Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: anorexia nervosa

29 Experiencing the Shattered: Managing Countertransference Experiences with Anorexia Patients in Psychotherapy

Authors: M. Card


Working with anorexia patients can be a challenging experience for mental and health care professionals. The reasons for not wanting to work with this patient population stems from the numerous concerns surrounding the patient’s health – physically and mentally. Many health care professionals reported having strong negative feelings, such as; anger, hopelessness and helplessness when working with anorexia patients. These feelings often impaired their judgement to treatment and affected how they related to the patient. This research focused on psychotherapists who preferred to work with anorexia patients; what countertransference feelings were evoked in them during sessions with patients and most importantly, how they managed the feelings. The research used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) as the theoretical framework and data analysis method. Semi-structured interviews were used with ten experienced psychotherapists to obtain their countertransference experiences with anorexia patients and how they manage it. There were three main themes discovered; (1) the use of supervision, (2) their own personal therapy and finally (3) experience and evolution. The research unearthed that experienced psychotherapists also experienced strong countertransference feelings towards their patients; some positive and some negative. However, these feelings could actually be interpreted as co-transference with their anorexia patients. The psychotherapists were able to own their part in the evocative unconscious nature of a relational therapeutic space, where their personal issues may be entangled in their anorexia patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anorexia nervosa, countertransference, co-transference, psychotherapy, relational psychotherapy

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28 Emotional Processing Difficulties in Recovered Anorexia Nervosa Patients: State or Trait

Authors: Telma Fontao de Castro, Kylee Miller, Maria Xavier Araújo, Isabel Brandao, Sandra Torres


Objective: There is a dearth of research investigating the long-term emotional functioning of individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). This 15-year longitudinal study aimed to examine whether difficulties in cognitive processing of emotions persisted after long-term AN recovery and its link to anxiety and depression. Method: Twenty-four females, who were tested longitudinally during their acute and recovered AN phases, and 24 healthy control (HC) women, were screened for anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and emotion regulation difficulties (ER; only assessed in recovery phase). Results: Anxiety, depression, and alexithymia levels decreased significantly with AN recovery. However, scores on anxiety and difficulty in identifying feelings (alexithymia factor) remained high when compared to the HC group. Scores on emotion regulation difficulties were also lower in HC group. The abovementioned differences between AN recovered group and HC group in difficulties in identifying and accepting feelings and lack of emotional clarity were no longer present when the effect of anxiety and depression was controlled. Conclusions: Findings suggest that emotional dysfunction tends to decrease in AN recovered phase. However, using an HC group as a reference, we conclude that several emotional difficulties are still increased after long-term AN recovery, in particular, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and difficulty controlling impulses and engaging in goal-directed behavior, thus suggesting to be a trait vulnerability. In turn, competencies related to emotional clarity and acceptance of emotional responses seem to be state-dependent phenomena linked to anxiety and depression. In sum, managing emotions remains a challenge for individuals recovered from AN. Under this circumstance, maladaptive eating behavior can serve as an affect regulatory function, increasing the risk of relapse. Emotional education and stabilization of depressive and anxious symptomatology after recovery emerge as an important avenue to protect from long-term AN relapse.

Keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, emotion recognition, emotion regulation

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27 Quality of Life and Willingness to Take Treatment and the Importance of the Disease in the Lives of Patients with Eating Disorders

Authors: Marzena Trojanczyk, Mariusz Jaworski, Ewa Dmoch Gajzlerska


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between the level of quality of life and willingness to take treatment in patients with eating disorders as anorexia, bulimia and compulsive bingeing. Material and methods: The subjects consisted of 99 women with eating disorders: anorexia, n = 33; bulimia, n = 35; compulsive overeating, n = 31 and 35 women in the control group. The study used an original questionnaire to assess the overall quality of life, as well as selected areas of the physical, mental, social and spiritual satisfaction. The subjects were also asked about the level of motivation for treatment, and the importance of the disease in the lives of patients. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical program SPSS 18.0. Results: Women with eating disorders in particular groups did not differ with respect to each other in the aspect of overall quality of life, satisfaction with the development of the spiritual, social functioning and mental health. The severity level of the disease in the lives of patients showed a negative correlation with social functioning in women with anorexia nervosa. In the case of patients with compulsive bingeing a positive relationship between the level of importance of the disease and the satisfaction of spiritual development is reported. Conclusions: Concerning the inferior quality of life, there is no relationship between a willingness to take treatment and the importance of the disease in the lives of patients with anorexia, bulimia and compulsive bingeing.

Keywords: anorexia, bulimia, compulsive overeating, quality of life

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26 Designing a Waitlist Intervention for Adult Patients Awaiting Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a Pilot Test

Authors: Deanne McArthur, Melinda Wall, Claire Hanlon, Dana Agnolin, Krista Davis, Melanie Dennis, Elizabeth Glidden, Anne Marie Smith, Claudette Thomson


