Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6619

Search results for: financing structure

6619 Market Acceptance of a Murabaha-Based Finance Structure within a Social Network of Non-Islamic Small and Medium Enterprise Owners in African Procurement

Authors: Craig M. Allen

Abstract:

Twenty two African entrepreneurs with Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a single social network centered around a non-Muslim population in a smaller African country, selected an Islamic financing structure, a form of Murabaha, based solely on market rationale. These entrepreneurs had all won procurement contracts from major purchasers of goods within their country and faced difficulty arranging traditional bank financing to support their supply-chain needs. The Murabaha-based structure satisfied their market-driven demand and provided an attractive alternative to the traditional bank-offered lending products. The Murabaha-styled trade-financing structure was not promoted with any religious implications, but solely as a market solution to the existing problems associated with bank-related financing. This indicates the strong market forces that draw SMEs to financing structures that are traditionally considered within the framework of Islamic finance.

Keywords: Africa, entrepreneurs, Islamic finance, market acceptance, Murabaha, SMEs

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6618 Influence Analysis of Profit Sharing Agreement and Financing Risk to Profitability in Islamic Bank of Indonesia

Authors: Irena Paramita Pramono

Abstract:

Islamic bank is a financial industry with huge potential to grow in Indonesia. Profit-sharing agreement in the operations of Islamic banks distinguishes Islamic banks with conventional banks. Profit-sharing agreement allows sharing of benefits and risks between shahibul maal and mudharib in islamic bank. This study aimed to observe the patterns of influence between the risk-sharing agreement, financing risk and Profitability in Islamic banks. This research used several Islamic banks as sample and path analysis method. The empirical results of this research shows that the profit-sharing agreement in deposits structure has no direct significant effect to ROA, but it has indirect effect to ROA through profit-sharing financing. On the other hand, profit-sharing financing has direct and indirect influence to ROA through financing risk. This research shows that profit-sharing financing has a positive significant effect to the financing risk and also to the ROA. The research recommends Islamic banks to continue using and developing profit-sharing agreement in its operational activities, hence to create value.

Keywords: Islamic bank, profit-loss sharing agreement, financing risk, profitability

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6617 Confusion on the Definition of Terrorism and Difficulty in Criminalizing Terrorist Financing

Authors: Hamed Tofangsaz

Abstract:

In the absence of an internationally agreed definition of terrorism, the question which needs to be posed is whether there is a clear and common understanding of what constitutes terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist groups, the financing of which needs to be stopped. That is, from a criminal law perspective, whether the Terrorist Financing Convention, as the backbone of the counter-terrorist financing regime, clarifies what types of conduct, by who, in what circumstances and when, against whom (targets or victims) and with what intention or motivation should be considered terrorism? It will be explained how and why it has been difficult to reach an agreement on the definition of terrorism. The endeavour of the drafters of the Terrorist Financing Convention and others involved in countering terrorist financing to establish a general definition of terrorism will be examined. The record of attempts to define the elements of terrorism proves that it is hardly possible to reach an agreement on a generic definition of terrorism because the concept of terrorism is elusive and subject to various understandings. Even the definition provided by the Terrorist Financing Convention, is not convincing. With regard to the findings, this paper calls for further research on the legal consequences of the implementation of the terrorist financing-counter measures while the scope of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations have been left vague.

Keywords: terrorism, terrorist financing, crime, convention

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6616 Effects of Allowance for Corporate Equity on the Financing Choices of Belgian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in a Crisis Context

Authors: O. Colot, M. Croquet, L. Cultrera, Y. Fandja Collince

Abstract:

The objective of our research is to evaluate the impact of the allowance for corporate equity (ACE) on the financial structure of Belgian SME in order to highlight the potential existence of a fiscal leverage. To limit the biases linked to the rationing of the capital further to the financial crisis, we compare first the dynamic evolution of the financial structure of the Belgian firms over the period 2006-2015 by focusing on three sub-periods: 2006-2008, 2009-2012 and 2013-2015. We give then an international size to this comparison by including SMEs from countries adjoining Belgium (France, Germany, Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and within which there is no ACE. This comparison allows better understanding the fiscal advantage linked to the ACE of firms evolving in a relatively unstable economic environment further to the financial crisis of 2008. This research is relevant given the economic and political context in which Belgium operates and the very uncertain future of the Belgian ACE. The originality of this research is twofold: the long study period and the consideration of the effects of the financial and economic crisis on the financing structure of Belgian SMEs. The results of this research, even though they confirm the existence of a positive fiscal leverage for the tax deduction for venture capital on the financing structure of Belgian SMEs, do not allow the extent of this leverage to be clearly quantified. The comparative evolution of financing structures over the period 2006-2015 of Belgian, French, German, Dutch and English SMEs shows a strong similarity in the overall evolution of their financing.

