Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 849

Search results for: universities

849 A Framework for Analyzing Public Interaction of Saudi Universities on Twitter

Authors: Sahar Al-Qahtani, Rabeeh Ayaz Abbasi, Naif Radi Aljohani

Abstract:

Many universities use social media platforms as new communication channels to disseminate information and promptly communicate with their audience. As Twitter is one of the widely used social media platforms, this research aims to explore the adaption and utilization of Twitter by universities. We propose a framework called 'Social Network Analysis for Universities on Twitter' (SNAUT) to analyze the usage of Twitter by universities and to measure their interaction with public. The study includes a sample of around 110,000 tweets from 36 Saudi universities, including both public and private universities. Using SNAUT, we can (1) investigate the purpose of using Twitter by universities, (2) determine the broad topics discussed by them, and (3) identify the groups closely associated with the universities. The results show that most of the Saudi universities (whether public or private) actively use Twitter. Results also reveal that public universities respond to public queries more frequently, but private universities stand out more in terms of information dissemination using retweets and diverse hashtags. Finally, we develop a ranking mechanism in SNAUT for ranking universities based on their social interaction with the public on Twitter.

Keywords: social media, twitter, social network analysis, universities, higher education, Saudi Arabia

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848 ASEAN Academics’ Perspective of Collaboration among ASEAN Universities

Authors: Hazri Jamil, Munir Shuib, Farhah Muhammad

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In line with the 27th ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Summit 2015 principles in Kuala Lumpur on higher education, synergised collaboration is aimed to promote resilience and vibrancy between institutions and academia. Hence, this paper aims to discuss matters concerning collaboration among ASEAN Universities derived from the perspectives of academics from the universities in ASEAN countries. The data were collected from 234 respondents of nine universities in ASEAN using questionnaires and online survey analyzed using purposive sampling. The findings revealed that more than half of the respondents in this survey were optimistic that the ASEAN universities have a great potential in collaboration among academics in ASEAN countries. The findings also indicated that collaboration among ASEAN universities will have a positive impact on the ASEAN economy and society. Finally, to enhance collaboration among the universities in ASEAN, educational improvement and exchanges as well as environmental issues are among the noteworthy aspects which need to be taken into account.

Keywords: academics, ASEAN, collaboration, higher education, universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
847 The Relevance of Intellectual Capital: An Analysis of Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Angel Tejada, Agustin Baidez

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In recent years, the intellectual capital reporting in higher education institutions has been acquiring progressive importance worldwide. Intellectual capital approaches becomes critical at universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output as well as input in these institutions. Universities produce knowledge, either through scientific and technical research (the results of investigation, publications, etc.) or through teaching (students trained and productive relationships with their stakeholders). The purpose of the present paper is to identify the intangible elements about which university stakeholders demand most information. The results of a study done at Spanish universities are used to see which groups of universities have stakeholders who are more proactive to the disclosure of intellectual capital.

Keywords: intellectual capital, universities, Spain, cluster analysis

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846 The Impact of University League Tables on the Development of Non-Elite Universities. A Case Study of England

Authors: Lois Cheung

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This article examines the impact of League Tables on non-elite universities in the English higher education system. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of rankings in strategic planning by low-ranked universities in this highly competitive higher education market. A sample of non-elite universities was selected for a content analysis based on the measures used by The Guardian rankings. Interestingly, these universities care about their rankings within a single national system. The content analysis appears to be an effective approach to investigating the presence of such influences. It is particularly noteworthy that all sampled universities use these measure terminologies in their strategic plans, missions and news coverage on their institutional web-pages. This analysis may be an example of the key challenges that many low-ranking universities in England are probably facing in the highly competitive and diversified higher education market. These universities use rankings to communicate with their stakeholders, mainly students, in order to fill places to secure their major source of funding. The study concludes with comments on the likely effects of the rankings paradigm in undermining the contributions of non-elite universities.

