Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4906

Search results for: students’ beliefs

4906 Subjective Well-being, Beliefs, and Lifestyles of First Year University Students in the UK

Authors: Kaili C. Zhang

Abstract:

Mental well-being is an integral part of university students’ overall well-being and has been a matter of increasing concern in the UK. This study addressed the impact of university experience on students by investigating the changes students experience in their beliefs, lifestyles, and well-being during their first year of study, as well as the factors contributing to such changes. Using a longitudinal two-wave mixed method design, this project identified importantfactors that contribute to or inhibit these changes. Implications for universities across the UK are discussed.

Keywords: subjective well-being, beliefs, lifestyles, university students

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
4905 Irbid National University Students’ Beliefs about English Language Learning

Authors: Khaleel Bader Bataineh

Abstract:

Past studies have maintained that the Arab learners' beliefs about language learning hold vital effects on their performance. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the language learning beliefs of Irbid National University students. It aimed at identifying the language learning beliefs according to gender. This study is a descriptive design that employed survey questionnaire of Language Learning Beliefs Inventory (BALLI). The data were elicited from 83 English major students during the class sessions. The data were analyzed using an SPSS program in which frequency analysis and t-test were performed to examine the students’ responses. Thus, the major findings of this research indicated that there is a variation in responses with regards to the subjects’ beliefs about English learning. Also, the findings show significant differences in four questionnaire items according to gender. It is hoped that the findings provide valuable insights to educators about the learners’ beliefs which assist them to develop the teaching and learning English language process in Jordan universities.

Keywords: foreign language, students’ beliefs, language learning, Arab students

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
4904 Inequalities in Higher Education and Students’ Perceptions of Factors Influencing Academic Performance

Authors: Violetta Parutis

Abstract:

This qualitative study aims to answer the following research questions: i) What are the factors that students perceive as relevant to a) promoting and b) preventing good grades? ii) How does socio-economic status (SES) feature in those beliefs? We conducted in-depth interviews with 19 first- and second-year undergraduates of varying SES at a research-intensive university in the UK. The interviews yielded eight factors that students perceived as promoting and six perceived as preventing good grades. The findings suggested one significant difference between the beliefs of low and high SES students in that low SES students perceive themselves to be at a greater disadvantage to their peers while high SES students do not have such beliefs. This could have knock-on effects on their performance.

Keywords: social class, education, academic performance, students’ beliefs

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
4903 Iranian Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Mehrnoush Tajnia, Simin Sadeghi-Saeb

Abstract:

Students and teachers have different perceptions of effectiveness of instruction. Comparing students’ and teachers’ beliefs and finding the mismatches between them can increase L2 students’ satisfaction. Few studies have taken into account the beliefs of both students and teachers on different aspects of pedagogy and the effect of learners’ level of education and contexts on effective foreign language teacher practices. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare students’ and teachers’ perceptions on effective foreign language teaching. A sample of 303 learners and 54 instructors from different private language institutes and universities participated in the study. A questionnaire was developed to elicit participants’ beliefs on effective foreign language teaching and learning. The analysis of the results revealed that: a) there is significant difference between the students’ beliefs about effective teacher practices and teachers’ belief, b) Class level influences students’ perception of effective foreign language teacher, d) There is a significant difference of opinion between those learners who study foreign languages at university and those who study foreign language in private institutes with respect to effective teacher practices. The present paper concludes that finding the gap between students’ and teachers’ beliefs would help both of the groups to enhance their learning and teaching.

Keywords: effective teacher, effective teaching, students’ beliefs, teachers’ beliefs

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
4902 Mathematical Beliefs, Attitudes, and Performance of Freshman College Students

Authors: Johna Bernice Ablaza, Bryan Lim Corpuz, Joanna Marie Estrada, Mary Ann Cristine Olgado, Rhina Recato

Abstract:

This study aimed to describe the mathematical beliefs and attitudes in relation to the mathematics performance of freshman college students. The descriptive design using the correlational study was used to describe the relationship among mathematical beliefs, attitudes, and performance of freshman college students. This study involved one hundred fifty (150) freshman college students of Philippine Normal University during the third trimester of school year 2015-2016. The research instruments used to gather the information needed in the study are the beliefs about Mathematics Questionnaire, the KIM-Project Questionnaire, and the ACT Compass Mathematics Test. The data gathered were analyzed using the percentages, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson r-moment correlation. The results of this study have shown that although students believe that Mathematics is significant in their lives, the overall result on their beliefs and attitudes are positively low. There is a significant relationship between the students’ mathematical beliefs and mathematics performance. Likewise, their attitudes in mathematics have significant relationship to mathematics performance.