Keywords: allowance for corporate equity, Belgium, financial structure, small and medium sized firms

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6615 Evaluation of Access to Finance for Local Oil Fields Companies in Ghana

Authors: Gordon Newlove Asamoah, Wendy Ama Oti

Abstract:

This study focused on evaluating access to finance for local oil fields companies in Ghana. The study adopted a census survey design in evaluating access to finance for local oil fields companies in Ghana. The respondents of this study were 30 management members of three oil fields companies in Ghana. The data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) to generate tables and graphs for interpretation. The results show that most companies use equity financing in combination with other forms of financing to finance their business activities. This research has shown the various challenges bordering on the financing of local oil and gas projects with an emphasis on the challenges of raising funds by indigenous oil companies. Financing of the projects by indigenous oil field companies in Ghana is preferably achieved through equity finance mainly because it is the easiest to get compared to all the other forms of financing available. Other sources of financing available are debt financing, joint venture and retained earnings from the profits generated from their operations. The study made recommendations to local oil fields companies as to how they can make good use of the capital market to raise financing.

Keywords: access, financing, oil fields, Ghana

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6614 The Effect of Deficit Financing on Macro-Economic Variables in Nigeria (1970-2013)

Authors: Ezeoke Callistus Obiora, Ezeoke Nneka Angela

Abstract:

The study investigated the effect of deficit financing on macroeconomic variables in Nigeria. The specific objectives included to find out the relationship between deficit financing and GDP, interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate and private investment respectively on a time series covering a period of 44 years (1970 – 2013). The Ordinary Least Square multiple regression produced statistics for the coefficient of determination (R2), F-test, t-test used for the interpretation of the study. The findings revealed that Deficit financing has significant positive effect on GDP and exchange rate. Again, deficit financing has a positive and insignificant relationship inflation, money supply and investment. Only interest rate recorded negative yet insignificant relationship with deficit financing. The implications of the findings are that deficit financing can be a veritable tool for boosting economic development in Nigeria, but the influential positively rising exchange rate implies that deficit financing devalues the Naira exchange rate to other currencies indicating that deficit financing can affect Nigerians competitive advantage at the world market. Thus, the study concludes that deficit financing has not encouraged economic growth in Nigeria.

Keywords: deficit financing, money supply, exchange rate, inflation, GDP, investment, Nigeria

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6613 An Analysis of the Effect of Sharia Financing and Work Relation Founding towards Non-Performing Financing in Islamic Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Bahrul Ilmi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of Islamic financing and work relation founding simultaneously and partially towards non-performing financing in Islamic banks. This research was regression quantitative field research, and had been done in Muammalat Indonesia Bank and Islamic Danamon Bank in 3 months. The populations of this research were 15 account officers of Muammalat Indonesia Bank and Islamic Danamon Bank in Surakarta, Indonesia. The techniques of collecting data used in this research were documentation, questionnaire, literary study and interview. Regression analysis result shows that Islamic financing and work relation founding simultaneously has positive and significant effect towards non performing financing of two Islamic Banks. It is obtained with probability value 0.003 which is less than 0.05 and F value 9.584. The analysis result of Islamic financing regression towards non performing financing shows the significant effect. It is supported by double linear regression analysis with probability value 0.001 which is less than 0.05. The regression analysis of work relation founding effect towards non-performing financing shows insignificant effect. This is shown in the double linear regression analysis with probability value 0.161 which is bigger than 0.05.

Keywords: Syariah financing, work relation founding, non-performing financing (NPF), Islamic Bank

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6612 Owner/Managers’ External Financing Used and Preference towards Islamic Banking

Authors: Khalid Hassan Abdesamed, Kalsom Abd Wahab

Abstract:

Economic development and growth are significantly linked to the consistent and sustainable sector of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Banks are the frontrunners in financing and advising SMEs. The main objective of the study is to assess the tendency of SMEs to use the Islamic bank. Model was developed using quantitative method with a hypothetical-deductive testing approach. Model (N = 364) used primary data on the tendency of SMEs to use Islamic banks gathered from questionnaire. It is found by Mann-Whitney test that the tendency to use Islamic bank varies between those firms which consider formal financing with the ones relying on informal financing with the latter tends more to use Islamic bank. This study can serve academic researchers, policy makers, and developing countries as a model of SMEs’ desirability to Islamic banking.