Keywords: League tables, measures, post-1992 universities, ranking, strategy

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845 The New Universities Law in Saudi Arabia, Bath to Develop the Higher Education in the Kingdom

Authors: Gassrm Alfaleh

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The new Law of Universities has many goals, one of them is how each university can be independent financially and educationally. Another goal is to open doors for foreign universities to open branches in the kingdom. This paper focuses on how these goals can create competition between local and foreign universities. And how this new law can bring significant changes in the Kingdom’s higher education sector. The methodology of this study is to compare the new Saudi law to another legal system, especially in Australia. And how this new law can affect the higher education environment and Saudi culture. It covers the view of other different legal jurisdictions and compares it to this new law. The major findings are that the new law of universities can give a chance to Saudi universities to achieve their goals based on empowerment, quality, and participate in developing the educational and research methods. It may allow universities to start their own resources, permit them to create endowments and companies, and may allow them to create their degrees and programs. It will help those universities to increase the efficiency of spending, developing financial resources, and human capabilities for universities in line with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030. As a result, this paper states whether this new law can improve higher education in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: law, education, Saudi legal system, university

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844 Intellectual Capital and Transparency in Universities: An Empirical Study

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Angel Tejada, Agustin Baidez

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This paper shows the general perceptions of Spanish university stakeholders in relation to the university’s annual reports and the adequacy and potential of intellectual capital reporting. To this end, a questionnaire was designed and sent to every member of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities. It was thought that these participants would provide a good example of the attitude of university stakeholders since they represent the different social groups connected with universities. From the results of this study we are in the position of confirming the need for universities to offer information on intellectual capital in their accounting information model.

Keywords: intellectual capital, disclosure, stakeholders, universities, annual report

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843 Intellectual Capital Disclosure: Profiles of Spanish Public Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramírez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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In the higher education setting, there is a current trend in society toward greater openness and transparency. The economic, social and political changes that have occurred in recent years in public sector universities (particularly the New Public Management, the Bologna Process and the emergence of the “third mission”) call for a wider disclosure of value created by universities to support fundraising activities, to ensure accountability in the use of public funds and the outcomes of research and teaching, as well as close relationships with industries and territories. The paper has two purposes: 1) to explore the intellectual capital (IC) disclosure in Spanish universities through their websites, and 2) to identify university profiles. This study applies a content analysis to analyze the institutional websites of Spanish public universities and a cluster analysis. The analysis reveals that Spanish universities’ website content usually relates to human capital, while structural and relational capitals are less widely disclosed. Our research identifies three behavioral profiles of Spanish universities with regard to the online disclosure of IC (universities more proactive, universities less proactive and universities adopt a middle position in this regard. The results can serve as encouragement to university managers to enhance online IC disclosure to meet the information needs of university stakeholders.

Keywords: universities, intellectual capital, disclosure, internet

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842 Towards a Framework for Evaluating Scientific Efficiency of World-Class Universities

Authors: Veljko Jeremic, Milica Kostic Stankovic, Aleksandar Markovic, Milan Martic

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Evaluating the efficiency of decision making units has been frequently elaborated on in numerous publications. In this paper, the theoretical framework for a novel method of Distance Based Analysis (DBA) is presented. In addition, the method is performed on a sample of the ARWU’s top 54 Universities of the United States, the findings of which clearly demonstrate that the best ranked Universities are far from also being the most efficient.

Keywords: evaluating efficiency, distance based analysis, ranking of universities, ARWU

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841 Critical Success Factors for Successful Energy Management Implementation towards Sustainability in Malaysian Universities

Authors: A. Abdullah Saleh, A. H. Mohammed, M. N. Abdullah

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Universities are increasingly consuming energy to support various activities. A large population of staff and students in Malaysian universities has led to excessive energy consumption which directly gives an impact to the environment. The key question then ascended "How well is an energy management (EM) been practiced in universities without taking the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) into consideration to ensure the management of university achieves the goals in reducing energy consumption". Review of past literature is carried out to establish CSFs for EM best practices. Thus, this paper highlighted the CSFs which have to be focused on by management of university to successfully measure the EM implementation and its performance. At the end of this paper, a theoretical framework is developed for EM success factors towards a sustainable university.

Keywords: critical success factors, energy management, sustainability, Malaysian universities

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840 Visualization of Malaysia Universities Websites Based On Social Network Analysis

Authors: N. A. Ismail, Abdul Arif, Sharul Hafiz, Lu S. J., Tham W. S., Wong S. K.

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This paper investigates the visulization of Malaysia universities websites. Twenty (20) public universities websites in Malaysia has been chosen as samples to explore and visualize the link relationship between their academic websites using social network analysis methods such as inlink, degree, weight, betweenness and modularity class. All of the connection and relation demonstrate the power to influence, comprehensive strength and also the variety of subject types that are present in universities. The experimental results also show that University Malaysia Sabah (UMS) is the biggest back links provider.