In Canada, as prevalence rates and severity of illness have increased among patients suffering from eating disorders, wait times have grown substantially. Patients in Canada often face wait times in excess of 12 months. It is known that delaying treatment for eating disorders contributes to poor patient outcomes and higher rates of symptom relapse. Improving interim services for adult patients awaiting outpatient treatment is a priority for an outpatient eating disorders clinic in Ontario, Canada. The clinical setting currently provides care for adults diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. At present, the only support provided while patients are on the waitlist consists of communication with primary care providers regarding parameters for medical monitoring. The significance of this study will be to test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of an intervention to support adult patients awaiting outpatient eating disorder treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Methods: An intervention including psychoeducation, supportive resources, self-monitoring, and auxiliary referral will be pilot-tested with a group of patients in the summer of 2022 and detailed using a prospective cohort case study research design. The team will host patient focus groups in May 2022 to gather input informing the content of the intervention. The intervention will be pilot tested with newly-referred patients in June and July 2022. Patients who participate in the intervention will be asked to complete a survey evaluating the utility of the intervention and for suggestions, they may have for improvement. Preliminary findings describing the existing literature pertaining to waitlist interventions for patients with eating disorders, data gathered from the focus groups and early pilot testing results will be presented. Data analysis will continue throughout 2022 and early 2023 for follow-up publication and presentation in the summer of 2023. The aim of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge pertaining to providing interim support to those patients waiting for treatment for eating disorders and, by extension, to improve outcomes for this population.

Keywords: eating disorders, waitlist management, intervention study, pilot test

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25 The Multidisciplinary Treatment in Residence Care Clinic for Treatment of Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Yuri Melis, Mattia Resteghini, Emanuela Apicella, Eugenia Dozio, Leonardo Mendolicchio


Aim: This retrospective study was created to analyze the psychometric, anthropometric and body composition values in patients at the beginning and the discharge of their of hospitalization in the residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders (EFD’s). Method: The sample was composed by (N=59) patients with mean age N= 33,50, divided in subgroups: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) (N=28), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) (N=13) and Binge Eating Disorders (BED) (N=14) recruited from a residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders. The psychometrics level was measured with self-report questionnaires: Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) The Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI – 2). The anthropometric and nutritional values was collected by Body Impedance Assessment (B.I.A), Body mass index (B.M.I.). Measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of hospitalization, with an average time of recovery of about 8,6 months. Results: The all data analysis showed a statistical significance (p-value >0,05 | power size N=0,950) in variation from T0 (start of recovery) to T1 (end of recovery) in the clinical scales of MMPI-2, AN group (Hypocondria T0 64,14 – T1 56,39) (Depression T0 72,93 – T1 59,50) (Hysteria T0 61,29 – T1 56,17) (Psychopathic deviation T0 64,00 – T1 60,82) (Paranoia T0 63,82 – T1 56,14) (Psychasthenia T0 63,82 – T1 57,86) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 60,36 – T1 55,68); BN group (Hypocondria T0 64,08 – T1 47,54) (Depression T0 67,46 – T1 52,46) (Hysteria T0 60,62 – T1 47,84) (Psychopathic deviation T0 65,69 – T1 58,92) (Paranoia T0 67,46 – T1 55,23) (Psychasthenia T0 60,77 – T1 53,77) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 62,92 – T1 54,08); B.E.D groups (Hypocondria T0 59,43 – T1 53,14) (Depression T0 66,71 – T1 54,57) (Hysteria T0 59,86 – T1 53,82) (Psychopathic deviation T0 67,39 – T1 59,03) (Paranoia T0 58,57 – T1 53,21) (Psychasthenia T0 61,43 – T1 53,00) (Schizophrenia T0 62,29 – T1 56,36) (Obsessive T0 58,57 – T1 48,64). EDI-3 report mean value is higher than clinical cut-off at T0, in T1, there is a significant reduction of the general mean of value. The same result is present in the B.U.T. test in the difference between T0 to T1. B.M.I mean value in AN group is (T0 14,83 – T1 18,41) BN group (T0 20 – T1 21,33) BED group (T0 42,32 – T1 34,97) Phase Angle results: AN group (T0 4,78 – T1 5,64) BN (T0 6 – T1 6,53) BED group (T0 6 – T1 6,72). Discussion and conclusion: The evident presence that on the whole sample, we have an altered serious psychiatric and clinic conditions at the beginning of recovery. The interesting conclusions that we can draw from this analysis are that a multidisciplinary approach that includes the entire care of the subject: from the pharmacological treatment, analytical psychotherapy, Psychomotricity, nutritional rehabilitation, and rehabilitative, educational activities. Thus, this Multidisciplinary treatment allows subjects in our sample to be able to restore psychopathological and metabolic values to below the clinical cut-off.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, care clinic treatment, multidisciplinary treatment

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24 [Keynote Talk]: Mental Health Challenges among Women in Dubai, Mental Health Needs Assessment for Dubai (2015), Public Health and Safety Department - Dubai Health Authority (DHA)

Authors: Kadhim Alabady


Purpose: Mental health problems affect women and men equally, but some are more common among women. To Provide a baseline of the current picture of major mental health challenges among women in Dubai. which can then be used to measure the impact of interventions or service development. Method: We have used mixed methods evaluation approaches. This was used to increase the validity of findings by using a variety of data collection techniques. We have integrated qualitative and quantitative methods in this piece of work. Conducting the two approaches is to explore issues that might not be highlighted enough through one method. Results: The key findings are: The prevalence of people who suffer from different types of mental disorders remains largely unknown, many women are unwilling to seek professional help because of lack of awareness or the stigma attached to it. -It is estimated there were around 2,928–4,392 mothers in Dubai (2014) suffering from postnatal depression of which 858–1,287, early intervention can be effective. -The system for managing health care for women with mental illness is fragmented and contains gaps and duplications. -It is estimated 1,029 girl aged 13–19 years affected with anorexia nervosa and there would be an estimated 1,029 girl aged 13–19 years affected with anorexia nervosa. Recommendations: -Work is required with primary health care in order to identify women with undiagnosed mental illnesses. Further work is undertaken within primary health care to assess disease registries with the aim of helping GP practices to improve their disease registers. -It is important to conduct local psychiatric morbidity surveys in Dubai to obtain data and assess the prevalence of essential mental health symptoms and conditions that are not routinely collected to get a clear sense of what is needed and to assist decision and policy making in getting a complete picture on what services are required. -Emergency Mental Health Care – there is a need for a crisis response team to respond to emergencies in the community. -Continuum of care – a significant gap in the services for women once they diagnosed with mental disorder.