Keywords: formal financing, informal financing, Islamic bank, SMEs

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6611 WAQF Financing Using WAQF Sukuk in Iran

Authors: Meysam Doaei, Mojtaba Kavand

Abstract:

WAQF as a part of Islamic social security system is developed in Islam. Traditional WAQF has some limitations which are resolved in WAQF Sukuk. In regard to acceptability of Islamic finance in the world, WAQF Sukuk also has been developing in Islamic countries. In this paper, concept of WAQF, traditional and modern WAQF financing are presented. Then, WAQF Sukuk, its application and its model in Iran are developed.

Keywords: Al-mawqūfat development, traditional financing, modern financing, WAQF Sukuk

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6610 Analyzing the Investment Decision and Financing Method of the French Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Eliane Abdo, Olivier Colot

Abstract:

SMEs are always considered as a national priority due to their contribution to job creation, innovation and growth. Once the start-up phase is crossed with encouraging results, the company enters the phase of growth. In order to improve its competitiveness, maintain and increase its market share, the company is in the necessity even the obligation to develop its tangible and intangible investments. SMEs are generally closed companies with special and critical financial situation, limited resources and difficulty to access the capital markets; their shareholders are always living in a conflict between their independence and their need to increase capital that leads to the entry of new shareholder. The capital structure was always considered the core of research in corporate finance; moreover, the financial crisis and its repercussions on the credit’s availability, especially for SMEs make SME financing a hot topic. On the other hand, financial theories do not provide answers to capital structure’s questions; they offer tools and mode of financing that are more accessible to larger companies. Yet, SME’s capital structure can’t be independent of their governance structure. The classic financial theory supposes independence between the investment decision and the financing decision. Thus, investment determines the volume of funding, but not the split between internal or external funds. In this context, we find interesting to study the hypothesis that SMEs respond positively to the financial theories applied to large firms and to check if they are constrained by conventional solutions used by large companies. In this context, this research focuses on the analysis of the resource’s structure of SME in parallel with their investments’ structure, in order to highlight a link between their assets and liabilities structure. We founded our conceptual model based on two main theoretical frameworks: the Pecking order theory, and the Trade Off theory taking into consideration the SME’s characteristics. Our data were generated from DIANE database. Five hypotheses were tested via a panel regression to understand the type of dependence between the financing methods of 3,244 French SMEs and the development of their investment over a period of 10 years (2007-2016). The results show dependence between equity and internal financing in case of intangible investments development. Moreover, this type of business is constraint to financial debts since the guarantees provided are not sufficient to meet the banks' requirements. However, for tangible investments development, SMEs count sequentially on internal financing, bank borrowing, and new shares issuance or hybrid financing. This is compliant to the Pecking Order Theory. We, therefore, conclude that unlisted SMEs incur more financial debts to finance their tangible investments more than their intangible. However, they always prefer internal financing as a first choice. This seems to be confirmed by the assumption that the profitability of the company is negatively related to the increase of the financial debt. Thus, the Pecking Order Theory predictions seem to be the most plausible. Consequently, SMEs primarily rely on self-financing and then go, into debt as a priority to finance their financial deficit.

Keywords: capital structure, investments, life cycle, pecking order theory, trade off theory

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6609 Islamic Banking and Finance in Theory and Practice: The Experience of Malaysia and Algeria

Authors: Zidane Abderrezaq

Abstract:

This paper’s primary objective is to identify the relative importance of various Islamic financial products, in theory and in practice, by examining the financing records of the Bank Islam Malaysia (Berhad) and the Algeria Islamic Bank. Currently, seven available Islamic financing products are considered viable alternatives to interest-based conventional contracts: mudarabah (trust financing), musharakah (equity financing), ijarah (lease financing), murabahah (trade financing), qard al-hassan (welfare loan), bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil (deferred payment financing), and istisna` (progressive payments). Among these financial products, mudarabah and musharakah are the most distinct. Their unique characteristics (at least in theory) make Islamic banks and Islamic financing viable alternatives to the conventional interest-based financial system. The question before us is to determine the extent of mudarabah and musharakah in Islamic financing in practice. The data are as follows: the average mudarabah is 5% of total financing, and the average musharakah is less than 3%. The combined average of mudarabah and musharakah for the two Islamic banks is less than 4% of the total finance and advances. The average qard al-hassan is about 4%, while istisna` does not yet exist in practice. Murabahah is the most popular and dominates all other modes of Islamic financing. The average use of murabahah is over 54%. When the bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil is added to the murabahah, the percentage of total financing is shown to be 82.68%. This paper also explores some possible reasons why these two Islamic banks appear to prefer murabahah to mudarabah and musharakah.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Islamic banking rofitability, investment banking

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6608 Relationship Financing: A Process of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Y. Fandja, O. Colot, M. Croquet

Abstract:

Small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) face difficulties in accessing bank credit. Bank credit is actually the main source of external financing for SMEs. In general, SMEs are risky businesses because of the potential opacity maintained by the leader in the management of affairs, the agency conflicts between business owners and third-party funders and the potential opportunism of the leader due to the incompleteness of the contracts. These elements accentuate the problems of information asymmetries between SMEs and bankers leading to capital rationing. Moreover, the last economic crisis reinforced this rationing of capital. However, a long-term relationship between SMEs and their bank would enable the latter to accumulate a set of relevant information allowing the reduction of information asymmetry and, consequently, the reduction of credit rationing. The objective of this research is to investigate the lived experience of SMEs loan officers in their relationships with their clients in order to understand how these relationships can affect the financing structure of these SMEs. To carry out this research, an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis is implemented. This approach is part of the constructivist paradigm and refers to the subjective narratives of the individual rather than to an objective description of the facts. The role of the researcher is to explore the lived experience of the interviewees and to try to understand the meaning they give to this experience. Currently, several sixty-minute semi-structured interviews with loan officers for SMEs have been conducted. The analysis of the content of these interviews brought out three main themes. First, the relationship between the credit officer and the company manager is complex because the credit officer is not aware of establishing a personal relationship with his client. Second; the emotional involvement in the bank financing decision is present and third, the trust in the relationship between the credit officer and his client is very important. The originality of this research is to use the interpretative phenomenological analysis more specific to psychology and sociology in order to approach in a different way the problem of the financing of SMEs through their particular relations with the bankers.

Keywords: financing structure, interpretative phenomenological analysis, relationship financing, SME

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6607 Determining Factors Influencing the Total Funding in Islamic Banking of Indonesia

Authors: Euphrasia Susy Suhendra, Lies Handrijaningsih

Abstract:

The banking sector as an intermediary party or intermediaries occupies a very important position in bridging the needs of working capital investment in the real sector with funds owner. This will certainly make money more effectively to improve the economic value added. As an intermediary, Islamic banks raise funds from the public and then distribute in the form of financing. In practice, the distribution of funding that is run by Islamic Banking is not as easy as, in theory, because, in fact, there are many financing problems; some are caused by lacking the assessment and supervision of banks to customers. This study aims to analyze the influence of the Third Party Funds, Return on Assets (ROA), Non Performing Financing (NPF), and Financing Deposit Ratio (FDR) to Total Financing provided to the Community by Islamic Banks in Indonesia. The data used is monthly data released by Bank of Indonesia in Islamic Banking Statistics in the time period of January 2009 - December 2013. This study uses cointegration test to see the long-term relationship, and use error correction models to examine the relationship of short-term. The results of this study indicate that the Third Party Fund has a short-term effect on total funding, Return on Assets has a long term effect on the total financing, Non Performing Financing has long-term effects of total financing, and Financing deposit ratio has the effect of short-term and long-term of the total financing provided by Islamic Banks in Indonesia.

Keywords: Islamic banking, third party fund, return on asset, non-performing financing, financing deposit ratio

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6606 A Modified Diminishing Partnership for Home Financing

Authors: N. Yachou, R. Aboulaich

Abstract:

Home is a basic necessity for human life, that why home financing takes a large chunk of people’s income. Therefore, Islamic and Conventional Banks try to offer new product in order to respond to customer needs related to home financing. Basing on this fact, we propose a Modified Diminishing Partnership model based on profit and loss sharing to reduce the duration of getting the full shares in the house property. Our proposition will be represented by the rental that customer has to give every month to the bank with redemption to increase his shares on the property of the house.

Keywords: home financing, interest rate, rental rate, modified diminishing partnership

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6605 Terrorist Financing through Ilegal Fintech Hacking: Case Study of Rizki Gunawan

Authors: Ishna Indika Jusi, Rifana Meika

Abstract:

Terrorism financing method in Indonesia is developing at an alarming rate, to the point, it is now becoming more complex than before. Terrorists traditionally use conventional methods like robberies, charities, and courier services to fund their activities; today terrorists are able to utilize modern methods in financing their activities due to the rapid development in financial technology nowadays; one example is by hacking an illegal Fintech Company. Therefore, this research is conducted in order to explain and analyze the consideration behind the usage of an illegal fintech company to finance terrorism activities and how to prevent it. The analysis in this research is done by using the theory that is coined by Michael Freeman about the reasoning of terrorists when choosing their financing method. The method used in this research is a case study, and the case that is used for this research is the terrorism financing hacking of speedline.com in 2011 by Rizki Gunawan. Research data are acquired from interviews with the perpetrators, experts from INTRAC (PPATK), Special Detachment 88, reports, and journals that are relevant to the research. As a result, this study found that the priority aspects in terms of terrorist financing are security, quantity, and simplicity while obtaining funds.

