Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: psychologist

42 Evaluating Psychologist Practice Competencies through Multisource Feedback: An International Research Design

Authors: Jac J. W. Andrews, James B. Hale

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Effective practicing psychologists require ongoing skill development that is constructivist and recursive in nature, with mentor, colleague, co-worker, and patient feedback critical to successful acquisition and maintenance of professional competencies. This paper will provide an overview of the nature and scope of psychologist skill development through multisource feedback (MSF) or 360 degree evaluation, present a rationale for its use for assessing practicing psychologist performance, and advocate its use in psychology given the demonstrated model utility in other health professions. The paper will conclude that an international research design is needed to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of MSF system ratings intended to solicit feedback from mentors, colleagues, coworkers, and patients about psychologist competencies. If adopted, the MSF model could lead to enhanced skill development that fosters patient satisfaction within and across countries.

Keywords: psychologist, multisource feedback, psychologist competency, professionalism

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41 The Perspectives of Preparing Psychology Practitioners in Armenian Universities

Authors: L. Petrosyan

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The problem of psychologist training remains a key priority in Armenia. During the Soviet period, the notion of a psychologist was obscure not only in Armenia but also in other Soviet republics. The breakup of the Soviet Union triggered a gradual change in this area activating the cooperation with specialists from other countries. The need for recovery from the psychological trauma caused by the 1988 earthquake pushed forward the development of practical psychology in Armenia. This phenomenon led to positive changes in perception of and interest to a psychologist profession.Armenian universities started designing special programs for psychologists’ preparation. Armenian psychologists combined their efforts in the field of training relevant specialists. During the recent years, the Bologna educational system was introduced in Armenia which led to implementation of education quality improvement programs. Nevertheless, even today the issue of psychologists’ training is not yet settled in Armenian universities. So far graduate psychologists haven’t got a clear idea of personal and professional qualities of a psychologist. Recently, as a result of educational reforms, the psychology curricula underwent changes, but so far they have not led to a desired outcome. Almost all curricula in certain specialties are aimed to form professional competencies and strengthen practical skills. A survey conducted in Armenia aimed to identify what are the ideas of young psychology specialists on the image of a psychologist. The survey respondents were 45 specialists holding bachelor’s degree as well as 30 master degree graduates, who have not been working yet. The research reveals that we need to change the approach of preparing psychology practitioners in the universities of Armenia. Such an approach to psychologist training will make it possible to train qualified specialists for enhancement of modern psychology theory and practice.

Keywords: practitioners, psychology degree, study, professional competencies

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40 Sports Psychology: The View in Future

Authors: Malkin Valery, Rogaleva Liudmila

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During the last 50-60 years the sports psychology has become firmly established in sports. At the same time, the sport practice brings evidence that it is only beginning to solve some of the most important problems in sports. It is untimely to say that the sports psychology has become a compulsory and efficient part of the sportsman’s preparation. It seems that the further development of the sports psychology can be seen, on the one hand, in the re-orientation of the psychologists from the regulation of the sportsman’s mentality to the process of forming the subject of the sport activity able to take the overall responsibility for the result of the sport activity, able to independently set objectives and to overcome the psychological difficulties that arise in the process of attaining these objectives. In its turn, it will require the change in the very approach to the psychologist’s work. The psychologist and the couch will turn from the specialists in correcting the negative manifestations of the sportsman’s mentality to the specialists in forming the subjects of the sport activity. It will require the creation of the technologies that can form the subjects on all the age-specific stages of the sport activity, that can form the most important psychological qualities (psychological stability, mental reliability, etc.). Getting these technologies will enable the couch to change from the consumer of the psychological knowledge to the immediate participant of the psychological process.

Keywords: sports psychology, subject, sportsman’s preparation, psychological knowledge

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39 Are There Any Positive Effects of Motivational Interviewing on Motion Sickness?

Authors: Unal Demirtas, Mehmet Ergin Dipcin, Mehmet Cetin

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Background: Applied to student candidates prior to entering the air force academy, under the name of Cadet selection flights and executed as 7-8 sorties under the surveillance of flight instructors, this training is mainly towards appraising students’ characteristics of flying ability. All pilot cadets are gone through physical examination before cadet selection flight in a military hospital. Some cadets may show motion sickness symptoms during this flights. The most common symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, vertigo, headache, anxiety, paresthaesia, asthenia, muscle contraction and excitement. These cadets are examined by flight surgeon, after this flight surgeon and psychologist have an motivational interviewing with these cadets. Method: In this study, we have applied a survey that we question the severity of the symptom to the candidates that have motion sickness after the first sortie. We have questioned the candidate who had a motivational interviewing by the psychologist after the treatment of the flight surgeon that whether the candidate relived the complaints that he has at the previous sortie after the second sortie and whether there is decrease or increase in the severity of the complaints compared to the previous flight. Findings: 15 candidates have applied for the flight surgeon with at least one of the motion sickness symptoms. 11 of the 15 candidates showing motion sickness symptoms after the first flight expressed that their complaints are decreased after the motivational interviewing and 4 of the candidates stated that there are no changes in their complaints. The frequently expressed complaints are nausea, vertigo, headache, exhaustion and vomiting respectively. 7 out of 15 candidates expressed that they have same kind of complains in bus, ship etc. Conclusion: It is observed in our study that only conducting motivational interviewing with the candidates without any organic disorders without giving any drugs has a positive effect on the candidates in terms of motion sickness.