Keywords: mental health, depression, schizophrenia, women

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23 Re-Evaluation of Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (Appetite Scale) with Nutritional Intake of Cancer Patients

Authors: Amena Omer Syeda, Harita Shyam


Background: Anorexia a common symptom among patients with prolonged illness leading to anorexia-cachexia syndrome with a prevalence rate of 70%. In order to provide effective health care and better response to treatment, appetite should be assessed on admission and then periodically for earlier nutrition intervention. Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) appetite scale is 12 questions, patient-rated, symptom specific measure for appetite, and distress from anorexia. It assigns a score ranging from 0 (worst response) to 4 (best response). Therefore, proposing a total score of ≤24 may be sufficient to make a diagnosis of anorexia. Objectives: To assess the FAACT scale by co-relating the scores with the Nutritional intake and BMI of Cancer Patients. Methods: The FAACT scores of 100 cancer in-patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation as treatment, their 24-hour calorie and protein intake and BMI were recorded. The data was then statistically analyzed. Results: The calorie and protein intake and FAACT scores both showed a significant positive co-relation (p<0.001), inferring that the patients with a FAACT score of ≤24 where not meeting their calorie as well as protein requirements, hence rightly categorizing them as anorexic. The co-relation between BMI and FAACT scores showed a weak co-relation and was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).The FAACT scale thus is not sensitive to distinguish patients being under-weight, normal weight or obese. Conclusion: The FAACT scale helps in providing better palliative and nutritional care as it correctly assessed anorexia /cachexia in cancer patients and co-related significantly with their nutrient intake.

Keywords: appetite, cachexia, cancer, malnutrition

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22 The Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Treatment of Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Recovery Patient with Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Y. Melis, E. Apicella, E. Dozio, L. Mendolicchio


Introduction: Feeding and Eating Disorders (FED) represent the psychiatric pathology with the highest mortality rate and one of the major disorders with the highest psychiatric and clinical comorbidity. The vagus nerve represents one of the main components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and is involved in important neurophysiological functions. In FED, there is a spectrum of symptoms which with TaVNS (Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation) therapy, is possible to have a therapeutic efficacy. Materials and Methods: Sample subjects are composed of 15 female subjects aged > 18 ± 51. Admitted to a psychiatry community having been diagnosed according to DSM-5: anorexia nervosa (AN) (N= 9), bulimia nervosa (BN) (N= 5), binge eating disorder (BED) (N= 1). The protocol included 9 weeks of Ta-VNS stimulation at a frequency of 1.5-3.5 mA for 4 hours per day. The variables detected are the following: Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-HDRS-17), Body Mass Index (BMI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI). Results: Data analysis showed statistically significant differences between recording times (p > 0.05) in HAM-D (t0 = 18.28 ± 5.31; t4 = 9.14 ± 7.15), in BAI (t0 = 24.7 ± 10.99; t4 = 13.8 ± 7.0). The reported values show how during (T0-T4) the treatment there is a decay of the degree in the depressive state, in the state of anxiety, and an improvement in the value of BMI. In particular, the BMI in the AN-BN sub-sample had a minimum gain of 5% and a maximum of 11%. The analysis of HRV did not show a clear change among subjects, thus confirming the discordance of the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in FED. Conclusions: Although the sample does not possess a relevant value to determine long-term efficacy of Ta-VNS or on a larger population, this study reports how the application of neuro-stimulation in FED may become a further approach therapeutic. Indeed, substantial improvements are highlighted in the results and confirmed hypotheses proposed by the study.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, neurostimulation, anxiety disorders, depression

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21 A Mixed Methods Study Aimed at Exploring the Conceptualization of Orthorexia Nervosa on Instagram

Authors: Elena V. Syurina, Sophie Renckens, Martina Valente


Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the nature of the conversation around orthorexia nervosa (ON) on Instagram. Methods: The present study was conducted using mixed methods, combining a concurrent triangulation and sequential explanatory design. First, 3027 pictures posted on Instagram using #Orthorexia were analyzed. Then, a questionnaire about Instagram use related to ON was completed entirely by 185 respondents. These two quantitative data sources were statistically analyzed and triangulated afterwards. Finally, 9 interviews were conducted, to more deeply investigate what is being said about ON on Instagram and what the motivations to post about it are. Results: Four main categories of pictures were found to be represented in Instagram posts about ON: ‘food’, ‘people’, ‘text’, and ‘other.’ Savory and unprocessed food was most highly represented within the food category, and pictures of people were mostly pictures of the account holder. People who self-identify as having ON were more likely to post about ON, and they were significantly more likely to post about ‘food’, ‘people’ and ‘text.’ The goal of the posts was to raise awareness around ON, as well as to provide support for people who believe to be suffering from it. Conclusion: Since the conversation around ON on Instagram is supportive, it could be beneficial to consider Instagram use in the treatment of ON. However, more research is needed on a larger scale.