Keywords: Fintech, illegal, Indonesia, technology, terrorism financing

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6604 A Strategy of Green Sukuk to Promote Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Indonesia

Authors: Amrial, Yuri Oktaviani, Ziyan Muhammad Farhan

Abstract:

On the phase of shifting paradigm into sustainability, Indonesia is involved in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) project. That act is revealed by creating Medium and Long Term Roadmap for Sustainable Finance in Indonesia which collaborated design by Indonesia Financial Service Board (OJK) and Ministry of Environment and Forestry. One of alternative for that infrastructure financing is sharia-based financing, Green Sukuk (Sukuk specified on sustainable infrastructure project). Green Sukuk for infrastructure financing in Indonesia can be issued by the government in the form of Sukuk Project Financing. Moreover, banks in Indonesia can also participate for the issuance of Green Sukuk. So that the banks can create a financing for people who are concerned about environmental issues. By using qualitative methods and literature review, this paper aims to discuss potential, strategy and planning of Green Sukuk for financing sustainable infrastructure in the purpose of SDGs. This paper will benefit for government to give scientific discussion on the strategy of Green Sukuk in promoting sustainable goals infrastructure project in Indonesia.

Keywords: green sukuk, infrastructure, SDGs, sustainable

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6603 Six Steps of Entrepreneurial Finance and Development, from Idea to Corporation Case of Kuwait

Authors: Andri Ottesen, Sam Toglaw, Mirna Safa

Abstract:

Entrepreneurial companies on their developing path from an idea to a corporation go through a similar six-step process. Each of these six development steps is supported by a distinctive financing path. This paper explores the Kuwait model for Entrepreneurial Finance and Development through in-depth interviews with ten successful Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. This paper offers insight into the development and financing of entrepreneurial companies in this oil-rich, predominantly Islamic country that are in many ways different from the steps. Western entrepreneurial companies go through. This model could be used to understand the commonalities and the difference between entrepreneurial development and financing and could be used to bridge the gap.

Keywords: entrepreneurial-financing, entrepreneurial-developing, Kuwait, Vancouver school

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6602 Financing Innovation: Differences across National Innovation Systems

Authors: Núria Arimany Serrat, Xavier Ferràs Hernández, Petra A. Nylund, Eric Viardot

Abstract:

Innovation is an increasingly important antecedent to firm competitiveness and growth. Successful innovation, however, requires a significant financial commitment and the means of financing accessible to the firm may affect its ability to innovate. The access to equity financing such as venture capital has been connected to innovativeness for young firms. For established enterprises, debt financing of innovation may be a more realistic option. Continuous innovation and growth would otherwise require a constant increase of equity. We, therefore, investigate the relation between debt financing and innovation for large firms and hypothesize that those firms that carry more debt will be more innovative. The need for debt financing of innovation may be reduced for very profitable firms, which can finance innovation with cash flow. We thus hypothesize a moderating effect of profitability on the relationship between debt financing and innovation. We carry out an empirical investigation using a longitudinal data set including 167 large European firms over five years, resulting in 835 firm years. We apply generalized least squares (GLS) regression with fixed firm effects to control for firm heterogeneity. The findings support our hypotheses and we conclude that access to debt finding is an important antecedent of innovation, with profitability as a moderating factor. The results do however differ across national innovation systems and we find a strong relationship for British, Dutch, French, and Italian firms but not for German and Spanish entities. We discuss differences in the national systems of innovation and financing which contextualize the variations in the findings and thus make a nuanced contribution to the research in innovation financing. The cross-country differences calls for differentiated advice to managers, institutions, and researchers depending on the national context.

Keywords: innovation, R&D, national innovation systems, financing

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6601 Disclosure of Financial Risk on Sharia Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Renny Wulandari

Abstract:

This study aims to determine how the influence of Non Performing Financing, Financing Deposit Ratio, Operating Expenses and Operating Revenue and Net Income Margin on the disclosure of financial risk in Sharia banks. To achieve these objectives conducted associative research method with data source in the form of secondary data that is annual report data with period 2013-2016. The population in this study is the sharia banking industry in Indonesia and who issued the annual financial statements. A method of sampling use probability sampling. Analysis in this research is with SEM-PLS. The result is Net Income Margin has a significant effect on financial risk disclosure while Non Performing Financing (NPF) Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR), Operating Expenses and Operating Revenue (OEOR) have no effect on the disclosure of financial risk in sharia bank.