Keywords: attitudes, diligence, interest, mathematical beliefs, mathematical performance, self-confidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
4901 Drawings Reveal Beliefs of Japanese University Students

Authors: Sakae Suzuki

Abstract:

Although Japanese students study English for six years in secondary schools, they demonstrate little success with it when they enter higher education. Learners’ beliefs can predict the future behavior of students, so it may be effective to investigate how learners’ beliefs limit their success and how beliefs might be nudged in a positive direction. While many researchers still depend on a questionnaire called BALLI to reveal explicit beliefs, alternative approaches, especially those designed to reveal implicit beliefs, might be helpful for promoting learning. The present study seeks to identify beliefs with a discursive approach using visual metaphors and narratives. Employing a sociocultural framework, this study investigates how students’ beliefs are revealed by drawings of themselves and their surrounding environments and artifacts while they are engaged in language learning. Research questions are: (1) Can we identify beliefs through an analysis of students’ visual narratives? (2) What environments and artifacts can be found in students’ drawings, and what do they mean? (3) To what extent do students see language learning as a solitary, rather than a social, activity? Participants are university students majoring in science and technology in Japan. The questionnaire was administered to 70 entering students in April, 2014. Data included students drawings of themselves as learners of English as well as written descriptions of students’ backgrounds, English-learning experiences, and analogies and metaphors that they used in written descriptions of themselves as learners. Data will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Anticipated results include students’ perceptions of themselves as language learners, including their sense of agency, awareness of artifacts, and social contexts of language learning. Comments will be made on implications for teaching, as well as the use of visual narratives as research tools, and recommended further research.

Keywords: drawings, learners' beliefs, metaphors, BALLI

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
4900 Relationship Between Family Factors and Tendency to Addiction

Authors: Farzaneh Golshekoh

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to addiction in high school female students in Ahwaz. The sample consisted of 250 students who were selected by cluster random sampling from among all high school female students in Ahvaz. Measuring tools were Iranian tendency towards addiction (IAPS), responsibility California Psychological Inventory (CPI), emotional family atmosphere (AFC) and religious beliefs. The simple correlation coefficient at α=0/05 showed that there is a significant negative relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to abuse female students. The regression analysis showed that the variables of the emotional atmosphere of the family and religious beliefs as predictors of female students have a tendency to addiction.

Keywords: emotional atmosphere, family responsibility, religious beliefs, tendency to addiction

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
4899 Understanding Primary School Students’ Beliefs Regarding the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviors

Authors: Astrid de Leeuw, Pierre Valois

Abstract:

Environmental education is the key to enhancing or changing students’ ways of thinking and acting in order to create an environmentally robust future for all. The present study investigates the beliefs of 812 primary school students, which merit consideration when developing educational interventions. Results of multiple regression analyses reveal that educational interventions should focus on promoting students’ feelings of control over pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). For example, schools could provide recycling bins on the premises. Furthermore, it is critical to develop positive attitudes in students by stressing the various benefits of PEB for keeping our planet clean and protecting wildlife. Unfortunately, our results indicate that students believe that PEB is boring and annoying. Suggestions are offered for making PEB more interesting and relevant. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness of interventions based on the present results.

Keywords: pro-environmental behavior, primary school students, theory of planned behavior, beliefs, educational interventions

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
4898 Digital Dialogue Game, Epistemic Beliefs, Argumentation and Learning

Authors: Omid Noroozi, Martin Mulder

Abstract:

The motivational potential of educational games is undeniable especially for teaching topics and skills that are difficult to deal with in traditional educational situations such as argumentation competence. Willingness to argue has an association with student epistemic beliefs, which can influence whether, and the way in which students engage in argumentative discourse activities and critical discussion. The goal of this study was to explore how undergraduate students engage with argumentative discourse activities which have been designed to intensify debate, and whether epistemic beliefs are significant to the outcomes. A pre-test, post-test design was used with students who were assigned to groups of four. They were asked to argue a controversial topic with the aim of exploring various perspectives, and the 'pros and cons' on the topic of 'Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)'. The results show that the game facilitated argumentative discourse and a willingness to argue and challenged peers, regardless of students’ epistemic beliefs. Furthermore, the game was evaluated positively in terms of students’ motivation and satisfaction with the learning experience.

Keywords: argumentation, attitudinal change, epistemic beliefs, dialogue, digital game objectives and theoretical

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
4897 Effectiveness of Metacognitive Therapy in Metacognitive Beliefs, Anxiety and Social Phobia of Male High School Students

Authors: Saba Hasanvandi, Molok Khademi Ashkezari, Niloofar Esmaieli

Abstract:

The research purpose was to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive therapy in metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and social phobia of male students studying in the high schools of Dargaz City. The sample comprised 30 students who were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and control groups. The kind of this study was experimental study with pre-ops and follow-up stages. Subjects filled out metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and social phobia questionnaires. The experimental group underwent 10 sessions of therapeutic metacognitive sessions. The group therapy was conducted for ten, weekly, 90-minute sessions. Mankova analysis was utilized to analyze the data. Results revealed that metacognitive group therapy decreased metacognitive beliefs (P=0.007), anxiety (P<0.001) and social phobia (P=<0.017) in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the effectiveness of group metacognitive therapy was stable and consistent after one month of time interval. The results of present study can be effective for mental health professional in reaching a better understanding of anxiety and social phobia.