Keywords: orthorexia nervosa, Instagram, social media, disordered eating

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20 Impulsivity and Nutritional Restrictions in BED

Authors: Jaworski Mariusz, Owczarek Krzysztof, Adamus Mirosława


Binge eating disorder (BED) is one of the three main eating disorders, beside anorexia and bulimia nervosa. BED is characterized by a loss of control over the quantity of food consumed and the lack of the compensatory behaviors, such as induced vomiting or purging. Studies highlight that certain personality traits may contribute to the severity of symptoms in the ED. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between psychological variables (Impulsivity and Urgency) and Nutritional restrictions in BED. The study included two groups. The first group consisted of 35 women with BED aged 18 to 28. The control group - 35 women without ED aged 18 to 28. ED-1 questionnaire was used in a study to assess the severity of impulsivity, urgency and nutritional restrictions. The obtained data were standardized. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS 21 software. The severity of impulsivity was higher in patients with BED than the control group. The relation between impulsivity and nutritional restrictions in BED was observed, only taking into consideration the relationship of these variables with the level of urgency. However, if the severity of urgency in this relationship is skipped, the relationship between impulsivity and nutritional restrictions will not occur. Impulsivity has a negative relationship with the level of urgency. This study suggests the need to analyze the interaction between impulsivity and urgency, and their relationship with dietary behavior in BED, especially nutritional restrictions. Analysis of single isolated features may give erroneous results.

Keywords: binge eating disorder, impulsivity, nutritional restrictions, urgency

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19 Comparison of Nutritional Status and Tendency of Depression and Orthorexia Nervosa in Vegan Vegetarian and Omnivorous

Authors: E. Yeşil, M. Özgök, M. Özdemir, B. Köse


The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional status, tendency of depression and orthorexia nervosa in vegan, vegetarian and omnivorous. The sample consisted of 150 individuals (126 women, 24 men) who agreed to participate in the study between February and May of the year 2018. Fifty vegan, fifty vegetarian and fifty omnivore diet pattern were compared. In the first part, each participant was interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain demographic information about education, occupation and health conditions. In the second part Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used. In the third part ORTO-11 was used. In the fourth part, 24 Hours Dietary Record was used in order to determine the nutritional status of individuals. The vegans and vegetarians were interviewed about their diets. The mean body mass index of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore were, 21,24 ± 3,25; 22,2 ± 4,1 and 22,8 ± 4,3 respectively (p > 0,05). The daily energy intakes of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore diet were 1792,57 ± 784,8 kcal; 1691,9 ± 742,2 kcal and 1697,9 ± 695,6 kcal (p > 0.05). The mean BDI of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore diet were 6,2 ± 6,2, 9,8 ± 10,1 and 8,8 ± 8,1, respectively (p > 0,05). The mean ORTO-11 of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore diet were 25,9 ± 4,2, 27,2 ± 5,9 and 26,4 ± 5,3 (p > 0,05). There was a statistically significant correlation between BDI and ORTO-11 in vegan diet group (p: 0,01 r: 0,333). There was a positive correlation between BMI and BDI in the vegetarian group (p: 0,01 r: 0,363). Also in the vegetarian group; there was a negative correlation between age and ORTO-11 (p: 0,01 r: -0,316). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between waist circumference and ORTO-11 (p: 0,05 r: -0,316) in the omnivore diet group. Also there was a negative correlation between age and BDI (p: 0,05 r: -0,338) in this group. As a conclusion, positive correlation was found between BDI and ORTO-11 score of vegan participants. There were no differences between three groups in BDI or ORTO-11 score.

Keywords: depression, orthorexia nervosa, vegan, vegetarian

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18 The Use of Phototherapy with Unusual Case Studies in Counselling

Authors: Briar Schulz


The use of phototherapy within the counselling room offers significant advantages in extending far beyond typical "talk therapy" avenues. The benefits of using this approach are numerous and include: efficiency in recalling pertinent information in addition to utilizing a visual lens that often captures opulent detail that can be eluded in traditional dialogue. The goal of this presentation is to provide conference attendees with an opportunity to understand the therapeutic benefits and creative possibilities of incorporating photography into the clinical counselling process. This includes practical strategies for using in specific case studies, where studies of phototherapy have previously been limited. Ethical considerations and limitations to the process will also be addressed. Attendees will observe the benefits of using phototherapy with six longitudinal case studies including: a 30 year old female, with anorexia nervosa; a 22 year old self-harming individual with obsessive compulsive disorder; a 24 year old client with developmental delays, and bipolar disorder; a 14 year old client with Autism; and two clients with rare medical conditions struggling with depression and anxiety, one 21 years old and the other 16 years old. Aspects of each case will be linked to various theoretical modalities to highlight the efficiency and benefits of phototherapy in drawing important clinical conclusions. Furthermore, the use of phototherapy within these clinical areas remains a relatively unexplored area of the literature, and possibilities for future research will be highlighted. Finally, conference attendees will have the opportunity to try various phototherapy strategies within the interactive portion of this presentation. .

