneal of p+ only etched p-i-n T2SL diodes show a reduction in the reverse dark current, no significant improvement in the full RIE-etched mesa structures is noticeable. Hence for a 128x128 array fabrication of 8μm square pixels and 10µm pitch, SU8 polymer isolation after RIE pixel delineation has been used. X-n+ row contacts and Y-p+ column contacts have been used to measure the optical response of the individual pixels. The photo-response of these 8μm and other 200μm pixels under a 2ns optical pulse excitation from an Optical-Parametric-Oscillator (OPO), shows a peak responsivity of ~0.03A/W and 0.2mA/W, respectively, at λ~3.7μm. Temporal response of this detector array is seen to have a fast response ~10ns followed typical slow decay with ringing, attributed to impedance mismatch of the connecting co-axial cables. In conclusion, response times of a few ns have been measured in 8µm pixels of a 128x128 array. Although fs-laser anneal has been found to be useful in increasing the inter-pixel isolation in InAs/GaSb T2SL arrays by QW inter-mixing, it has not been found to be suitable for passivation of full RIE etched mesa structures with vertical walls on InAs/GaSb T2SL.

Keywords: band-gap blue-shift, fs-laser-anneal, InAs/GaSb T2SL, Inter-pixel isolation, ns-Response, photodiode array

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1 Socio-Economic Determinants of Physical Activity of Non-Manual Workers, Including the Early Senior Group, from the City of Wroclaw in Poland

Authors: Daniel Puciato, Piotr Oleśniewicz, Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska, Krzysztof Widawski, Michał Rozpara, Władysław Mynarski, Agnieszka Gawlik, Małgorzata Dębska, Soňa Jandová


Physical activity as a part of people’s everyday life reduces the risk of many diseases, including those induced by lifestyle, e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, degenerative arthritis, and certain types of cancer. That refers particularly to professionally active people, including the early senior group working on non-manual positions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and the socio-economic status of non-manual workers from Wroclaw—one of the biggest cities in Poland, a model setting for such investigations in this part of Europe. The crucial problem in the research is to find out the percentage of respondents who meet the health-related recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) concerning the volume, frequency, and intensity of physical activity, as well as to establish if the most important socio-economic factors, such as gender, age, education, marital status, per capita income, savings and debt, determine the compliance with the WHO physical activity recommendations. During the research, conducted in 2013, 1,170 people (611 women and 559 men) aged 21–60 years were examined. A diagnostic poll method was applied to collect the data. Physical activity was measured with the use of the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire with extended socio-demographic questions, i.e. concerning gender, age, education, marital status, income, savings or debts. To evaluate the relationship between physical activity and selected socio-economic factors, logistic regression was used (odds ratio statistics). Statistical inference was conducted on the adopted ex ante probability level of p<0.05. The majority of respondents met the volume of physical effort recommended for health benefits. It was particularly noticeable in the case of the examined men. The probability of compliance with the WHO physical activity recommendations was highest for workers aged 21–30 years with secondary or higher education who were single, received highest incomes and had savings. The results indicate the relations between physical activity and socio-economic status in the examined women and men. People with lower socio-economic status (e.g. manual workers) are physically active primarily at work, whereas those better educated and wealthier implement physical effort primarily in their leisure time. Among the investigated subjects, the youngest group of non-manual workers have the best chances to meet the WHO standards of physical activity. The study also confirms that secondary education has a positive effect on the public awareness on the role of physical activity in human life. In general, the analysis of the research indicates that there is a relationship between physical activity and some socio-economic factors of the respondents, such as gender, age, education, marital status, income per capita, and the possession of savings. Although the obtained results cannot be applied for the general population, they show some important trends that will be verified in subsequent studies conducted by the authors of the paper.

Keywords: IPAQ, nonmanual workers, physical activity, socioeconomic factors, WHO

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