Keywords: academic websites, link analysis, social network analysis, experimental result

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
839 Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: The Swedish Approach of Transformation

Authors: Fawaz Saad, Hamid Alalwany

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Sweden has succeeded to maintain a high level of growth and development and has managed to sustain highly ranked position among the world’s developed countries. In this regard, Swedish universities are playing a vital role in supporting innovation and entrepreneurship at all levels and developing Swedish knowledge economy. This paper is aiming to draw on the experiences of two leading Swedish universities, addressing their transformation approach to create entrepreneurial universities and fulfilling their objectives in the era of knowledge economy. The objectives of the paper include: (1) Introducing the Swedish higher education and its characteristics. (2) Examining the infrastructure elements for innovation and Entrepreneurship at two of the Swedish entrepre-neurial universities. (3) Addressing the key aspects of support systems in the initiatives of both Chalmers and Gothenburg universities to support innovation and advance entrepreneurial practices. The paper will contribute to two discourses: (1) Examining the relationship between support systems for innovation and entrepreneurship and the Universities’ policies and practices. (2) Lessons for University leaders to assist the development and implementation of effective innovation and en-trepreneurship policies and practices.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial University, Chalmers University, Gothenburg University, innovation and entrepreneurship policies, entrepreneurial transformation

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838 Development of Management Model for Promoting Sustainable Tourism of Rajabhat Universities in Thailand

Authors: Weera Weerasophon

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This research paper is to study the development of a management model for promoting sustainable tourism of Rajabhat universities in Thailand. Mixed Method Research is applied under the said topic. The researcher has developed a management model to promote sustainable tourism. The objectives of the research are 1) to study the readiness in management sustainable tourism of Rajabhat universities in Thailand 2) to develop a management model for promoting sustainable tourism of those universities. The process of this research is organized in two steps according to the objectives. The results of the research are as in the following: 1. Rajabhat universities have the readiness in management for promoting sustainable tourism. The universities can be developed to be sustainable tourist attraction under the admistrators who have vision and realize the importance of tourism, eager to promote sustainable tourism of the universities by specifying obvious policy plans and management. 2. The management model for promoting sustainable tourism of Rajabhat universities is consisted of the main following factors : 2.1 Master plan and policy, 2.2 Rajabhat universities organization management and personnel administration, 2.3 Assignment and authority, leadership, 2.4 Join network, 2.5 Assurance of quality and controlling, 2.6 Budget management, 2.7 Human Resources management, 2.8 Alliance and co-ordination, 2.9 Tool of marketing. There are also other communal factors for promoting sustainable tourism. They are: local communities, local communities, tourism activities, government and private sectors, communicative technology system, history, tourist attractive, art and culture, internal and external environment including local wisdom heritage. The management model for promoting sustainable tourism can be concluded from these main and communal factors mentioned above.

Keywords: tourism, sustainable tourism, management, Rajabhat University

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837 Network User Rules in Universities

Authors: Michel Berthiaume, Daniel Chamberland-Tremblay, Elaine Paiva Mosconi, Jérôme Blanchet-Brisson

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This presentation documents the overall failure of North-American universities to build an effective IT Policies communication with their primary users: the students. A sample of 12 universities was selected. A set of indicators based on usability principles to assess the content of IT Policies vas devised. Then, IT Policies were rated according to the indicators and the results analyzed to build an overall picture of the potential of communication problems in policy communication. The initial finding is that network security professionals in Universities have to reach a delicate balance between asset protection, asset valorization and user security awareness.

Keywords: computer security, IT policy, security awareness, network user rules

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
836 Improving Internal Efficiency of Local Universities and Colleges: Asseessing the Impact of the 085 Project in Shanghai

Authors: Qing Hui Wang, You Lin Fang, Min Chen

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In 2003 the percentage of students in Shanghai taking part in tertiary education reached 53% of the age cohort, which is at the universal level according to Trow's typology. This achievement led to a conscientious effort by the government to improve internal efficiency of local universities and colleges through a series of programs, the most important of which is the 085 Project. This paper considers the effects of the 085 Project- the 5 initiatives launched in 2008 on increasing the investment to improve institutional overall visibilities, teaching excellence, knowledge innovation, faculty development as well as internationalization. Using the approach of ERC (a theory of equality, reciprocity, and competition) model, it was found that the initiatives helped the lower tier universities and colleges make full play in the aspects of strategic planning and identifying themselves. It was also found that the rate of growth of social resources for universities as a whole increased more quickly after the implementation of the 085 Project.