Keywords: Atypical, Case studies, Phototherapy, Photovoice

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17 Eating Disorders and Eating Behaviors in Morbid Obese Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Azadeh Mottaghi, Zeynab Shakeri


Background: Eating disorders (ED) are group of psychological disorders that significantly impair physical health and psychosocial function. EDconsists wide range of morbidity such as loss of eating control, binge eating disorder(BED), night eating syndrome (NES), and bulimia nervosa. Eating behavior is a wide range term that includes food choices, eating patterns, eating problems. In this study, current knowledge will be discussed aboutcomparison of eating disorders and eating behaviors in morbid obese women with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: 231 womenwith morbid obesity were included in the study.Loss of eating control, Binge eating disorder and Bulimia nervosa, Night eating syndrome, and eating behaviors and psychosocial factorswere assessed. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was a significant difference between women with and without diabetes in case of binge eating disorder (76.3% vs. 47.3%, p=0.001). Women with the least Interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) scores had a higher risk of eating disorders, and it is more common among diabetics (29.31% vs. 30.45%, p= 0.050). There was no significant difference between depression level and BDI score among women with or without diabetes. Although 38.5% (n=56) of women with diabetes and 50% (n=71) of women without diabetes had minimal depression. The logistic regression model has shown that women without diabetes had lower odds of exhibiting BED (OR=0.28, 95% CI 0.142-0.552).Women with and without diabetes with high school degree (OR=5.54, 95% CI 2.46-9.45, P= 0.0001 & OR=6.52, 95% CI 3.15-10.56, respectively) and moderate depression level (OR=2.03, 95% CI 0.98-3.95 & OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.12-4.56, P= 0.0001) had higher odds of BED. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that the odds of BED was lower in non-diabetic women with morbid obesity. Women with morbid obesity who had high school degree and moderate depression level had more odds for BED.

Keywords: eating disorders binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome, bulimia nervosa, morbid obesity

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16 Polymorphisms of the UM Genotype of CYP2C19*17 in Thais Taking Medical Cannabis

Authors: Athicha Cherdpunt, Patompong Satapornpong


The medical cannabis is made up of components also known as cannabinoids, which consists of two ingredients which are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Interestingly, the Cannabinoid can be used for many treatments such as chemotherapy, including nausea and vomiting, cachexia, anorexia nervosa, spinal cord injury and disease, epilepsy, pain, and many others. However, the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of THC can cause sedation, anxiety, dizziness, appetite stimulation and impairments in driving and cognitive function. Furthermore, genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 influenced the THC metabolism and might be a cause of ADRs. Particularly, CYP2C19*17 allele increases gene transcription and therefore results in ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype (UM). The aim of this study, is to investigate the frequency of CYP2C19*17 alleles in Thai patients who have been treated with medical cannabis. We prospectively enrolled 60 Thai patients who were treated with medical cannabis and clinical data from College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University. DNA of each patient was isolated from EDTA blood, using the Genomic DNA Mini Kit. CYP2C19*17 genotyping was conducted using the real time-PCR ViiA7 (ABI, Foster City, CA, USA). 30 patients with medical cannabis-induced ADRs group, 20 (67%) were female, and 10 (33%) were male, with an age range of 30-69 years. On the other hand, 30 patients without medical cannabis-induced ADRs (control group) consist of 17 (57%) female and 13 (43%) male. The most ADRs for medical cannabis treatment in the case group were dry mouth and dry throat (77%), tachycardia (70%), nausea (30%) and arrhythmia(10%). Accordingly, the case group carried CYP2C19*1/*1 (normal metabolizer) approximately 93%, while 7% patients carrying CYP2C19*1/*17 (ultra rapid metabolizers) exhibited in this group. Meanwhile, we found 90% of CYP2C19*1/*1 and 10% of CYP2C19*1/*17 in control group. In this study, we identified the frequency of CYP2C19*17 allele in Thai population which will support the pharmacogenetics biomarkers for screening and avoid ADRs of medical cannabis treatment.

Keywords: CYP2C19, allele frequency, ultra rapid metabolizer, medical cannabis

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15 The Association Between CYP2C19 Gene Distribution and Medical Cannabis Treatment

Authors: Vichayada Laohapiboolkul


Introduction: As the legal use of cannabis is being widely accepted throughout the world, medical cannabis has been explored in order to become an alternative cure for patients. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are natural cannabinoids found in the Cannabis plant which is proved to have positive treatment for various diseases and symptoms such as chronic pain, neuropathic pain, spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, reduce cancer-associated pain, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), dementia, cannabis and opioid dependence, psychoses/schizophrenia, general social anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette's disorder. Regardless of all the medical benefits, THC, if not metabolized, can lead to mild up to severe adverse drug reactions (ADR). The enzyme CYP2C19 was found to be one of the metabolizers of THC. However, the suballele CYP2C19*2 manifests as a poor metabolizer which could lead to higher levels of THC than usual, possibly leading to various ADRs. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of CYP2C19, specifically CYP2C19*2, genes in Thai patients treated with medical cannabis along with adverse drug reactions. Materials and Methods: Clinical data and EDTA whole blood for DNA extraction and genotyping were collected from patients for this study. CYP2C19*2 (681G>A, rs4244285) genotyping was conducted using the Real-time PCR (ABI, Foster City, CA, USA). Results: There were 42 medical cannabis-induced ADRs cases and 18 medical cannabis tolerance controls who were included in this study. A total of 60 patients were observed where 38 (63.3%) patients were female and 22 (36.7%) were male, with a range of age approximately 19 - 87 years. The most apparent ADRs for medical cannabis treatment were dry mouth/dry throat (76.7%), followed by tachycardia (70%), nausea (30%) and a few arrhythmias (10%). In the total of 27 cases, we found a frequency of 18 CYP2C19*1/*1 alleles (normal metabolizers, 66.7%), 8 CYP2C19*1/*2 alleles (intermediate metabolizers, 29.6%) and 1 CYP2C19*2/*2 alleles (poor metabolizers, 3.7%). Meanwhile, 63.6% of CYP2C19*1/*1, 36.3% and 0% of CYP2C19*1/*2 and *2/*2 in the tolerance controls group, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to confirm the distribution of CYP2C19*2 allele and the prevalence of poor metabolizer genes in Thai patients who received medical cannabis for treatment. Thus, CYP2C19 allele might serve as a pharmacogenetics marker for screening before initiating treatment.