Keywords: aeromedicine, candidate, motion sickness, motivational interviewing, pilot

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38 Interprofessional School-Based Mental Health Services for Rural Adolescents in South Australia

Authors: Garreth Kestell, Lukah Dykes, Danielle Zerk, Kyla Trewartha, Rhianon Marshall, Elena Rudnik

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Adolescent mental health is an international priority and the impact of innovative service models must be evaluated. Secondary school-based mental health services (SBMHS) involving private general practitioners and psychologists are a model of care being trialed in South Australia. Measures of depression, anxiety, and stress are routinely collected throughout psychotherapy sessions. This research set out to quantify the impact of psychotherapy for rural adolescents in a school setting and explore the importance of session frequency. Methods: Demographics, session date and DASS21 scores from students (n=65) seen in 2016 by three psychologists working at the SBMHS were recorded. Students were aged 13-18 years (M=15.43, SD= 1.24), mostly female (F=51, M=14), attended between 1 and 23 sessions with a median of 6 sessions (MAD 5.93) in one-year. The treating psychologist collected self-administered DASS21 scores. A mixed model analysis was used with age, sex, treating psychologist, months from first session, and session number as fixed effects, with response variables of DASS depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Results: 71.5% were classified as having extreme or severe anxiety and half had extreme or severe depression and/or stress scores. On average males had a greater increase in DASS scores over time but males attending more sessions benefited most from therapy. Discussion: Psychologists are treating rural adolescents in schools for severe anxiety, depression, and stress. This pilot study indicates that a predictive model combining demographics, session frequency, and DASS scores may help identify who is most likely to benefit from individual psychotherapy. Variations in DAS scores of individuals over time indicate the need for the collection of information such as living situation and exposure to alcohol. A larger sample size and additional data are currently being collected to allow for a more robust analysis.

Keywords: adolescent health, psychotherapy, school based mental health services, DAS21

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37 The Connection between the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values and Ethical Principles in Clinical Psychology

Authors: Matej Stritesky

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The research deals with the connection between the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values and the ethical principles in psychology, on which the meta-code of ethics the European Federation of Psychological Associations is based. The research focuses on ethically problematic situations in clinical psychology in the Czech Republic. Based on the analysis of papers that identified ethically problematic situations faced by clinical psychologists, a questionnaire of ethically problematic situations in clinical psychology (EPSCP) was created for the purposes of the research. The questionnaire was created to represent situations that correspond to the 4 principles on which the meta-code of ethics the European Federation of Psychological Associations is based. The questionnaire EPSCP consists of descriptions of 32 situations that respondents evaluate on a scale from 1 (psychologist's behaviour is ethically perfectly fine) to 10 (psychologist's behaviour is ethically completely unacceptable). The EPSCP questionnaire, together with Schwartz's PVQ questionnaire, will be presented to 60 psychology students. The relationship between principles in clinical psychology and the values on Schwartz´s value continuum will be described using multidimensional scaling. A positive correlation is assumed between the higher-order value of openness to change and problematic ethical situations related to the principle of integrity; a positive correlation between the value of the higher order of self-transcendence and the principle of respect and responsibility; a positive correlation between the value of the higher order of conservation and the principle of competence; and negative correlation between the value of the higher order of ego strengthening and sensitivity to ethically problematic situations. The research also includes an experimental part. The first half of the students are presented with the code of ethics of the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists before completing the questionnaires, and to the second half of the students is the code of ethics presented after completing the questionnaires. In addition to reading the code of ethics, students describe the three rules of the code of ethics that they consider most important and state why they chose these rules. The output of the experimental part will be to determine whether the presentation of the code of ethics leads to greater sensitivity to ethically problematic situations.

Keywords: clinical psychology, ethically problematic situations in clinical psychology, ethical principles in psychology, Schwartz theory of basic values

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36 Results of Operation of Online Medical Care System

Authors: Mahsa Houshdar, Seyed Mehdi Samimi Ardestani , ُSeyed Saeed Sadr

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Introduction: Online Medicare is a method in which parts of a medical process - whether its diagnostics, monitoring or the treatment itself will be done by using online services. This system has been operated in one boy’s high school, one girl’s high school and one high school in deprived aria. Method: At the first step the students registered for using the system. It was not mandatory and not free. They participated in estimating depression scale, anxiety scale and clinical interview by online medical care system. During this estimation, we could find the existence and severity of depression and anxiety in each one of the participants, also we could find the consequent needs of each one, such as supportive therapy in mild depression or anxiety, need to visited by psychologist in moderate cases, need to visited by psychiatrist in moderate-severe cases, need to visited by psychiatrist and psychologist in severe cases and need to perform medical lab examination tests. The lab examination tests were performed on persons specified by the system. The lab examinations were included: serum level of vitamin D, serum level of vitamin B12, serum level of calcium, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, thyroid function tests and CBC. All of the students were solely treated by vitamins or minerals therapy and/ or treatment of medical problem (such as hypothyroidism). After a few months, we came back to high schools and estimated the existence and severity of depression and anxiety in treated students. With comparing these results, the affectability of the system could be prof. Results: Totally, we operate this project in 1077 participants in 243 of participant, the lab examination test were performed. In girls high schools: the existence and severity of depression significantly deceased (P value= 0.018<0.05 & P value 0.004< 0.05), but results about anxiety was not significant. In boys high schools: the existence and severity of depression significantly decreased (P value= 0.023<0.05 & P value = 0.004< 0.05 & P value= 0.049< 0.05). In boys high schools: the existence and severity of anxiety significantly decreased (P value= 0.041<0.05 & P value = 0.046< 0.05 &) but in one high school results about anxiety was not significant. In high school in deprived area the students did not have any problem paying for participating in the project, but they could not pay for medical lab examination tests. Thus, operation of the system was not possible in deprived area without a sponsor. Conclusion: This online medical system was successful in creating medical and psychiatric profile without attending physician. It was successful in decreasing depression without using antidepressants, but it was partially successful in decreasing anxiety.