Keywords: Sharia banks, disclosure of risk financial, non performing financing, financing deposit ratio, operating expenses and operating revenue, net income margin

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6600 Comparison of Risk and Return on Trading and Profit Sharing Based Financing Contract in Indonesian Islamic Bank

Authors: Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, Imron Mawardi, Achsania Hendratmi

Abstract:

Murabaha is the most popular contract by the Islamic banks in Indonesia, since there is opinion stating that the risk level of mudharaba and musyaraka are higher and the return is uncertain. This research aims to analyze the difference of return, risk, and variation coefficient between profit sharing-based and trading-based financing in Islamic bank. This research uses quantitative approach using Wilcoxon signed rank test with data sampled from 13 Indonesian Islamic banks, collected from their quarterly financial reports from 2011 to 2015. The result shows the significant difference in return, while risk and variation coefficient are almost same. From the analysis, it can be concluded that profit sharing-based financing is less desirable not because of its risk. Trading-based financing is more desirable than the profit sharing because of its return.

Keywords: financing, Islamic bank, return, risk

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6599 Anti-Money Laundering and Countering of Terrorist Financing: The Role of Domestic Financial Institutions to Prevent Money Laundering

Authors: Dinesh Sivaguru, Kamal Thilakasiri

Abstract:

Preventing money laundering and terrorist financing is a major national and international problem today. Several attempts have been made to prevent money laundering by national and international dimension. These are often counteracted by the multi dynamic nature of the crimes. However, launders are often to use remittance systems to clean their ill-gotten money. This study presents the role of domestic financial institutions and the effective practices and actions should implement within domestic financial institutions to control and prevent financial crimes. This thesis highlights the progress that is required to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing, further it is an original contribution to the knowledge in an under researched field in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: money laundering, terrorists financing, financial institutions, regulatory bodies

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6598 The Effect of Family Controlling Ownership on Financing Policy

Authors: Vera Diyanty, Akhmad Syahroza

Abstract:

This research aims to describe an empirical evidence of the influence of family control on the company’s financing policy. Additionally, this research also shows the effect of leadership from family member and the effectiveness of the board of commissioners on companies’ financing policy. The result of this study found that family control through direct and indirect ownership mechanism have a positive impact on the choice of bank loan compare to public debt. Nevertheless, this research also shows that companies’ founders who become CEO and the effectiveness of board of commissioners do not prove to increase the alignment effect nor decrease the negative impact of entrenchment effect on the bank loan preference.

Keywords: family controlling, family CEO, board effectiveness, financing policy

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6597 Contractual Risk Transfer in Islamic Home Financing: Analysis in Bank Malaysia

Authors: Ahmad Dahlan Salleh, Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani, Muhamad Firdaus M. Hatta

Abstract:

Risk management has implications on pricing, governance arrangements, business practices and strategy. Nowadays, home financing contract offers more in the risk transfer form to increase bank profit. This is parallel with Islamic jurisprudence method al-Kharaj bi al-thaman (gain accompanies liability for loss) and al-ghurm bil ghunm (gain is justified with risk) that determine the matching between risk transfer and returns. Malaysian financing trend is to buy house. Besides, exists transparency lacking risk transfer issues to the clients because of not been informed clearly. Terms and conditions of each financing also do not reflect clearly that the risk has been transferred to the client, justifying a determination price been made. The assumption on risk occurrence is also inaccurate as each risk is different with the type of financing contract. This makes the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 in providing standards that transparent and consistent can be used by Islamic financial institution less effective. This study examines how far the level of the risk and obligation incurred by bank and client under various Islamic home financing contract. This research is qualitative by using two methods, document analysis, and semi-structured interviews. Document analysis from literature review to identify profile, themes and risk transfer element in home financing from Islamic jurisprudence perspective. This study finds that need to create a risk transfer parameter by banks which are consistent with risk transfer theory according to Islamic jurisprudence. This study has potential to assist the authority in Islamic finance such as The Central Bank of Malaysia (Bank Negara Malaysia) in regulating Islamic banking industry so that the risk transfer valuation in home financing contract based on home financing good practice and determined risk limits.