Keywords: group metacognitive therapy, metacognitive beliefs, anxiety, social phobia, high school students

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
4896 Religious Beliefs and Their Effects on the Use of Contraceptives in Female College Students

Authors: Amy Kless, Peter Reuter

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the teachings of religious doctrine on the use of contraceptives and its influence on the behavior of female college students. The religious doctrine of both Christian and non-Christian religions states that sexual intercourse shall only take place between people that are married. Additionally, the teachings of most Christian and non-Christian religions prohibit the use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse. Being away from home for the first time, students that grew up in religious households may stop attending church services or stop practicing religion entirety. The college years are also a time for sexual exploration. The desire for sexual exploration leaves many students, both religious and non-religious, with having to choose between abstaining from sexual intercourse or using a form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. Of 1,130 female students anonymously surveyed at a southern university between Spring 2016 and Fall 2020, 50% reported having religious beliefs. Less than 50% of the students who reported having religious beliefs attend church services on a regular basis. Nearly 75% of the same students reported having participated in sexual intercourse with close to 60% utilizing some form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. The data suggest that female college students do not follow religious teachings on abstinence from premarital sex or the ban on the use of contraceptives.

Keywords: contraceptives, females, intercourse, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
4895 An Investigation Of Student Beliefs About Gender, Race and Ethnicity, Disability, And Intersectionality

Authors: Naomi Yukimaru, Fiona Creaser

Abstract:

This paper is an investigation into student beliefs about gender, race and ethnicity, disability, and intersectionality. The authors of this paper are involved in a project called ‘Unity in Diversity,’ which aim is to introduce a bilingual (Japanese/English) workshop style course about diversity and inclusion into the curriculum of the Faculty of Foreign Studies at the University of Kitakyushu. The research is currently being funded by the President’s Special Research Fund (2020-2021) and brings together the research fields of education, gender, and diversity and covers the topics of gender, race and ethnicity, and disability. The course is accompanied by an interactive workbook which allows for student’s self-reflection on the topics covered in the workshops. A pilot course is being run in the 2nd semester of 2021, with a control group of fifteen students from the faculty of Foreign Studies. At the beginning of the course, students will be asked a series of questions about gender, race and ethnicity, disability, and intersectionality; next, students will be asked to keep a reflective journal of their beliefs during the course, finally, at the end of the pilot course, students will once again be asked a series of questions about their beliefs. It is hoped that throughout the course, students’ beliefs about gender, race and ethnicity, disability, and intersectionality will change, and student awareness of diversity will increase. In preparation for the pilot course, the authors have invited several guest speakers to talk about gender, race, and ethnicity, and disability and have elicited feedback from students about these topics. In addition to this, a trial class was conducted in January 2021 to students from the authors’ seminars about gender, specifically about the LGBTQ+ community, and feedback was also elicited with positive results. The authors intend to use the results of the pilot course to establish 1) a new accredited workshop based, bilingual (Japanese/ English) course in the Faculty of Foreign Studies 2) a university wide diversity training program for students. Both initiatives complement the University’s own endeavours in creating a more diverse university campus based on principle two of the Sustainable Development Goals of ‘leave no-one behind.’

Keywords: gender, disability, nationality, intersectionality

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
4894 The Metacognition Levels of Students: A Research School of Physical Education and Sports at Anadolu University

Authors: Dilek Yalız Solmaz

Abstract:

Meta-cognition is an important factor for educating conscious individuals who are aware of their cognitive processes. With this respect, the purposes of this article is to find out the perceived metacognition level of Physical Education and Sports School students at Anadolu University and to identify whether metacognition levels display significant differences in terms of various variables. 416 Anadolu University Physical Education and Sports School students were formed the research universe. "The Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30)" developed by Cartwright-Hatton and Wells and later developed the 30-item short form (MCQ-30) was used. The MCQ-30 which was adapted into Turkish by Tosun and Irak is a four-point agreement scale. In the data analysis, arithmethic mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA were used. There is no statistical difference between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger, cognitive awareness, cognitive confidence and the positive beliefs of girls and boys students. There is a statistical difference between mean scores of the need to control thinking. There is no statistical difference according to departments of students between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger, cognitive awareness, cognitive confidence, need to control thinking and the positive beliefs. There is no statistical difference according to grade level of students between mean scores of the positive beliefs, cognitive confidence and need to control thinking. There is a statistical difference between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger and cognitive awareness.