Keywords: depression, diabetes, online medicare, vitamin D deficiency

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35 Wisdom Can Be the Expression of the Self

Authors: Jaypraksh Show, Pooja Rawat

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Experiences are the fundamental aspects of understanding of ourslves and the world around, leading to wisdom. In the path of wisdom, explorative reflection is the process through which we integrate our experiences, weave them into autobiographical narratives. Further, Neisser, a psychologist, and philosopher, thinks ‘ourselves’ is the wide web of different concepts which help us to understand the world, he called it the conceptual self. The conceptual self, as the storehouse of experiences and different concepts, develops a wiser individual narrative. Thus, Wisdom can be conceived as the expression of the Self. Drawing from this, the current work explores the autobiographies of young adults, focusing on their narrative self and foundations of wisdom through narrative analysis. Using the corresponding interview data, we will shed light on the way they exploratively reflect on challenging situations and use their narrative experiences and conceptual understanding. The aim of this study is to understand the ‘conceptual wiser-self’.

Keywords: wisdom, self, conceptual self, narrative self, autobiography, narrative analysis

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34 The Psychologist's Role in a Social Assistance Reference Center: A Case of Violence and Child Sexual Abuse in Northeastern Brazil

Authors: G. Melo, J. Felix, S. Maciel, C. Fernandes, W. Rodrigues

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In Brazilian public policy, the Centres of Reference for Social Assistance (CRAS in Portuguese) are part of the Unified Social Assistance System (SUAS in Portuguese). SUAS is responsible for addressing spontaneous or currently active cases that are brought forth from other services in the social assistance network. The following case was reviewed by CRAS’s team in Recife, Brazil, after a complaint of child abuse was filed against the mother of a 7-year-old girl by the girl’s aunt. The girl is the daughter of an incestuous relationship between her mother and her older brother. The complaint was registered by service staff and five interventions were subsequently carried out on behalf of the child. These interventions provided a secure place for dialogue with both the child and her family and allowed for an investigation of the abuse to proceed. They took place in the child’s school as well as her aunt’s residence. At school, the child (with her classmates) watched a video and listened to a song about the prevention of child abuse. This was followed up with a second intervention to determine any signs of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), by having the child play with the mobile app ‘My Angela’. Books on the themes of family and fear were also read to the child on different occasions at her school – after every intervention she was asked to draw something related to fear and her concept of a family. After the interventions and discussing the case as a team, we reached several conclusions: 1) The child did not appear to show any symptoms of PTSD; 2) She normally fantasized about her future and life story; 3) She did not allow herself to be touched by strangers with whom she lacks a close relationship (such as classmates or her teacher); 4) Through her drawings, she reproduced the conversations she had had with the staff; 5) She habitually covered her drawings when asked questions about the abuse. In this particular clinical case, we want to highlight that the role of the Psychologist’s intervention at CRAS is to attempt to resolve the issue promptly (and not to develop a prolonged clinical study based on traditional methods), by making use of the available tools from the social assistance network, and by making referrals to the relevant authorities, such as the Public Ministry, so that final protective actions can be taken and enforced. In this case, the Guardian Council of the Brazilian Public Ministry was asked to transfer the custody of the child to her uncle. The mother of the child was sent to a CAPS (Centre for Psychosocial Care), having been diagnosed with psychopathology. The child would then participate in NGO programs that allow for a gradual reduction of social exposure to her mother before being transferred to her uncle’s custody in Sao Paulo.

Keywords: child abuse, intervention, social psychology, violence

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33 Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Hungarian Version of Self- Determination Scale

Authors: E. E. Marschalko, K. Kalcza-Janosi, I. Kotta, B. Bibok

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Cultural moderation aspects have been highlighted in the literature on self-determination behavior in some cultures, including in the Hungarian population. There is a lack of validated instruments in Hungarian for the assessment of self-determination related behaviors. In order to fill in this gap, the aim of this study was the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of Self Determination Scale (Sheldon, 1995) for the Hungarian population. A total of 4335 adults participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 27.97 (SD=9.60). The sample consisted mostly from females, less than 20% were males. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed for adequacy checking. Cronbach’s alpha was used to examine the reliability of the factors. Our results revealed that the Hungarian version of SDS has good psychometric properties and it is a reliable tool for psychologist who would like to study or assess self-determination in their clients. The final, adapted and validated SDS items are presented in this paper.

Keywords: self-determination scale, Hungarian, adaptation, validation, reliability

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32 Preliminary Results of Psychiatric Morbidity for Oncology Outpatients