Keywords: risk transfer, home financing contract, Sharia compliant, Malaysia

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6596 The Effect of the Construction Contract System by Simulating the Comparative Costs of Capital to the Financial Feasibility of the Construction of Toll Bali Mandara

Authors: Mas Pertiwi I. G. AG Istri, Sri Kristinayanti Wayan, Oka Aryawan I. Gede Made

Abstract:

Ability of government to meet the needs of infrastructure investment constrained by the size of the budget commitments for other sectors. Another barrier is the complexity of the process of land acquisition. Public Private Partnership can help bridge the investment gap by including the amount of funding from the private sector, shifted the responsibility of financing, construction of the asset, and the operation and post-project design and care to them. In principle, a construction project implementation always requires the investor as a party to provide resources in the form of funding which it must be contained in a successor agreement in the form of a contract. In general, construction contracts consist of contracts which passed in Indonesia and contract International. One source of funding used in the implementation of construction projects comes from funding that comes from the collaboration between the government and the private sector, for example with the system: BLT (Build Lease Transfer), BOT (Build Operate Transfer), BTO (Build Transfer Operate) and BOO (Build Operate Own). And form of payment under a construction contract can be distinguished several ways: monthly payment, payments based on progress and payment after completed projects (Turn Key). One of the tools used to analyze the feasibility of the investment is to use financial models. The financial model describes the relationship between different variables and assumptions used. From a financial model will be known how the cash flow structure of the project, which includes revenues, expenses, liabilities to creditors and the payment of taxes to the government. Net cash flow generated from the project will be used as a basis for analyzing the feasibility of investment source of project financing Public Private Partnership could come from equity or debt. The proportion of funding according to its source is a comparison of a number of investment funds originating from each source of financing for a total investment cost during the construction period by selected the contract system and several alternative financing percentage ratio determined according to sources will generate cash flow structure that is different. Of the various possibilities for the structure of the cash flow generated will be analyzed by software is to test T Paired to compared the contract system used by various alternatives comparison of financing to determine the effect of the contract system and the comparison of such financing for the feasibility of investment toll road construction project for the economic life of 20 (twenty) years. In this use case studies of toll road contruction project Bali Mandara. And in this analysis only covered two systems contracts, namely Build Operate Transfer and Turn Key. Based on the results obtained by analysis of the variable investment feasibility of the NPV, BCR and IRR between the contract system Build Operate Transfer and contract system Turn Key on the interest rate of 9%, 12% and 15%.

Keywords: contract system, financing, internal rate of return, net present value

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6595 Financing Energy Efficiency: Innovative Options

Authors: Rahul Ravindranathan, R. P. Gokul

Abstract:

India, in its efforts towards economic and social development, is currently experiencing a heavy demand for energy. Due to the lack of sufficient domestic energy reserves, the country is highly dependent on energy imports which has increased rapidly at a rate of about 12 % per annum since 2005. Hence, India is currently focusing its efforts to manage this energy supply and demand gap and eventually achieve energy security. One of the most cost effective means to reduce this gap is by adopting Energy efficiency measures in the country. Initial assessments have shown that Energy efficiency measures have an energy conservation potential of about 23%. For an estimated investment potential of USD 8 Billion, the annual energy savings was estimated to be about 180 Billion Units per annum. In order to explore this huge energy conservation potential, many critical factors need to be considered to achieve practical energy savings. Financing options for these investments is one such major factor. Not only has India come out with various policy level as well as technology level drives to promote Energy efficiency but it has also developed various financing schemes to promote investment in Energy Efficiency projects. The Public sector has already come out with certain financing schemes such as the Partial Risk Guarantee Fund (PRGF), Venture Capital Fund (VCF), Partial Risk Sharing Fund (PRSF) etc., and various sectors are gradually utilizing these schemes to implement energy saving measures. However, additional financing options are required in order to explore the untouched energy conservation potential in the country. Hence, there is a need to develop some innovative financing options for India which would motivate the private sectors as well as financing institutions to invest in these energy saving measures. This paper shall review the existing financing schemes launched by the Government of India and highlight the key benefits as well as challenges with respect to these schemes. In addition to this, the paper would also review new and innovative financing schemes for India and how the same could be adopted in other parts of the globe especially in South and South East Asia. This review would provide an insight to the various Governments as well as Financial Institutions in coming out with new financing schemes for their country.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, financing, India

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6594 Willingness of Muslim Owners/Managers of Smes to Seek Capital Market Financing

Authors: Bashir Tijjani Abubakar

Abstract:

Capital markets play a very important role in financing of private and public institutions in both developing and developed economies. Unfortunately, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in those economies are yet to fully utilize the markets to finance their long financial needs. This study assesses the factors that influence the decisions of the Muslim Owners/Managers of SMEs in Nigeria and specifically in Kano to seek capital market financing. Logit regression model was used to assess the factors such as control of ownership, perception of the owners/managers on the interest rate charged by commercial banks, educational qualification, size, and age of the SMEs. The study reveals that all the factors have significant positive influence on the willingness of the SMEs Owners/Managers to seek capital market financing. The study recommends educating the Owners/Managers on the operations and products of the markets.