Keywords: meta cognition, physical education, sports school students, thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
4893 Decision-Making, Student Empathy, and Cold War Historical Events: A Case Study of Abstract Thinking through Content-Centered Learning

Authors: Jeffrey M. Byford

Abstract:

The conceptualized theory of decision making on historical events often does not conform to uniform beliefs among students. When presented the opportunity, many students have differing opinions and rationales associated with historical events and outcomes. The intent of this paper was to provide students with the economic, social and political dilemmas associated with the autonomy of East Berlin. Students ranked seven possible actions from the most to least acceptable. In addition, students were required to provide both positive and negative factors for each decision and relative ranking. Results from this activity suggested that while most students chose a financial action towards West Berlin, some students had trouble justifying their actions.

Keywords: content-centered learning, cold war, Berlin, decision-making

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
4892 Q-Test of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thought: Development and Testing of an Assessment of Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The QUEST is an assessment of scientific epistemic beliefs and was developed to measure students’ intellectual development in regards to beliefs about knowledge and knowing. The QUEST utilizes Q-sort methodology, which requires participants to rate the degree to which statements describe them personally. As a measure of personal theories of knowledge, the QUEST instrument is described with the Q-sort distribution and scoring explained. A preliminary demonstration of the QUEST assessment is described with two samples of undergraduate students (novice/lower division compared to advanced/upper division students) being assessed and their average QUEST scores compared. The usefulness of an assessment of epistemology is discussed in terms of the principle that assessment tends to drive educational practice and university mission. The critical need for university and academic programs to focus on development of students’ scientific epistemology is briefly discussed.

Keywords: scientific epistemology, critical thinking, Q-sort method, STEM undergraduates

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
4891 L2 Exposure Environment, Teaching Skills, and Beliefs about Learners’ Out-of-Class Learning: A Survey on Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

Authors: Susilo Susilo

Abstract:

In the process of foreign language acquisition, L2 exposure has been evidently assumed efficient for learners to help increase their proficiency. However, to get enough L2 exposure in the context of learning English as a foreign language is not as easy as that of the first language learning context. Therefore, beyond the classroom L2 exposure is helpful for EFL learners to achieve the language tasks. Alongside the rapid development of technology and media, English as a foreign language is virtually used in the social media of almost all regions, affecting the faces of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). This different face of TEFL unavoidably intrigues teachers to treat their students differently in the classroom in order that they can put more effort in maximizing beyond-the-class learning to help improve their in-class achievements. The study aims to investigate: 1) EFL teachers’ teaching skills and beliefs about students’ out-of-class activities in different L2 exposure environments, and 2) the effect on EFL teachers’ teaching skills and beliefs about students’ out-of-class activities of different L2 exposure environments. This is a survey for 80 EFL teachers from Senior High Schools in three regions of two provinces in Indonesia. A questionnaire using a four-point Likert scale was distributed to the respondents to elicit data. The questionnaires were developed by reffering to the constructs of teaching skills (i.e. teaching preparation, teaching action, and teaching evaluation) and beliefs about out-of-class learning (i.e. setting, process and atmosphere), which have been taken from some expert definitions. The internal consistencies for those constructs were examined by using Cronbach Alpha. The data of the study were analyzed by using SPSS program, i.e. descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test. The standard for determining the significance was p < .05. The results revealed that: 1) teaching skills performed by the teachers of English as a foreign language in different exposure environments showed various focus of teaching skills, 2) the teachers showed various ways of beliefs about students’ out-of-class activities in different exposure environments, 3) there was a significant difference in the scores for NNESTs’ teaching skills in urban regions (M=34.5500, SD=4.24838) and those in rural schools (M=24.9500, SD=2.42794) conditions; t (78)=12.408, p = 0.000; and 4) there was a significant difference in the scores for NNESTs’ beliefs about students’ out-of-class activities in urban schools (M=36.9250, SD=6.17434) and those in rural regions (M=29.4250, SD=4.56793) conditions; t (78)=6.176, p = 0.000. These results suggest that different L2 exposure environments really do have effects on teachers’ teaching skills and beliefs about their students’ out-of-class learning.

Keywords: belief about EFL out-of-class learning, L2 exposure environment, teachers of English as a foreign language, teaching skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
4890 Teachers’ Personal and Professional Characteristics: How They Relate to Teacher-Student Relationships and Students’ Behavior

Authors: Maria Poulou

Abstract:

The study investigated how teachers’ self-rated Emotional Intelligence (EI), competence in implementing Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) skills and teaching efficacy relate to teacher-student relationships and students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties. Participants were 98 elementary teachers from public schools in central Greece. They completed the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale (SREIS), the Teacher SEL Beliefs Scale, the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), the Student-Teacher Relationships Scale-Short Form (STRS-SF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for 617 of their students, aged 6-11 years old. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an exploratory model of the variables. It was demonstrated that teachers’ emotional intelligence, SEL beliefs and teaching efficacy were significantly related to teacher-student relationships, but they were not related to students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties. Rather, teachers’ perceptions of teacher-students relationships were significantly related to these difficulties. These findings and their implications for research and practice are discussed.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, social and emotional learning, teacher-student relationships, teaching efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
4889 How Unpleasant Emotions, Morals and Normative Beliefs of Severity Relate to Cyberbullying Intentions