Keywords: medical cannabis, adverse drug reactions, CYP2C19, tetrahydrocannabinol, poor metabolizer

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14 Use of Psychiatric Services and Psychotropics in Children with Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Mia Schneeweiss, Joseph Merola


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a prevalence of 9.6 million in children under the age of 18 in the US, 3.2 million of those suffer severe AD. AD has significant effects on the quality of life and psychiatric comorbidity in affected patients. We sought to quantify the use of psychotropic medications and mental health services in children. We used longitudinal claims data form commercially insured patients in the US between 2003 and 2016 to identify children aged 18 or younger with a diagnosis of AD associated with an outpatient or inpatient encounter. A 180-day enrollment period was required before the first diagnosis of AD. Among those diagnosed, we computed the use of psychiatric services and dispensing of psychotropic medications during the following 6 months. Among 1.6 million children <18 years with a diagnosis of AD, most were infants (0-1 years: 17.6%), babies (1-2 years: 12.2%) and young children (2-4 years: 15.4). 5.1% were in age group 16-18 years. Among younger children 50% of patients were female, after the age of 14 about 60% were female. In 16-18 years olds 6.4% had at least one claim with a recorded psychopathology during the 6-month baseline period; 4.6% had depression, 3.3% anxiety, 0.3% panic disorder, 0.6% psychotic disorder, 0.1% anorexia. During the 6 months following the physician diagnosis of AD, 66% used high-potency topical corticosteroids, 3.5% used an SSRI, 0.3% used an SNRI, 1.2% used a tricyclic antidepressant, 1.4% used an antipsychotic medication, and 5.2% used an anxiolytic agent. 4.4% had an outpatient visit with a psychiatrist and 0.1% had been hospitalized with a psychiatric diagnosis. In 14-16 years olds, 4.7% had at least one claim with a recorded psychopathology during the 6-month baseline period; 3.3% had depression, 2.5% anxiety, 0.2% panic disorder, 0.5% psychotic disorder, 0.1% anorexia. During the 6 months following the physician diagnosis of AD, 68% used high-potency topical corticosteroids, 4.6% used an SSRI, 0.6% used an SNRI, 1.5% used a tricyclic antidepressant, 1.4% used an antipsychotic medication, and 4.6% used an anxiolytic agent. 4.7% had an outpatient visit with a psychiatrist and 0.1% had been hospitalized with a psychiatric diagnosis. In 12-14 years olds, 3.3% had at least one claim with a recorded psychopathology during the 6-month baseline period; 1.9% had depression, 2.2% anxiety, 0.1% panic disorder, 0.7% psychotic disorder, 0.0% anorexia. During the 6 months following the physician diagnosis of AD, 67% used high-potency topical corticosteroids, 2.1% used an SSRI, 0.1% used an SNRI, 0.7% used a tricyclic antidepressant, 0.9 % used an antipsychotic medication, and 4.1% used an anxiolytic agent. 3.8% had an outpatient visit with a psychiatrist and 0.05% had been hospitalized with a psychiatric diagnosis. In younger children psychopathologies were decreasingly common: 10-12: 2.8%; 8-10: 2.3%; 6-8: 1.3%; 4-6: 0.6%. In conclusion, there is substantial psychiatric comorbidity among children, <18 years old, with diagnosed atopic dermatitis in a US commercially insured population. Meaningful psychiatric medication use (>3%) starts as early as 12 years old.

Keywords: pediatric atopic dermatitis, phychotropic medication use, psychiatric comorbidity, claims database

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13 Gastric Foreign Bodies in Dogs

Authors: Naglaa A. Abd Elkader, Haithem A. Farghali


The present study carried out on fifteen clinical cases of different species of dogs which admitted to surgical clinic of veterinary medicine with different symptoms (Acute vomiting, hematemesis and anorexia). There was diagnostic march which including plain radiograph and endoscopic examination. Treatment was including surgical interference and endoscopic retrieval followed by medicinal treatment. This study was aimed the detection of different foreign bodies by the most suitable method according to the type of the foreign bodies.

Keywords: stomach, endoscopy, foreign bodies, dogs

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12 Therapeutic Management of Toxocara canis Induced Hepatitis in Dogs

Authors: Milind D. Meshram


Ascarids are the most frequent worm parasite of dogs and cats. There are two species that commonly infect dogs: Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina. Adult roundworms live in the stomach and intestines and can grow to 7 inches (18 cm) long. A female may lay 200,000 eggs in a day. The eggs are protected by a hard shell. They are extremely hardy and can live for months or years in the soil. A dog aged about 6 years, from Satara was referred to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC) with a complaint of abdominal pain, anorexia, loss of condition and dull body coat with mucous pale membrane. The clinical examination revealed Anaemia, palpation of abdomen revealed enlargement of liver, slimy feel of the intestine loop, diarrhea.