Keywords: 085 Project, impact, internal efficiency, local universities and colleges

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835 Voluntary Information of Intellectual Capital Disclosed Online by Public Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramírez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure by public Spanish universities on their websites. To this end, a content analysis was used to analyze the websites of 50 public Spanish universities i 2016. The results of this study show that human capital was the most disclosed category with relational capital being the least frequently disclosed in Spain. However, the quality of structural capital disclosures was higher than relational and human capital. Finally, most IC disclosures were narrative in nature.

Keywords: intellectual capital, quality disclosure, websites, universities, Spain

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834 Comparative Learning Challenges Experienced by Students in Universities of Developing Nations in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Chinaza Uleanya, Martin Duma, Bongani Gamede

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The study investigated learning challenges experienced by students in universities situated in developing sub-Saharan African countries using selected universities in South Africa and Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to 2,335 randomly selected students from selected universities in South Africa and Nigeria. The outcome of the study shows that six common learning challenges are visible in developing sub-Sahara African universities. The causes of these learning challenges cut across the failure in responsibilities of the various stakeholders in the field of education and the effects are monumental both to the students and society. This paper suggests recommendations to university administrators, education policy makers and implementers on the need to take education more seriously, to review and implement appropriate policies, and to ensure provision of quality education through the supply of adequate amenities and other motivating factors.

Keywords: learning, challenges, learning challenges, access with success, participatory access

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833 A Comparative Study of Social Entrepreneurship Centers in Universities of the World

Authors: Farnoosh Alami, Nazgol Azimi

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Universities have recently paid much attention to the subject of social entrepreneurship. As a result, many of the highly ranked universities have established centers in this regard. The present research aims to investigate vision and mission of social entrepreneurship centers of the best universities ranked under 50 by Shanghai List 2013. It tries to find the common goals and features of their mission, vision, and activities which lead to their present success. This investigation is based on the web content of the first top 10 universities; among which six had social entrepreneurship centers. This is a qualitative research, and the findings are based on content analysis of documents. The findings confirm that education, research, talent development, innovative solutions, and supporting social innovation, are shared in the vision of these centers. In regard to their missions, social participation, networking, and leader education are the most shared features. Their common activities are focused on five categories of education, research, support, promotion, and networking.

Keywords: comparative study, qualitative research, social entrepreneurship centers, universities in the world

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832 The Role of the Founding Ideals of a University in Higher Education

Authors: Masanori Kimura

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The “founding spirit” of a Japanese university is similar to the mission statement of a Western university, but the difference between the two is that the former more closely reflects the founder’s inner world because it usually originates from the strong personal beliefs that the founder held when establishing the university. To find how much this ideology actually valued in today’s higher education, this paper surveys 2091 job openings for foreign language full-time faculty positions, posted by Japanese private universities from 2012 to 2016. The results suggest that women’s universities and universities with religious affiliations have a tendency to request that successful candidates observe their founding spirit, or at least demonstrate some understanding of the ideology after being hired. On the other hand, co-ed universities and universities with no religious affiliations do not show such a distinct tendency. A chi-square test revealed that this difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<.01). Furthermore, the paper argues that it is not always appropriate for universities to evaluate themselves based on a single evaluation scale such as university rankings, and that both faculty and staff members need to be more aware of the founding spirit to improve the quality of the education the university provides.

Keywords: founding spirit, higher education, university administrative management, university evaluation

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831 Job Satisfaction among Public and Private Universities in Egypt Related to Organizational and Personal Aspects

Authors: Reem Alkadeem

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This study aims at evaluating the overall satisfaction of faculty members and relating it to organizational and personal aspects in Egyptian public and private universities. These aspects are identified through an extensive study of all factors that might affect job satisfaction. The most influencing parameters selected are academics’ demographics, human resource management, organizational profile, workload, teamwork skills, recognition, autonomy, teaching activity, research activity, and motivation. A questionnaire of 94 questions was used to assess job satisfaction and the previously mentioned parameters. It was distributed among seven hundred members of different universities in Egypt. Two hundred and twenty-seven faculty members responded. This sample was gathered from twelve universities and The Supreme Council of Universities. The ANOVA showed a significant relationship (p < 0.05) between eight of the selected parameters and job satisfaction. These parameters are age, rank, human resource management, profile of organizational characteristics, workload, recognition, teaching activity, and motivation.