Authors: Camille Plant, Katherine McGill, Pek Ang

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Oncology patients face a host of unique challenges, which are physical, psychological and philosophical in nature. This preliminary study aimed to explore the psychiatric morbidity of oncology patients in an outpatient setting at a major public hospital in Australia. The study found that 33 patients were referred to a Psychiatrist by a Clinical Psychologist or treating Oncologist. These patients attended an outpatient Psychiatry appointment at the Calvary Mater Hospital, Newcastle, over a 7 month period (June 2017-January 2018). Of these, 45% went on to have a follow-up appointment. The Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI) was used to gather symptom severity scores at baseline and at follow-up. The CGI is a clinician determined instrument that provides an assessment of global functioning. It is comprised of two companion one-item measures: the CGI-Severity (CGI-S) rates mental illness severity, and the CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) rates change in condition or improvement from initiation of treatment. Patients referred to a Psychiatrist were observed to be on average in the Markedly ill approaching Severely ill range (CGI-S average of 5.5). However, those patients who attended a follow-up appointment were on average only Moderately Ill at baseline (CGI-S average of 3.9). Despite these follow patients not being severely mentally ill initially, the contact was helpful, as their CGI-S scores improved on average to the Mildly Ill range (CGI-S average of 2.8). A Mixed ANOVA revealed that there was a significant improvement in mental illness severity post-follow-up appointment (Greenhouse-Geisser .000). There was a near even proportion of males and females attending appointments (58% female), and slightly more females attended a follow-up (60% female). Males were on average more mentally ill at baseline compared to females at baseline (male average M=3.86, female average M=3.56), and males had a greater reduction in mental illness severity on average compared to females (male average M=2.71, female average 3.00). This was approaching significance (.073) and would be important to explore with a larger sample size. Change in clinical condition for follow-up patients was also recorded. It was found that more than half of patients (53%) were observed to experience Minimal improvement in attending at least one follow-up appointment. There was no change for 27% of patients, and there were no patients who were worse at follow up. As this was a preliminary study with small sample size, future research conducted could explore whether there are any significant gender differences, such as whether males experience the significantly greater reduction in symptoms of mental illness compared to females, as well as any effects of cancer stage or type on psychiatric outcomes. Future research could also investigate outcomes for those patients who concurrently access a Clinical Psychologist alongside the Psychiatrist. A limitation of the study is that the outcome measure is a brief item rating completed by the clinician.

Keywords: clinical global impressions scale, psychiatry, morbidity, oncology, outcomes, psychiatry

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31 Enigmatic Identity and Alienated Self: Existential Analysis of Paul Auster's the Brooklyn Follies

Authors: Sapna Bhargav

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Contemporary fiction is an intricate exercise where novelist acquires the role of a philosopher, a sociologist and a psychologist. The dilemma of fragmented self that a man experiences, is a crucial subject of contemporary fiction. Paul Auster's fiction is exemplary of the merger of Existentialism and Postmodernism, and while both of these movements insist on isolation of the self from all aspects of social affiliation, Auster's unique blend of these concepts presents man in a state which is not just alienated, but stranded in a desolate abyss, rendering even the release of death as questionable. The conundrums of the self is a compulsory consequence of the existentialist alienation that postmodern man is subjected to, and is further accentuated by the fact that existentialist freedom dictates that not only are one's actions not dictated by any form of external entity, but also the onus of one's destiny lies on an individual's own deeds. This paper will analyse Auster's The Brooklyn Follies from an Existentialist perspective, and will attempt to trace the alienation and identity conflicts of the Auster’s characters along with some of the common Austerian themes. An emphasis will be laid on the characters’ endeavour to reconstruct their lost self.

Keywords: alienation, existentialism, identity, postmodernism, self

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30 Applying Bowen’s Theory to Intern Supervision

Authors: Jeff A. Tysinger, Dawn P. Tysinger

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The aim of this paper is to theoretically apply Bowen’s understanding of triangulation and triads to school psychology intern supervision so that it can assist in the conceptualization of the dynamics of intern supervision and provide some key methods to address common issues. The school psychology internship is the capstone experience for the school psychologist in training. It involves three key participants whose relationships will determine the success of the internship.  To understand the potential effect, Bowen’s family systems theory can be applied to the supervision relationship. He describes a way to resolve stress between two people by triangulating or binging in a third person. He applies this to a nuclear family, but school psychology intern supervision requires the marriage of an intern, field supervisor, and university supervisor; thus, setting all up for possible triangulation. The consequences of triangulation can apply to standards and requirements, direct supervision, and intern evaluation. Strategies from family systems theory to decrease the negative impact of supervision triangulation.

Keywords: family systems theory, intern supervision, school psychology training, triangulation

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29 The Impact of a Staff Well-Being Service for a Multi-Site Research Study

Authors: Ruth Elvish, Alex Turner, Jen Wells

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Over recent years there has been an increasing interest in the topic of well-being at work, and staff support is an area of continued growth. The present qualitative study explored the impact of a staff well-being service that was specifically attached to a five-year multi-site research programme (the Neighbourhoods and Dementia Study, funded by the ESRC/NIHR). The well-being service was led by a clinical psychologist, who offered 1:1 sessions for staff and co-researchers with dementia. To our knowledge, this service was the first of its kind. Methodology: Interviews were undertaken with staff who had used the service and who opted to take part in the study (n=7). Thematic analysis was used as the method of analysis. Findings: Themes included: triggers, mechanisms of change, impact/outcomes, and unique aspects of a dedicated staff well-being service. Conclusions: The study highlights stressors that are pertinent amongst staff within academic settings, and shows the ways in which a dedicated staff well-being service can impact on both professional and personal lives. Positive change was seen in work performance, self-esteem, relationships, and coping. This exploratory study suggests that this well-being service model should be further trialled and evaluated.