Keywords: therapeutic management, Toxocara canis, induced hepatitis, dogs

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11 Clinical Case Report of Fulminating Leptospirosis in a 4-Months Old Caucasian Dog: Public Health Significance and Ramifications

Authors: N. N. Pilau, M. S. Abubakar, A. Danmaigoro, P. C. Mshelia, Y. Sani


A severely debilitated 4months old Caucasian male dog presented dehydration, emaciation, vomiting, icteric ocular and oral mucous membranes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hematuria, anorexia and prolonged recumbency. Clinical workup was done in established protocols for diagnosis based on history, clinical signs and selected laboratory tests. Treatment course were administered over 48hours during which the patient died of overwhelming hepatopathy, nephropathy and pneumonia. Postmortem findings supported by ante mortem laboratory test results tentatively diagnosed leptospirosis, a disease endemic and presenting potentially fatal epidemics and zoonoses in some countries amongst the developing regions of the world. This disease is reviewed and a call for attention on the public health significance of the disease is hereby presented through this case report.

Keywords: canine, endemic, leptospirosis, prevalence

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10 Response of Newzealand Rabbits to Drinking Water Treated with PolyDADMAC

Authors: Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Samia Mohammed Ali El Badwi, Ahmed El Amin Mohammed


This work has been managed to yield toxicity information on water treatment agents in the Sudan namely polyDADMAC, using New Zealand rabbits at multiple daily oral doses for a period of 10 weeks. Thirty-three heads of New Zealand rabbits were divided into 11 groups, each of three. Group 1 animals were the undosed controls. Test groups of either species were given polyDADMAC at similar dose rates of 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively for groups 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 and 11. Clinical signs were closely observed with postmortem and histopathological examinations. Chemical investigations included enzymatic concentrations of ALP, GOT, CK, GPT and LDH together with hematological changes in Hb, PCV, RBCs and WBCs. Mortalities occurred to variable degrees irrespective of the dose level. On polyDADMAC challenge, the test species showed clinical signs of dullness, loss of weight, anorexia, diarrhea, difficulty in respiration, hind limb paralysis and recumbency. Notably oral dosing with polyDADMAC caused lung emphysema, hepatic and renal dysfunctions, irregularity in enzymatic activities and serum metabolites, sloughing of intestinal epithelium, decreased electrolytes in serum, and splenic haemosiderosis. On evaluation of the above results, polyDADMAC was considered toxic to New Zealand rabbits at all dose rates tried. Practical implications of the results were highlighted and suggestions for future work were put forward.

Keywords: polydiallyldiethylaluminiumchloride (polyDADMAC), nubian goats, toxicity of drinking water, treatment of drinking water using chemicals

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9 A Review on the Importance of Nursing Approaches in Nutrition of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ş. Çiftcioğlu, E. Efe


In recent years, cancer has been at the top of diseases that cause death in children. Adequate and balanced nutrition plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. Cancer and cancer treatment is affecting food intake, absorption and metabolism, causing nutritional disorders. Appropriate nutrition is very important for the cancerous child to feel well before, during and after the treatment. There are various difficulties in feeding children with cancer. These are the cancer-related factors. Other factors are environmental and behavioral. As health professionals who spend more time with children in the hospital, nurses should be able to support the children on nutrition and help them to have balanced nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of nursing approaches in the nutrition of children with cancer. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature on this field. Anorexia may develop due to psychogenic causes or chemotherapeutic agents or accompanying infections and nutrient uptake may be reduced.  In addition, stomatitis, mucositis, taste and odor changes in the mouth, the feeling of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea can also reduce oral intake and result in significant losses in the energy deficit. In assessing the nutritional status of children with cancer, determining weight loss and good nutrition is essential anamnesis of a child.  Some anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests should be used to evaluate the nutrition of the child. The nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients has been studied for a long time and malnutrition, in particular under nutrition, in this population has long been recognized. Yet, its management remains variable with many malnourished children going unrecognized and consequently untreated. Nutritional support is important to pediatric cancer patients and should be integrated into the overall treatment of these children.

Keywords: cancer treatment, children, complication, nutrition, nursing approaches

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8 Clinical Prediction Score for Ruptured Appendicitis In ED

Authors: Thidathit Prachanukool, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Welawat Tienpratarn, Sorravit Savatmongkorngul, Panvilai Tangkulpanich, Chetsadakon Jenpanitpong, Yuranan Phootothum, Malivan Phontabtim, Promphet Nuanprom


Background: Ruptured appendicitis has a high morbidity and mortality and requires immediate surgery. The Alvarado Score is used as a tool to predict the risk of acute appendicitis, but there is no such score for predicting rupture. This study aimed to developed the prediction score to determine the likelihood of ruptured appendicitis in an Asian population. Methods: This study was diagnostic, retrospectively cross-sectional and exploratory model at the Emergency Medicine Department in Ramathibodi Hospital between March 2016 and March 2018. The inclusion criteria were age >15 years and an available pathology report after appendectomy. Clinical factors included gender, age>60 years, right lower quadrant pain, migratory pain, nausea and/or vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, fever>37.3°C, rebound tenderness, guarding, white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear white blood cells (PMN)>75%, and the pain duration before presentation. The predictive model and prediction score for ruptured appendicitis was developed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Result: During the study period, 480 patients met the inclusion criteria; of these, 77 (16%) had ruptured appendicitis. Five independent factors were predictive of rupture, age>60 years, fever>37.3°C, guarding, PMN>75%, and duration of pain>24 hours to presentation. A score > 6 increased the likelihood ratio of ruptured appendicitis by 3.88 times. Conclusion: Using the Ramathibodi Welawat Ruptured Appendicitis Score. (RAMA WeRA Score) developed in this study, a score of > 6 was associated with ruptured appendicitis.