Keywords: job satisfaction, higher education, organizational profile, Egyptian universities

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830 E-Learning Network Support Services: A Comparative Case Study of Australian and United States Universities

Authors: Sayed Hadi Sadeghi

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This research study examines the current state of support services for e-network practice in an Australian and an American university. It identifies information that will be of assistance to Australian and American universities to improve their existing online programs. The study investigated the two universities using a quantitative methodological approach. Participants were students, lecturers and admins of universities engaged with online courses and learning management systems. The support services for e-network practice variables, namely academic support services, administrative support and technical support, were investigated for e-practice. Evaluations of e-network support service and its sub factors were above average and excellent in both countries, although the American admins and lecturers tended to evaluate this factor higher than others did. Support practice was evaluated higher by all participants of an American university than by Australians. One explanation for the results may be that most suppliers of the Australian university e-learning system were from eastern Asian cultural backgrounds with a western networking support perspective about e-learning.

Keywords: support services, e-Network practice, Australian universities, United States universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
829 Commercialization of Research Outputs in Kenyan Universities

Authors: John Ayisi, Gideon M. Kivengea, George A. Ombakho

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In this emerging era of knowledge economy, universities, as major centres of learning and research, are becoming increasingly important as sources of ideas, knowledge, skills, innovation and technological advances. These ideas can be turned into new products, processes and systems needed to drive their respective national economies, and thus placing universities at the centre of the national innovation systems. Thus, commercialization of research outputs from universities to industry has become an area of strong policy interest in African countries. To assess the level of commercialization of research outputs in Kenyan universities, a standardized questionnaire covering seven sub-sections, namely: University Commercialization Environment, Management of Commercialization Activities, Commercialization Office, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), Early Stage Financing and Venture Capital; Industrial Linkages; and Technology Parks and Incubators was administered among a few selected public and private universities. Results show that all the universities have a strategic plan; though not all have innovation and commercialization as part of it. Half the nineteen surveyed universities indicated they have created designated offices for fostering commercialization. Majority have guidelines on IPRs which advocate IP to be co-owned by researcher/university. University-industry linkages are weak. Most universities are taking precursory steps to incentivise and encourage entrepreneurial activities among their academic staff and students, even though the level of resources devoted to them is low. It is recommended that building capacity in entrepreneurship among staff and students and committing more resources to R&D activities hold potential to increased commercialization of university research outputs.

Keywords: commercialization, knowledge, R&D, university

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
828 The Qualification and Quality of Space Sciences and Space Engineering Education in Turkey

Authors: Hatice Canan Gungor, Ahmet Akdemir

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The fields of engineering and technological sciences are increasing in quality and quantity day by day all over the world. Countries have to follow, implement and adapt these developments in order to economical empowerments. In our era, it's possible to follow the rapidly developing technology and to produce new technologies by inquisitive, curious, numerical thinking individuals who can show several approaches to problem solving. In this case, countries should develop te result oriented and need-focused curriculums in university education. As in the whole world, there are more space studies in our country as well. Universities should undertake the task of supply the need for staff of this technological race. In this context, questions about the purpose, content and learning outcomes of the space sciences and space engineering departments in our country will be researched answers to reveal the characteristic of this section. In this study, it was determined in which universities the space engineering and the departments of basic sciences educate with formal education and the contents of this education, and the universities were compared with each other as of 2017. In our country three universities provide Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Space Sciences and Technologies, two universities provide Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering education. In all universities, specialized courses are taught after basic engineering education. But the question that needs to be answered is, do the lessons benefit in practice? The answer of this question will reveal the quality of the education. This paper suggests that surveys be conducted to search for the answer to this question. It's thought to be the base for the next works.

Keywords: education, space engineering, space science, quality of systems

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827 The Relevance of Corporate Governance Disclosure in Spanish Public Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Angel Tejada, Agustin Baidez

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There is currently a growing interest in the improvement of university governance and the disclosure of information on corporate governance processes as an essential part of the transparency and accountability of universities. This paper aims to know the importance given by Spanish university stakeholders to the disclosure of information about structure and mechanism of corporate governance. So as to meet this objective we propose a model for disclosing information on the main aspects of university governance in Spanish universities. This model will be validated using a questionnaire sent to members of the Social Councils of public universities in Spain. Our results show that Spanish university stakeholders attach great importance to the disclosure of specific information on aspects of corporate governance, which would result in improved transparency and accountability. According to the results of this study it may be concluded that the university stakeholders feel that it is relevant to publish information on corporate governance in the university accounting information model.