Keywords: academic, service, staff, support, well-being

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28 An Investigation into the Role of School Social Workers and Psychologists with Children Experiencing Special Educational Needs in Libya

Authors: Abdelbasit Gadour

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This study explores the function of schools’ psychosocial services within Libyan mainstream schools in relation to children’s special educational needs (SEN). This is with the aim to examine the role of school social workers and psychologists in the assessment procedure of children with special educational needs. A semi-structured interview was used in this study, with 21 professionals working in the schools’ psychosocial services, of whom thirteen were school social workers (SSWs) and eight were school psychologists (SPs). The results of the interviews with SSWs and SPs provided insights into how SEN children are identified, assessed, and dealt with by school professionals. It appears from the results that what constitutes a problem has not changed significantly, and the link between learning difficulties and behavioral difficulties is also evident from this study. Children with behavior difficulties are more likely to be referred to school psychosocial services than children with learning difficulties. Yet, it is not clear from the interviews with SSWs and SPs whether children are excluded merely because of their behavior problems. Instead, they would surely be expelled from the school if they failed academically. Furthermore, the interviews with SSWs and SPs yield a rather unusual source accountable for children’s SEN; school-related difficulties were a major factor in which almost all participants attributed children’s learning and behavior problems to teachers’ deficiencies, followed by school lack of resources.

Keywords: psychologist, school, social workers, special education

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27 A Review of Lortie’s Schoolteacher

Authors: Tsai-Hsiu Lin

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Dan C. Lortie’s Schoolteacher: A sociological study is one of the best works on the sociology of teaching since W. Waller’s classic study. It is a book worthy of review. Following the tradition of symbolic interactionists, Lortie demonstrated the qualities who studied the occupation of teaching. Using several methods to gather effective data, Lortie has portrayed the ethos of the teaching profession. Therefore, the work is an important book on the teaching profession and teacher culture. Though outstanding, Lortie’s work is also flawed in that his perspectives and methodology were adopted largely from symbolic interactionism. First, Lortie in his work analyzed many points regarding teacher culture; for example, he was interested in exploring “sentiment,” “cathexis,” and “ethos.” Thus, he was more a psychologist than a sociologist. Second, symbolic interactionism led him to discern the teacher culture from a micro view, thereby missing the structural aspects. For example, he did not fully discuss the issue of gender and he ignored the issue of race. Finally, following the qualitative sociological tradition, Lortie employed many qualitative methods to gather data but only foucused on obtaining and presenting interview data. Moreover, he used measurement methods that were too simplistic for analyzing quantitative data fully.

Keywords: education reform, teacher culture, teaching profession, Lortie’s Schoolteacher

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26 Nietzsche and Shakti: An Intercultural Analysis of Nietzsche's Experiment with the Eternal Feminine

Authors: Shruti Jain

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During its independence struggle in the early 20th century, India witnessed trends of politicisation of various spiritual paths, one of them being that of Shaktism. Interestingly, Nietzsche’s teachings were being interpreted as being essentially the worship of Shakti. The present paper aims at investigating this claim and hence undertakes an intercultural archaeological excavation in the realm of the Goddess archetypes that Nietzsche’s work invokes. Ariadne is placed next to Radha, Baubo to Lajja Gauri, Medusa to Chhinnamasta, Hecate to Kali and Dhumavati and Athena to Sarawati. Indeed, the Eternal Feminine plays a vital role in Nietzsche’s writings. One might recall that Nietzsche even declared himself to be the first Psychologist of the Eternal Feminine. The present paper aims to illustrate how, the matter of the Eternal Feminine, like all other matters, is subjected to Nietzsche’s basic creative principle of transvaluation of values and new meaning making. In order to achieve this, Nietzsche applies what Heidegger calls a 'cross-wise striking-through' technique in his analysis of what can be termed as his engagement with Shaktism. Hence, not only is the mystical ascent and descent of the creative energy (Kundalini Shakti) dealt with under erasure in Thus Spake Zarathustra, but coincidentally also the Three Metamorphoses emerge as an instance of such an erasure, making the Devi invisible and yet not so invisible for an Indian reader.

Keywords: eternal feminine, Nietzsche and India, Shaktism, transvaluation of values

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25 The Effectiveness of the Counselling Module in Counseling Interventions for Low Performance Employees

Authors: Hazaila Hassan

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This research aims and discusses about the effectiveness of the Psynnova i-Behaviour Modification Technique (iBMT) module towards the change in behaviour of low-performing employees. The purpose of the study is to examine the effectiveness of the Psynnova Module on changing behaviour through five factors among low-performing employees in the public sector. The five main factors/constructs were cognitive enhancement and rationality, emotional stability, attitude alignment and adjustment, social skills development and psycho-spirituality enhancement. In this research, 5 main constructs will be using to indicate behaviour changing performance of the employees after attending The Psynnova Program that using this Psynnova IBMT Module. The respondents are among those who have low scores in terms of annual performance through annual performance value reports and have gone through various stages before being required to attend Psynnova Program. Besides that, the research plan was also to critically examine and understand the change in behaviour among the low-performing employees through the five dimensions in the Psynnova Module. A total of 50 respondent will purposively sampled to be the respondents of this research. This study will use the Experimental Method to One Group Purposively Pre and Post Test using the Time Series Design. Experimental SPSS software version 22.0 will be used to analyse this data. Hopefully this research can see the changing of their behaviour in five factors as an indicator to the respondent after attending the Psynnova Programme. Findings from this study are also used to propose to assisting psychologist to see the changes that occurred to the respondents with the best framework of behaviour changing for them.