Authors: Paula C. Ferreira, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Nádia Pereira, Aristides Ferreira, Alexandra Marques Pinto, Alexandra Barros, Vitor Martinho

Abstract:

Cyberbullying is a phenomenon of worldwide concern regarding children and adolescents’ mental health and risk behavior. Bystanders of this phenomenon can help diminish the incidence of this phenomenon if they engage in pro-social behavior. However, different social-cognitive and affective bystander reactions may surface because of the lack of contextual information and emotional cues in cyberbullying situations. Hence, this study investigated how cyberbullying bystanders’ unpleasant emotions could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions to cyberbully or defend the victim. It also proposed to investigate how their normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions. Three groups of adolescents participated in this study, namely a first of group 402 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.12; SD = 2.19; 55.7% girls) to compute explorative factorial analyses of the instruments used; a second group of 676 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 14.10; SD = 2.74; 55.5% were boys) to run confirmatory factor analyses; and a third group (N = 397; 5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.88 years; SD = 1.45; 55.5% girls) to perform the main analyses to test the research hypotheses. Self-report measures were used, such as the Personal moral beliefs about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Unpleasant emotions about cyberbullying incidents questionnaires, and the Bystanders’ behavioral intentions in cyberbullying situations questionnaires. Path analysis results revealed that unpleasant emotions were mediators of the relationship between adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ personal moral beliefs and their intentions to help the victims in cyberbullying situations. Moreover, adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ normative beliefs of gravity were mediators of the relationship between their personal moral beliefs and their intentions to cyberbully others. These findings provide insights for the development of prevention and intervention programs that promote social and emotional learning strategies as a means to prevent and intervene in cyberbullying.

Keywords: cyberbullying, normative beliefs of perceived severity, personal moral beliefs, unpleasant emotions

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
4888 Storytelling as a Pedagogical Tool to Learn English Language in Higher Education: Using Reflection and Experience to Improve Learning

Authors: Barzan Hadi Hama Karim

Abstract:

The purpose of this research study is to determine how educators, students at the university level are using storytelling to support the educational process. This study provides a general framework about educational uses of storytelling as a pedagogical too to learn English language in the higher education and describes the different perceptions of people (teachers and students) at different levels. A survey is used to collect responses from a group of educators and students in educational settings to determine how they are using storytelling for educational purposes. The results show the current situation of educational uses of storytelling and explore some of the benefits and challenges educators face in implementing storytelling in their institutions. The purpose of our research is to investigate the impact of storytelling as a pedagogical tool to learn English language in higher education and its academic achievements on ESL students. It highlights findings that address the following questions: (1) How has storytelling been approached historically? (2) Is storytelling beneficial for students in early grades at university? (3) To what extent do teacher and student prefer storytelling as a pedagogical tool to teach and learn English language in higher education?

Keywords: storytelling, teacher's beliefs, student’s beliefs, student’s academic achievement, narrative, pedagogy, ESL

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
4887 Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Designing Negotiated English Lesson Plans

Authors: Joko Nurkamto

Abstract:

A lesson plan is a part of the planning phase in a learning and teaching system framing the scenario of pedagogical activities in the classroom. It informs a decision on what to teach and how to landscape classroom interaction. Regardless of these benefits, the writer has witnessed the fact that lesson plans are viewed merely as a teaching document. Therefore, this paper will explore teachers’ beliefs and practices in designing lesson plans. It focuses primarily on how both teachers and students negotiate lesson plans in which the students are deemed to be the agents of instructional innovations. Additionally, the paper will talk about how such lesson plans are enacted. To investigate these issues, document analysis, in-depth interviews, participant classroom observation, and focus group discussion will be deployed as data collection methods in this explorative case study. The benefits of the paper are to show different roles of lesson plans and to discover different ways to design and enact such plans from a socio-interactional perspective.

Keywords: instructional innovation, learning and teaching system, lesson plan, pedagogical activities, teachers' beliefs and practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
4886 The Relationship between Romantic Relationship Beliefs and Ego Identity Process

Authors: Betül Demirbağ, Nesrin Demir

Abstract:

As a developmental period, early adulthood has a vital role in romantic relationships in young adult's life. lt's known that in this period, satisfaction of individual needs such as affiliation is essential for well-functioning and to be succeeded in sequent developmental task. Romantic relationships have an expected association with attachment style. But it's needed to get more information about indicators of romantic relationships in different cultural backgrounds. in this research it's aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between romantic relationship beliefs and Ego identity status and also other possible indicators such as gender, age, socioeconomic status. Participants were undergraduate students training in various programs in Education Faculty in Adiyaman University. As data collection tool, Romantic Relationship Beliefs scale and Ego Identity Process Questionnaire which was adapted into Turkish were used. Results were discussed in the relevant literature.