Keywords: corporate governance, transparency, accountability, universities, Spain

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826 The Regional Center for Business Quality of the University Center of the Valleys: Transiting to an Entrepreneurial University

Authors: Carlos Alberto Santamaria Velasco

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The study object of this chapter analyzes the case of the Centro Regional para la Calidad Empresarial (CreCE) starting from an analysis of the theoretical discussion about the universities as actors of the development and generation of enterprises. As well as the promotion of the entrepreneurial culture that they carry out in their environment of influence as part of the linkage and extension actions that have as one of their substantive functions, in addition to teaching and research. The objective is to know the theoretical discussion and the state of art about the entrepreneurial universities from the institutional theory of Douglas North, carrying out a theoretical analysis of the formal and informal factors from the universities linking the specific case of the CReCE. A literature review was carried out in the main journals in the topic of entrepreneurship, about the factors that influence the creation and development of entrepreneurial universities, complementing research in the study of a particular case, CreCE, and how this affects in the transformation of the CUVALLES(Centro Universitario de los Valles) in its way towards an entrepreneurial university.

Keywords: entrepreneurial university, institutional theory, university, entrepreneurial universities

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825 Influences of Culture, Multilingualism and Ethnicity on Using English in Pakistani Universities

Authors: Humaira Irfan Khan

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The paper discusses that Pakistan is a multilingual, multicultural, and multiethnic society. The findings from quantitative and qualitative data collected in two public universities look at the importance of English language and the role and status of national and regional languages in the country. The evidence implies that postgraduate students having diverse linguistic, cultural, ethnic, socio-economic, and educational backgrounds display negative attitudes towards the use of English language for academic and interactive functions in universities. It is also discovered that language anxiety of postgraduate students is an outcome of their language learning difficulties. It is suggested that considering the academic needs of students, universities should introduce a language proficiency course to enable them to use English with confidence.

Keywords: Multilingualism, Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, Importance of English, National language, Regional languages, Language Anxiety

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824 A Comparative Study of the Challenges of E-Learning in Nigerian Universities

Authors: J. N. Anene, A. A. Bello, C. C. Anene

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The paper carried out a comparative study of the challenges of e-learning in Nigerian universities. The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a significant difference in the challenges faced by students in e-learning in Nigerian Universities. A total of two hundred and twenty-eight students from nine universities constituted the sample for the study. A simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting thirty–two students from one of each university in the six geo-political zones of Nigeria. The questionnaire based on 'yes or no' and column charts constituted the instrument employed in the study. Percentages were used to analyse 'yes or no' while column charts were used to compare responds of the students. The finding of the study revealed that majority of students in all the universities under study claimed that their universities lacked appropriate software, that good quality educational content online was lacking, they also agreed that sustainability of e-learning was not prioritized, that they had no access to appropriate content for ICT-enhanced learning and training and that they had access to affordable and reliable computers. For lecturers, the computer certification should be the first on the list of promotion requirements. The finding of the study revealed that students from seven out of nine universities confirmed that their universities lack of appropriate software whereas the other two claimed that they have appropriate software. Also, out of nine universities, two disagreed to the fact that good quality educational content online lacked, whereas seven agreed that they lacked good quality educational content online. The finding of the study also revealed that most of the respondents in almost all the university under study agreed that sustainability of e-learning was not prioritized. The study recommended among other that the Nigerian Government should make concerted effort to provide the enablement for all lecturers and students to become computer literate. This should be done within a time frame, and at the end of the computer course, certificates should be issued, and no student should graduate in his or her field of study without passing the computer course.

Keywords: e-learning, developing countries, computer literacy, ICT

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823 The Importance of Intellectual Property for Universities of Technology in South Africa: Challenges Faced and Proposed Way Forward

Authors: Martha E. Ikome, John M. Ikome

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Intellectual property should be a day-to-day business decision due to its value, but increasingly, a number of institution are still not aware of the importance. Intellectual Property (IP) and its value are often not adequately appreciated. In the increasingly knowledge-driven economy, IP is a key consideration in day-to-day business decisions because new ideas and products appear almost daily in the market, which results in continuous innovation and research. Therefore, this paper will focus on the importance of IP for universities of technology and also further demonstrates how IP can become an economic tool and the challenges faced by these universities in implementing an IP system.