Keywords: five dimension of behaviour changing, among adult, low performance, modul effectiveness

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24 Protection of Human Rights in Polish Centres for Foreigners – in the Context of the European Human Rights System

Authors: Oktawia Braniewicz

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The phenomenon of emigration and migration increasingly affects Poland's borders as well. For this reason, it is necessary to examine the level of protection of Human Rights in Polish Centres for Foreigners. The field study covered 11 centers for Foreigners in the provinces Kujawsko-Pomorskie Region, Lubelskie Region, Lodzkie Region, Mazowieckie Region and Podlaskie Region. Photographic documentation of living and social conditions, conversations with center employees and refugees allow to show a comprehensive picture of the situation prevailing in Centres for Foreigners. The object of reflection will be, in particular, the standards resulting from art. 8 and 13 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and article 2 of Protocol No. 1 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The degree of realization of the right to education and the right to respect for family and private life will be shown. Issues related to learning the Polish language, access to a professional translator and psychological help will also be approximated. Learning Polish is not obligatory, which causes problems with assimilation and integration with other members of the new community. In centers for foreigners, there are no translators - a translator from an external company is rented if necessary. The waiting time for an interpreter makes the refugees feel anxious, unable to communicate with the employees of the centers (this is a situation in which the refugees do not know either English, Polish or Russian). Psychologist's help is available on designated days of the week. There is no separate specialist in child psychology, which is a serious problem.

Keywords: human rights, Polish centres, foreigners, fundamental freedoms

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23 Sport Motivation and the Control Center of Football Players of Iran

Authors: Khaidan Hatami, Mehran Nasiri

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The aim of following research was the analysis between sport motivation and control center of football players of Iran. All the players employed in Iran’s football league are included in the population of the research. So, 360 players, every level 120 players ( Youth, U-21 and adults ) playing in Guilan, Kurdistan and Kermanshah province having professional football league in first and second level league were randomly and selectively taken and included the population. The current research is of descriptive and solidarity types. Instruments of measurement are three personal questionnaires, sport motivation (SMS) of Politer and partners (1995), control center of Berger (1986) which their valid content were confirmed by experts in sport management field. The internal stability of questions were analyzed by Alfa Cronbach respectively for sport obligation questionnaire (0.82) and control center (0.86) to analysis and evaluate data, Kolmogrouf-Smirnov, Spearman Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis test, Whitney U, Freedman and T-Wilcoxon were used in a meaningful level (P ≤ 0/05). The results showed positive and meaningful relation between control center of football players in youth, U-21 and adults and sport motivation of football players. So, it can be concluded, people with internal control against those with external one have more internal sport motivation and follow the team goals with more mental power. So, it’s recommended to coaches to use sport psychologist in their teams to internalize the people’s needs by scientific method by taking the mental issues and the type of control in people on life events.

Keywords: sport motivation, control center, internal, external football players

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22 Productivity-Emotiveness Model of School Students’ Capacity Levels

Authors: Ivan Samokhin

Abstract:

A new two-factor model of school students’ capacity levels is proposed. It considers the academic productivity and emotional condition of children taking part in the study process. Each basic level reflects the correlation of these two factors. The teacher decides whether the required result is achieved or not and write down the grade (from 'A' to 'F') in the register. During the term, the teacher can estimate the students’ progress with any intervals, but it is not desirable to exceed a two-week period (with primary school being an exception). Each boy or girl should have a special notebook to record the emotions which they feel studying a subject. The children can make their notes the way they like it – for example, using a ten-point scale or a short verbal description. It is recommended to record the emotions twice a day: after the lesson and after doing the homework. Before the students start doing this, they should be instructed by a school psychologist, who has to emphasize that an attitude to the subject – not to a person in charge of it – is relevant. At the end of the term, the notebooks are given to the teacher, who is now able to make preliminary conclusions about academic results and psychological comfort of each student. If necessary, some pedagogical measures can be taken. The data about a supposed capacity level is available for the teacher and the school administration. In certain cases, this information can be also revealed to the student’s parents, while the student learns it only after receiving a school-leaving certificate (until this moment, the results are not considered ultimate). Then a person may take these data into consideration when choosing his/her future area of higher education. We single out four main capacity levels: 'nominally low', 'inclination', 'ability' and 'gift'.

Keywords: academic productivity, capacity level, emotional condition, school students

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21 The Analysis of the Stress Phenomenon among the Academic Teachers

Authors: Monika Szpringer, Mariola Wojciechowska, Robert Dutkiewicz, Grażyna Nowak-Starz, Marzena Olędzka

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The main aim of this article is to determine the phenomenon of stress among academic teachers as well as to identify the extent to which the teachers experience work-related psychological risks. It is also important to support academic teachers trade unions in scope of stress-oriented activities, including psychological dangers in the assessment of risk in the workplace (college). The authors used a method of a diagnostic survey with a polling as a technique and authors’ questionnaire as a tool. The survey was conducted between September and December of 2013 and it comprised 1890 academic teachers from five voivodeships. The study reveals that 84.0% of the respondents found the work of an academic teacher to be borne with a considerable stress. The percentage values of the most frequent causes of stress are as follows: frequent changes of both organisational and didactic matters as well as overwhelming bureaucracy (77.8 %), time pressure regarding professional development and related risk of losing job (68.2 %), difficult working conditions (45.4%), conflicts and rivalry between teachers (44.1%), excessive amount of duties as well as increasing requirements and demanding attitude of students (33.7%). Work-related stress affects or significantly affects the private life of 69 % and 66.4 % of the respondents respectively. The majority of the people surveyed deals with stress by undertaking various activities, with 40% pointing at using various substances, mostly cigarettes and alcohol (p > 0,05) Physical ailments were experienced by 81% of the respondents, in 9% they were rare and 8 % of the respondents had never experienced such disorders. The entire group of the surveyed people (100 %) claimed that they have no possibility of contacting a psychologist at their workplace (p > 0.05), and they stated that the need of contacting specialists does exist.