Keywords: ego identity, romantic relationships, university counseling

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
4885 The Impact of Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognition on Their Use of Inquiry Based Teaching Approaches

Authors: Irfan Ahmed Rind

Abstract:

Science education has recently become the top priority of government of Pakistan. Number of schemes has been initiated for the improvement of science teaching and learning at primary and secondary levels of education, most importantly training in-service science teachers on inquiry based teaching and learning to empower students and encourage creativity, critical thinking, and innovation among them. Therefore, this approach has been promoted in the recent continuous professional development trainings for the in-service teachers. However, the follow ups on trained science teachers and educators suggest that these teachers fail to implement the inquiry based teaching and learning in their classes. In addition, these trainings also fail to bring any significant change in students’ science content knowledge and understanding as per the annual national level surveys conducted by government and independent agencies. Research suggests that science has been taught using scientific positivism, which supports objectivity based on experiments and mathematics. In contrary, the inquiry based teaching and learning are based on constructivism, which conflicts with the positivist epistemology of science teachers. It was, therefore, assumed that science teachers struggle to implement the inquiry based teaching approach as it conflicts with their basic epistemological beliefs. With this assumption, this research aimed to (i) understand how science teachers conceptualize the nature of science, and how this influence their understanding of learning, learners, their own roles as teachers and their teaching strategies, (ii) identify the conflict of science teachers’ epistemological beliefs with the inquiry based teaching approach, and (iii) find the ways in which science teachers epistemological beliefs may be developed from positivism to constructivism, so that they may effectively use the inquiry based teaching approach in teaching science. Using qualitative case study approach, thirty six secondary and higher secondary science teachers (21 male and 15 female) were selected. Data was collected using interviewed, participatory observations (sixty lessons were observed), and twenty interviews from students for verifications of teachers’ responses. The findings suggest that most of the science teacher were positivist in defining the nature of science. Most of them limit themselves to one fix answer that is provided in the books and that there is only one 'right' way to teach science. There is no room for students’ or teachers’ own opinion or bias when it comes to scientific concepts. Inquiry based teaching seems 'no right' to them. They find it difficult to allow students to think out of the box. However, some interesting exercises were found to be very effective in bringing the change in teachers’ epistemological beliefs. These will be discussed in detail in the paper. The findings have major implications for the teachers, educators, and policymakers.

Keywords: science teachers, epistemology, metacognition, inquiry based teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
4884 The Influence of Interest, Beliefs, and Identity with Mathematics on Achievement

Authors: Asma Alzahrani, Elizabeth Stojanovski

Abstract:

This study investigated factors that influence mathematics achievement based on a sample of ninth-grade students (N  =  21,444) from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS09). Key aspects studied included efficacy in mathematics, interest and enjoyment of mathematics, identity with mathematics and future utility beliefs and how these influence mathematics achievement. The predictability of mathematics achievement based on these factors was assessed using correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression. Spearman rank correlations and multiple regression analyses indicated positive and statistically significant relationships between the explanatory variables: mathematics efficacy, identity with mathematics, interest in and future utility beliefs with the response variable, achievement in mathematics.

Keywords: Mathematics achievement, math efficacy, mathematics interest, factors influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
4883 Students' Perspectives about Humor and the Process of Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

Authors: Samuel Marínez González

Abstract:

In the last decades, the studies about humor have been increasing significantly in all areas. In the field of education and, specially, in the second language teaching, most research has concentrated on the beneficial effects that the introduction of humor in the process of teaching and learning a foreign language, as well as its impact on teachers and students. In the following research, we will try to know the learners’ perspectives about humor and its use in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classes. In order to do this, a different range of students from the Spanish courses at the University of Cape Town will participate in a survey that will reveal their beliefs about the frequency of humor in their daily lives and their Spanish lessons, their reactions to humorous situations, and the main advantages or disadvantages, from their point of view, to the introduction of humor in the teaching of Spanish as a Foreign Language.

Keywords: education, foreign languages, humor, pedagogy, Spanish as a Foreign Language, students’ perceptions

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
4882 Instructors Willingness, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge about Provisions of Instructional Accommodations for Students with Disabilities: The Case Selected Universities in Ethiopia

Authors: Abdreheman Seid Abdella

Abstract:

This study examined instructors willingness, self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes and knowledge about provisions of instructional accommodations for students with disabilities in universities. Major concepts used in this study operationally defined and some models of disability were reviewed. Questionnaires were distributed to a total of 181 instructors from four universities and quantitative data was generated. Then to analyze the data, appropriate methods of data analysis were employed. The result indicated that on average instructors had positive willingness, strong self-efficacy beliefs and positive attitudes towards providing instructional accommodations. In addition, the result showed that the majority of participants had moderate level of knowledge about provision of instructional accommodations. Concerning the relationship between instructors background variables and dependent variables, the result revealed that location of university and awareness raising training about Inclusive Education showed statistically significant relationship with all dependent variables (willingness, self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes and knowledge). On the other hand, gender and college/faculty did not show a statistically significant relationship. In addition, it was found that among the inter-correlation of dependent variables, the correlation between attitudes and willingness to provide accommodations was the strongest. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, this study also indicated that predictor variables like self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and teaching methodology training made statistically significant contribution to predicting the criterion willingness. Predictor variables like willingness and attitudes made statistically significant contribution to predicting self-efficacy beliefs. Predictor variables like willingness, Special Needs Education course and self-efficacy beliefs made statistically significant contribution to predict attitudes. Predictor variables like Special Needs Education courses, the location of university and willingness made statistically significant contribution to predicting knowledge. Finally, using exploratory factor analysis, this study showed that there were four components or factors each that represent the underlying constructs of willingness and self-efficacy beliefs to provide instructional accommodations items, five components for attitudes towards providing accommodations items and three components represent the underlying constructs for knowledge about provisions of instructional accommodations items. Based on the findings, recommendations were made for improving the situation of instructional accommodations in Ethiopian universities.

Keywords: willingness, self-efficacy belief, attitude, knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
4881 Investigating Reading Comprehension Proficiency and Self-Efficacy among Algerian EFL Students within Collaborative Strategic Reading Approach and Attributional Feedback Intervention

Authors: Nezha Badi

Abstract:

It has been shown in the literature that Algerian university students suffer from low levels of reading comprehension proficiency, which hinder their overall proficiency in English. This low level is mainly related to the methodology of teaching reading which is employed by the teacher in the classroom (a teacher-centered environment), as well as students’ poor sense of self-efficacy to undertake reading comprehension activities. Arguably, what is needed is an approach necessary for enhancing students’ self-beliefs about their abilities to deal with different reading comprehension activities. This can be done by providing them with opportunities to take responsibility for their own learning (learners’ autonomy). As a result of learning autonomy, learners’ beliefs about their abilities to deal with certain language tasks may increase, and hence, their language learning ability. Therefore, this experimental research study attempts to assess the extent to which an integrated approach combining one particular reading approach known as ‘collaborative strategic reading’ (CSR), and teacher’s attributional feedback (on students’ reading performance and strategy use) can improve the reading comprehension skill and the sense of self-efficacy of EFL Algerian university students. It also seeks to examine students’ main reasons for their successful or unsuccessful achievements in reading comprehension activities, and whether students’ attributions for their reading comprehension outcomes can be modified after exposure to the instruction. To obtain the data, different tools including a reading comprehension test, questionnaires, an observation, an interview, and learning logs were used with 105 second year Algerian EFL university students. The sample of the study was divided into three groups; one control group (with no treatment), one experimental group (CSR group) who received a CSR instruction, and a second intervention group (CSR Plus group) who received teacher’s attribution feedback in addition to the CSR intervention. Students in the CSR Plus group received the same experiment as the CSR group using the same tools, except that they were asked to keep learning logs, for which teacher’s feedback on reading performance and strategy use was provided. The results of this study indicate that the CSR and the attributional feedback intervention was effective in improving students’ reading comprehension proficiency and sense of self-efficacy. However, there was not a significant change in students’ adaptive and maladaptive attributions for their success and failure d from the pre-test to the post-test phase. Analysis of the perception questionnaire, the interview, and the learning logs shows that students have positive perceptions about the CSR and the attributional feedback instruction. Based on the findings, this study, therefore, seeks to provide EFL teachers in general and Algerian EFL university teachers in particular with pedagogical implications on how to teach reading comprehension to their students to help them achieve well and feel more self-efficacious in reading comprehension activities, and in English language learning more generally.

Keywords: attributions, attributional feedback, collaborative strategic reading, self-efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
4880 The Culture of Journal Writing among Manobo Senior High School Students

Authors: Jessevel Montes

Abstract:

This study explored on the culture of journal writing among the Senior High School Manobo students. The purpose of this qualitative morpho-semantic and syntactic study was to discover the morphological, semantic, and syntactic features of the written output through morphological, semantic, and syntactic categories present in their journal writings. Also, beliefs and practices embedded in the norms, values, and ideologies were identified. The study was conducted among the Manobo students in the Senior High Schools of Central Mindanao, particularly in the Division of North Cotabato. Findings revealed that morphologically, the features that flourished are the following: subject-verb concordance, tenses, pronouns, prepositions, articles, and the use of adjectives. Semantically, the features are the following: word choice, idiomatic expression, borrowing, and vernacular. Syntactically, the features are the types of sentences according to structure and function; and the dominance of code switching and run-on sentences. Lastly, as to the beliefs and practices embedded in the norms, values, and ideologies of their journal writing, the major themes are: valuing education, family, and friends as treasure, preservation of culture, and emancipation from the bondage of poverty. This study has shed light on the writing capabilities and weaknesses of the Manobo students when it comes to English language. Further, such an insight into language learning problems is useful to teachers because it provides information on common trouble-spots in language learning, which can be used in the preparation of effective teaching materials.