Keywords: capital markets, capital market financing, small and medium enterprise and willingness, size of an enterprise, age of an enterprise and control of ownership

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
6593 Demographic Factors Influence on Awareness of Islamic Financing among Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Entrepreneurs in the North East Region of Nigeria

Authors: Bashir Ahmad, Daneji, Hamidu Aminu, Ahmad, Aliyu Mukhtar, Daneji, Haruna Mohammed

Abstract:

It has been established and universally agreed that vibrant Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play significant roles in economic growth and development. In Nigeria, MSMEs are not playing the expected roles. Notable among the plethora of reasons is lack of prompt and sufficient finance. Government and other stakeholders attempted in several ways at different times to provide the required finance to MSMEs but the results were not encouraging and consequently, many failed. In recent past, Islamic financing emerged world over as promising alternative source of financing. However, its awareness among MSMEs entrepreneurs in north east region of Nigeria stands to be questioned. This study explored the 'Demographic Factors Influence on Awareness of Islamic Financing among MSMEs entrepreneurs in the North East Region of Nigeria'. The primary data used in this study were collected through questionnaire. In analyzing the collected data, the study used frequency, percentages, Pearson correlation, ANOVA and test of homogeneity test (Levene’s test) parameters generated from SPSS (version 15). The findings of the study revealed that entrepreneurs’ age, state of origin, religion and educational level influence their MSMEs awareness of Islamic Financing in the north east region of Nigeria. The study recommended that Islamic Financing institutions, government and relevant agencies should do more to enhance the awareness of Islamic financing among MSMEs entrepreneurs in the north east region of Nigeria.

Keywords: awareness, demographic factors, entrepreneurs, Islamic financing

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6592 Innovative Small and Medium Sized Firms: Intangible Investment and Financial Constraints - a Literature Review.

Authors: Eliane Abdo

Abstract:

Small and medium sized firms “SMEs” play essential role in the countries’ economic development mainly in terms of production, employment and equitable distribution of income. For innovative SMEs, the investment in the human capital and in research and development are crucial to survive in a competitive environment. In this paper we perform a literature review to underline the financing difficulties and constraints which innovative SMEs face while investing in intangible assets: not only when defining amount of the investments but also while choosing its financing methods. Literature review revealed that in order to finance their intangible assets, SMEs rely in first on their internal financing: the availability of internal cash flows can then determine their investment’s decision. Moreover SMEs face difficulties to finance their intangibles by financial debts due to the uncertainty of future cash flow and the absence of physical guarantees; they will therefore go for the issuance of new shares as a second choice, since innovative companies have high opportunity of growth that attract new shareholders.

Keywords: small and medium sized firms, capital structure, intangible investment, financial constraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
6591 Health Payments and Household Wellbeing in India: Examining the Role of Health Policy Interventions

Authors: Shailender Kumar

Abstract:

Current health policy pronouncements in India advocate for insurance-based financing mechanism to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), while undermine the role of comprehensive healthcare provision system. UHC is achieved when all people receive the health services they need without suffering financial hardship. This study, using 68th & 71st NSS rounds data, examines their relative and combined strength in achieving the above objective. Health-insurance has been unsuccessful in reducing prevalence and catastrophic effects of out-of-pocket payment and even dismantle the effectiveness of traditional way of health financing system. Healthcare provision is the best way forward to enhance health and well-being of households in condition if India removes existing inadequacies and inequalities in service provision across districts/states and ensure free/low cost medicines/diagnostics to the citizens.

Keywords: health policy, demand-side financing, supply-side financing, incidence of health payment

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6590 Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism

Authors: Covadonga Mallada Fernández

Abstract:

Economic development and globalization of international markets have created a favourable atmosphere for the emergence of new forms of crime such as money laundering or financing of terrorism, which may contribute to destabilized and damage economic systems. In particular, money laundering have acquired great importance since the 11S attacks, what has caused on the one hand, the establishment and development of preventive measures and, on the other hand, a progressive hardening of penal measures. Since then, the regulations imposed to fight against money laundering have been viewed as key components also in the fight against terrorist financing. Terrorism, at the beginning, was a “national” crime connected with internal problems of the State (for instance the RAF in Germany or ETA in Spain) but in the last 20 years has started to be an international problem that is connected with the defence and security of the States. Therefore, the new strategic concept for the defense and security of NATO has a comprehensive list of security threats to the Alliance, such as terrorism, international instability, money laundering or attacks on cyberspace, among others. With this new concept, money laundering and terrorism has become a priority in the national defense. In this work we will analyze the methods to combat these new threats to the national security. We will study the preventive legislations to combat money laundering and financing of terrorism, the UIF that exchange information between States, and the hawala-Banking.

Keywords: control of financial flows, money laundering, terrorism, financing of terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 361