Keywords: stress, academic teachers, psychological risks, work-related

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20 The Effects of Pride Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem among Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Canapi Patricia Joy, Canlas Tracy Gabriella, Canseco Teresa, Capistrano Reena Marie, Carandang Vernon, Carbonel Khiara Claudine

Abstract:

Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: adolescents, PRIDE therapy, physically challenged, self-esteem

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19 Archetypes in the Rorschach Inkblots: Imparting Universal Meaning in the Face of Ambiguity

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

Abstract:

The theory of archetypes contends that themes based on universal foundational images reside in and are transmitted generationally through the collective unconscious, which is referenced throughout an individual’s experience in order to make sense of that experience. There is then, a profoundly visceral and instinctive agreement on the gestalt of these universal themes and how they apply to the human condition throughout space and time. The inherent nature of projective tests, such as the Rorschach Inkblot, necessitates that the stimulus is ambiguous and thus elicits responses that reflect the unconscious inner psyche of the respondent. As the development of the Rorschach inkblots was relatively random and serendipitous - i.e., the inkblots were not engineered to elicit a specifically defined response - it would stand to reason that without a collective unconscious, every individual would interpret the inkblots in an individualized and unique way. Yet this is not the case. Instead, common themes appear in the images of the inkblots and their interpretation that reflect this deeper iconic understanding. This study analyzed the ten Rorschach inkblots in terms of Jungian archetypes, both with respect to the form of images on each plate and the commonly observed themes in responses. Examples of the archetypes were compared to each of the inkblots, with subsequent descriptions matched to the standard responses. The findings yielded clear and distinct instances of the universal symbolism intrinsic in the inkblot images as well as ubiquitous throughout the responses. This project illustrates the influence of the theories of psychologist Carl Gustav Jung on the interpretation of the ambiguous stimuli. It further serves to demonstrate the merit of Jungian psychology as a valuable tool with which to understand the nature of projective tests in general, Rorschach’s work specifically, and ultimately the broader implications for our collective unconscious and common humanity.

Keywords: archetypes, inkblots, projective tests, Rorschach

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18 The Effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual's Self-Esteem (PRIDE) Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem of Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Khiara Claudine C. Carbonel, Patricia Joy A. Canapi, Tracy Gabriella M. Canlas, Teresa Zaine C. Canseco, Reena Marie A. Capistrano, Vernon A. Carandang, Carlo G. Ranoco

Abstract:

Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: PRIDE therapy, physically challenged adolescents, self-esteem, art therapy

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17 Qualitative Analysis of Current Child Custody Evaluation Practices

Authors: Carolyn J. Ortega, Stephen E. Berger

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The role of the custody evaluator is perhaps one of the most controversial and risky endeavors in clinical practice. Complaints filed with licensing boards regarding a child-custody evaluation constitute the second most common reason for such an event. Although the evaluator is expected to answer for the family-law court what is in the “best interest of the child,” there is a lack of clarity on how to establish this in any empirically validated manner. Hence, practitioners must contend with a nebulous framework in formulating their methodological procedures that inherently places them at risk in an already litigious context. This study sought to qualitatively investigate patterns of practice among doctoral practitioners conducting child custody evaluations in the area of Southern California. Ten psychologists were interviewed who devoted between 25 and 100% of their California private practice to custody work. All held Ph.D. degrees with a range of eight to 36 years of experience in custody work. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate assessment practices, ensure adherence to guidelines, risk management, and qualities of evaluators. Forty-three Specific Themes were identified using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Seven Higher Order Themes clustered on salient factors such as use of Ethics, Law, Guidelines; Parent Variables; Child Variables; Psychologist Variables; Testing; Literature; and Trends. Evaluators were aware of the ever-present reality of a licensure complaint and thus presented idiosyncratic descriptions of risk management considerations. Ambiguity about quantifying and validly tapping parenting abilities was also reviewed. Findings from this study suggested a high reliance on unstructured and observational methods in child custody practices.

Keywords: forensic psychology, psychological testing, assessment methodology, child custody

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16 Development of a Fuzzy Logic Based Model for Monitoring Child Pornography

Authors: Mariam Ismail, Kazeem Rufai, Jeremiah Balogun

Abstract:

A study was conducted to apply fuzzy logic to the development of a monitoring model for child pornography based on associated risk factors, which can be used by forensic experts or integrated into forensic systems for the early detection of child pornographic activities. A number of methods were adopted in the study, which includes an extensive review of related works was done in order to identify the factors that are associated with child pornography following which they were validated by an expert sex psychologist and guidance counselor, and relevant data was collected. Fuzzy membership functions were used to fuzzify the associated variables identified alongside the risk of the occurrence of child pornography based on the inference rules that were provided by the experts consulted, and the fuzzy logic expert system was simulated using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox available in the MATLAB Software Release 2016. The results of the study showed that there were 4 categories of risk factors required for assessing the risk of a suspect committing child pornography offenses. The results of the study showed that 2 and 3 triangular membership functions were used to formulate the risk factors based on the 2 and 3 number of labels assigned, respectively. The results of the study showed that 5 fuzzy logic models were formulated such that the first 4 was used to assess the impact of each category on child pornography while the last one takes the 4 outputs from the 4 fuzzy logic models as inputs required for assessing the risk of child pornography. The following conclusion was made; there were factors that were related to personal traits, social traits, history of child pornography crimes, and self-regulatory deficiency traits by the suspects required for the assessment of the risk of child pornography crimes committed by a suspect. Using the values of the identified risk factors selected for this study, the risk of child pornography can be easily assessed from their values in order to determine the likelihood of a suspect perpetuating the crime.