Keywords: intellectual property, institutions, challenges, protection

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822 Quality Assurance Practices in the Universities of Pakistan: Physical Facilities as Encouragement

Authors: Ijaz Ahamad Tatlah

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The justification of this study was to identify about physical facilities as encouragement to Quality Assurance Practices (QAP) in the Universities of Pakistan concerning the views of students, teachers and Directors of Quality Enhancement Cells’ (QEC’s) and to differentiate the views of students, teachers and Directors of QECs in relation to physical facilities about quality assurance practices in the universities of Pakistan. It was a quantitative and qualitative research study. This study was conducted on a sample of 28 universities (public and private sector) of Pakistan by using random and purposive sampling technique. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were planned to gather information from students, teachers and Directors of QECs in relation to physical facilities about quality assurance practices in the universities of Pakistan. The data was analyzed by using Descriptive, inferential statistics, and thematic coding. The study revealed that students, teachers and Directors of QEC’s faced a lot of problems and issues without physical facilities. Quality assurance Agency (QAA), Quality Assurance Department (QAD) and Higher Education commission (HEC) all are relevant Pakistani Agencies, which are working consistently of both sectors i.e. public and private to supervise, guide and facilitate the universities of Pakistan for developing quality assurance practices. Majority of the students teachers and Directors’ of QECs opined that books, research journals, manuals for use of science laboratories, equipment for experiments and update computers were available for teachers and students’ in the universities. It was suggested by the students teachers and Directors of QECs of universities that Quality Assurance Practices (QAP) can be accelerated by thinking the following steps: provision of sufficient resources, add the latest software for computers laboratories and new edition of books.

Keywords: physical facilities, quality assurance practices, library, laboratory

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821 Reculturing: The Key to Sustainability of Private Universities

Authors: Yu Sing Ong

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This article explores the key issues and challenges facing private university leaders today. Universities are reculturing their operational processes, academic content and interactions with stakeholders. Many challenges centred around the need for university leaders to reculture the institutions and the redesigning of the teaching profession. It recommends a framework for university leaders to deal with the challenges they face. Only through reculturing, private universities can maintain the sustainability of its workforce and student population. The article has both theoretical and practical significance for private university leaders to follow.

Keywords: university leadership, reculturing, improvement, teacher education, motivation, private education

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820 The Risk of Prioritizing Management over Education at Japanese Universities

Authors: Masanori Kimura

Abstract:

Due to the decline of the 18-year-old population, Japanese universities have a tendency to convert their form of employment from tenured positions to fixed-term positions for newly hired teachers. The advantage of this is that universities can be more flexible in their employment plans in case they fail to fill the enrollment of quotas of prospective students or they need to supplement teachers who can engage in other academic fields or research areas where new demand is expected. The most serious disadvantage of this, however, is that if secure positions cannot be provided to faculty members, there is the possibility that coherence of education and continuity of research supported by the university cannot be achieved. Therefore, the question of this presentation is as follows: Are universities aiming to give first priority to management, or are they trying to prioritize educational and research rather than management? To answer this question, the author examined the number of job offerings for college foreign language teachers posted on the JREC-IN (Japan Research Career Information Network, which is run by Japan Science and Technology Agency) website from April 2012 to October 2015. The results show that there were 1,002 and 1,056 job offerings for tenured positions and fixed-term contracts respectively, suggesting that, overall, today’s Japanese universities show a tendency to give first priority to management. More detailed examinations of the data, however, show that the tendency slightly varies depending on the types of universities. National universities which are supported by the central government and state universities which are supported by local governments posted more job offerings for tenured positions than for fixed-term contracts: national universities posted 285 and 257 job offerings for tenured positions and fixed-term contracts respectively, and state universities posted 106 and 86 job offerings for tenured positions and fixed-term contracts respectively. Yet the difference in number between the two types of employment status at national and state universities is marginal. As for private universities, they posted 713 job offerings for fixed-term contracts and 616 offerings for tenured positions. Moreover, 73% of the fixed-term contracts were offered for low rank positions including associate professors, lectures, and so forth. Generally speaking, those positions are offered to younger teachers. Therefore, this result indicates that private universities attempt to cut their budgets yet expect the same educational effect by hiring younger teachers. Although the results have shown that there are some differences in personal strategies among the three types of universities, the author argues that all three types of universities may lose important human resources that will take a pivotal role at their universities in the future unless they urgently review their employment strategies.

Keywords: higher education, management, employment status, foreign language education

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