Keywords: applied linguistics, culture, morpho-semantic and syntactic analysis, Manobo Senior High School, Philippines

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
4879 Influence of Causal beliefs on self-management in Korean patients with hypertension

Authors: Hyun-E Yeom

Abstract:

Patients’ views about the cause of hypertension may influence their present and proactive behaviors to regulate high blood pressure. This study aimed to examine the internal structure underlying the causal beliefs about hypertension and the influence of causal beliefs on self-care intention and medical compliance in Korean patients with hypertension. The causal beliefs of 145 patients (M age = 57.7) were assessed using the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. An exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure of the causal beliefs, and the factors’ influence on self-care intention and medication compliance was analyzed using multiple and logistic regression analyses. The four-factor structure including psychological, fate-related, risk and habitual factors was identified and the psychological factor was the most representative component of causal beliefs. The risk and fate-related factors were significant factors affecting lower intention to engage in self-care and poor compliance with medication regimens, respectively. The findings support the critical role of causal beliefs about hypertension in driving patients’ current and future self-care behaviors. This study highlights the importance of educational interventions corresponding to patients’ awareness of hypertension for improving their adherence to a healthy lifestyle and medication regimens.

Keywords: hypertension, self-care, beliefs, medication compliance

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
4878 The Effect of Taxpayer Political Beliefs on Tax Evasion Behavior: An Empirical Study Applied to Tunisian Case

Authors: Nadia Elouaer

Abstract:

Tax revenue is the main state resource and one of the important variables in tax policy. Nevertheless, this resource is continually decreasing, so it is important to focus on the reasons for this decline. Several studies show that the taxpayer is reluctant to pay taxes, especially in countries at risk or in countries in transition, including Tunisia. This study focuses on the tax evasion behavior of a Tunisian taxpayer under the influence of his political beliefs, as well as the influence of different tax compliance variables. Using a questionnaire, a sample of 500 Tunisian taxpayers is used to examine the relationship between political beliefs and taxpayer affiliations and tax compliance variables, as well as the study of the causal link between political beliefs and fraudulent behavior. The data were examined using correlation, factor, and regression analysis and found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the different tax compliance variables and the tax evasion behavior. There is also a positive and statistically significant relationship between tax evasion and political beliefs and affiliations. The study of the relationship between political beliefs and compliance variables shows that they are closely related. The conclusion is to admit that tax evasion and political beliefs are closely linked, and the government should update its tax policy and modernize its administration in order to strengthen the credibility and disclosure of information in order to restore a relationship of trust between public authorities and the taxpayer.

Keywords: fiscal policy, political beliefs, tax evasion, taxpayer behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
4877 Beliefs and Rituals among the Urak Lawoi Sea Gypsies in the Bulon Archipelago, Satun Province

Authors: Srisuporn Piyaratanawong, Suchai Assawapantanakul

Abstract:

This study aims to reflect changes in beliefs and rituals among the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on the Bulon archipelago of Satun Province that are related to changes of society according to each dimension of time. The historical study was conducted using an oral history approach. The study found that the traditional way of life as itinerants who moved seasonally resulted in their dependence on nature and beliefs in supernatural power, and mysterious powers and superstitions in the belief of ghosts, ancestors, guardian spirits, large banyan trees, life and living, treatment of diseases, king of nagas, and other beliefs. They displayed their respect to supernatural powers through rituals by worshiping, making offerings to spirits and performing Rongeng dance for spirits in return for fulfilling their vows. After World War II (1945), the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on Bulon archipelago changed their itinerant way of life to permanent settlements. However, their beliefs in supernatural powers and ritual performances remained in existence. Until 1987, when tourism began to spread to the archipelago, some of them gradually turned to make a living with tourism. Moreover, during the last 20 years (from around 1994), Islam has spread among the people. With this social context, the traditional beliefs in supernatural powers have changed to beliefs according to the religion and the way of life that has changed. Thus, when the traditional beliefs and rituals can no longer fulfil the new way of life, they slowly disappear, such as the floating the boat ceremony that has been replaced with new beliefs and rituals according to Islam. Nevertheless, some beliefs and rituals still exist, such as beliefs about treatment of diseases and Rongeng dance for spirits in return for vow fulfilling. In conclusion, the traditional beliefs and rituals of the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on the Bulon archipelago cannot fulfil the new way of life, and have, thus, brought about changes in beliefs and rituals that are congruent with the current society.

Keywords: belief, ritual, Urak Lawoi, sea gypsy, Bulon Archipelago

Procedia PDF Downloads 189