Keywords: fuzzy, membership functions, pornography, risk factors

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15 Impact of Stress on Physical-Mental Wellbeing of Working Women in India: Awareness and Acceptability

Authors: Meera Shanker

Abstract:

Excellent education and financial need have encouraged Indian women to go out and work in well-paid and high-status occupations. In the era of cutthroat competition, women are expected to work hard to produce the desired result; hence, workload and expectations haveincreased. At home, they are anticipated to take care of family members, children, and household work. Women are stretching themselves mechanically to remain in the job competition and try to give their best at home. Consequentially, they are under tremendous pressure, stressed, and having issues related to physical-mental wellness. Mental healthcare is often ignored and not accepted due to a lack of awareness and cultural barriers. These further compounds the problem, resulting in decreased productivity in economic terms and an increase in stress-related physical-mental ailments. The main objective of the study was to find out the impact of stress on the physical-mental wellbeing of working women in India, along with their awareness and acceptability related to mental health. Six hundred and one woman working at various levels took part in this study, responding to the items related to stress and physical-mental illness. Finally, 21 items were retained under four meaningful factors measuring stress dimensions along with 17 items with three factors measuring physical-mental wellbeing. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), path analysis, in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), was used to get a relationship, validity of the instruments. The psychometric properties of items and Cronbach’s Alpha reliabilities calculated for the subscales were relatively acceptable. The subscale correlations, regression, and path analysis of stress dimensions with physical-mental illness were found to be positive, indicating the growing stress among working women in India, which is impacting their physical-mental health. Single item analysis revealed that 77 percent of women have never visited psychologists. However, 70 percent of working women were not ready to seek the help of a psychologist.

Keywords: working women, stress, physical-mental well-being, confirmatory factor analysis

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14 Transcendence, Spirituality and Well-Being: A Cognitive-Theological Perspective

Authors: Monir Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper aims at discussing transcendence, spirituality, and well-being in light of the psychology of religion and spirituality. The main purpose of this paper is i) to demonstrate the importance of cognitive psychological process (thoughts, faith, and beliefs) and the doctrine of creation (‘creatio ex nihilo’) in transcendence, spirituality, and well-being; ii) to discuss the relationships among transcendence, spirituality, and well-being. Psychological studies of spiritual and religious phenomena have been advanced in the decade, mainly to understand how faith, spiritual and religious rituals influence or contribute to well-being. Psychologists of religion and spirituality have put forward methods, tools, and approaches necessary for promoting well-being. For instance, Kenneth I. Pargament, an American psychologist of religion and spirituality, developed spiritually integrated psychotherapy for clinical practice in dealing with the spiritual and religious issues affecting well-being. However, not much progress has been made in understanding the ability of transcendence and how such ability influences spirituality and religion as well as well-being. A possible reason could be that well-being has only been understood in a spiritual and religious context. It appears that transcendence, the core element of spirituality and religion, has not been explored adequately for well-being. In other words, the approaches that have been used so far for spirituality, religion, and well-being lack an integrated approach combining theology and psychology. The author of this paper proposes that cognitive-theological understanding involving faith and belief about the creation and the creator, the transcendent God is likely to offer a comprehensive understanding of transcendence as well as spirituality, religion, and their relationships with well-being. The importance of transcendence and the integration of psychology and theology can advance our knowledge of transcendence, spirituality, and well-being. It is inevitable that the creation is contingent and that the ultimate origin, source of the contingent physical reality, is a non-contingent being, the divine creator. As such, it is not unreasonable for many individuals to believe that the source of existence of non-contingent being, although undiscoverable in physical reality but transcendentally exists. ‘Creatio ex nihilo’ is the most fundamental doctrine in the Abrahamic faiths, i.e., Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and is widely accepted scriptural and philosophical background about the creation, creator, the divine that God created the universe out of nothing. Therefore, it is crucial to integrate theology, i.e., ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine and psychology for a comprehensive understanding of transcendence, spirituality and their relationships with well-being.

Keywords: transcendence, spirituality, well-being, ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine

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13 Communication Barriers and Challenges for Accessing Autism Care: Conventional Versus Alternative Medicine

Authors: M. D. Antoine

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Despite the widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for autistic children, little is known about the communication flow between the different parties involved in autism care (e.g., parents/caregivers, conventional providers, alternative practitioners). This study aimed to describe how communication occurs through the first year following an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis to identify challenges and potential barriers to communication within the healthcare system in Ottawa, Canada. From an ecological perspective, we collected qualitative data through 12 semi-structured interviews with six parents/caregivers, three conventional providers (e.g., family doctor, neurodevelopmental pediatrician, psychologist), and three alternative practitioners (e.g., naturopath, occupational therapist, speech and language pathologist) operating in Ottawa. We interpreted the data using thematic analysis. Findings revealed communication challenges between the parents/caregivers and conventional providers while they experience better communication flow with fewer challenges in alternative care settings. However, parents/caregivers are the only links between the health professionals of both streams. From the five contexts examined: organizational, interpersonal, media, cultural, and political-legal, we found four themes (provider knowledge, care integration, flexible care, and time constraints) underlining specific barriers to communication flow between the parties involved in the care of autistic children. The increasing interest in alternative medicine is forcing changes in the healthcare system. Communications occur outside the norms making openings for better communication and information-sharing increasingly essential. Within the identified themes in the current study, the necessity for better communication between all parties involved in the care of autistic children is evident. More ASD and CAM-related training for providers would support effective parent/caregiver-provider communication. The findings of the current study contribute to a better understanding of the role of communication in the care management of autism, which has implications for effective autism care.

Keywords: alternative medicine, autism care management, autism spectrum disorder, conventional medicine, parent-provider communication

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