Keywords: predictive model, risk score, ruptured appendicitis, emergency room

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7 Distribution of Cytochrome P450 Gene in Patients Taking Medical Cannabis

Authors: Naso Isaiah Thanavisuth


Introduction: Medical cannabis can be used for treatment, including anorexia, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, cancer, and metabolic syndrome-related disorders. However, medical cannabis leads to adverse effects (AEs), which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In previous studies, the major of THC metabolism enzymes are CYP2C9. Especially, the variation of CYP2C9 gene consist of CYP2C9*2 on exon 3 (C430T) (Arg144Cys) and CYP2C9*3 on exon 7 (A1075C) (Ile359Leu) to decrease enzyme activity. Notwithstanding, there is no data describing whether the variant of CYP2C9 genes are a pharmacogenetics marker for prediction of THC-induced AEs in Thai patients. Objective: We want to investigate the association between CYP2C9 gene and THC-induced AEs in Thai patients. Method: We enrolled 39 Thai patients with medical cannabis treatment consisting of men and women who were classified by clinical data. The quality of DNA extraction was assessed by using NanoDrop ND-1000. The CYP2C9*2 and *3 genotyping were conducted using the TaqMan real time PCR assay (ABI, Foster City, CA, USA). Results: All Thai patients who received the medical cannabis consist of twenty four (61.54%) patients who were female and fifteen (38.46%) were male, with age range 27- 87 years. Moreover, the most AEs in Thai patients who were treated with medical cannabis between cases and controls were tachycardia, arrhythmia, dry mouth, and nausea. Particularly, thirteen (72.22%) medical cannabis-induced AEs were female and age range 33 – 69 years. In this study, none of the medical cannabis groups carried CYP2C9*2 variants in Thai patients. The CYP2C9*3 variants (*1/*3, intermediate metabolizer, IM) and (*3/*3, poor metabolizer, PM) were found, three of thirty nine (7.69%) and one of thirty nine (2.56%) , respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study to confirm the genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9 and medical cannabis-induced AEs in the Thai population. Although, our results indicates that there is no found the CYP2C9*2. However, the variation of CYP2C9 allele might serve as a pharmacogenetics marker for screening before initiating the therapy with medical cannabis for prevention of medical cannabis-induced AEs.

Keywords: CYP2C9, medical cannabis, adverse effects, THC, P450

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6 Mesenteric Ischemia Presenting as Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Case Review of a Rare Complication and Aberrant Anatomy

Authors: Joshua Russell, Omar Zubair, Reuben Ndegwa


Introduction: Mesenteric ischemia is an uncommon condition that can be challenging to diagnose in the acute setting, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Very rarely has acute acalculous cholecystitis been described in the setting of mesenteric ischemia. Case: This was the case in a 78-year-old male, who initially presented with clinical and radiological evidence of small bowel obstruction, thought likely secondary to malignancy. The patient had a 6-week history of anorexia, worsening lower abdominal pain, and ~30kg of unintentional weight loss over a 12-month period and a CT- scan demonstrated a transition point in the distal ileum. The patient became increasingly hemodynamically unstable and peritonitic, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intra-operatively, however, no obvious transition point was identified, and instead, the gallbladder was markedly gangrenous and oedematous, consistent with acalculous cholecystitis. An open total cholecystectomy was subsequently performed. The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit post-operatively and continued to deteriorate over the proceeding 48 hours, with two re-look laparotomies demonstrating progressively worsening bowel ischemia, initially in the distribution of the superior mesenteric artery and then the coeliac trunk. On review, the patient was found to have an aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. The extent of ischemia was considered non-survivable, and the patient was palliated. Discussion: Multiple theories currently exist for the underlying pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis, including biliary stasis, sepsis, and ischemia. This case lends further support to ischemia as the underlying etiology of acalculous cholecystitis. This is particularly the case when considered in the context of the patient’s aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery, which occurs in 11-14% of patients. Conclusion: This case report adds further insight to the debate surrounding the pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis. It also presents acalculous cholecystitis as a complication of mesenteric ischemia that should always be considered, especially in the elderly patient and in the context of relatively common anatomical variations. Furthermore, the case brings to attention the importance of maintaining dynamic working diagnoses in the setting of evolving pathophysiology and clinical presentations.

Keywords: acalculous cholecystitis, anatomical variation, general surgery, mesenteric ischemia

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5 Traditional Medicine and Islamic Holistic Approach in Palliative Care Management of Terminal Illpatient of Cancer

Authors: Mohammed Khalil Ur Rahman, Mohammed Alsharon, Arshad Muktar, Zahid Shaik


Any ailment can go into terminal stages, cancer being one such disease which is many times detected in latent stages. Cancer is often characterized by constitutional symptoms which are agonizing in nature which disturbs patients and their family as well. In order to relieve such intolerable symptoms treatment modality employed is known to be ‘Palliative Care’. The goal of palliative care is to enhance patient’s quality of life by relieving or rather reducing the distressing symptoms of patients such as pain, nausea/ vomiting, anorexia/loss of appetite, excessive salivation, mouth ulcers, weight loss, constipation, oral thrush, emaciation etc. which are due to the effect of disease or due to the undergoing treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation etc. Ayurveda and Unani as well as other traditional medicines is getting more and more international attention in recent years and Ayurveda and Unani holistic perspective of the disease, it seems that there are many herbs and herbomineral preparation which can be employed in the treatment of malignancy and also in palliative care. Though many of them have yet to be scientifically proved as anti-cancerous but there is definitely a positive lead that some of these medications relieve the agonising symptoms thereby making life of the patient easy. Health is viewed in Islam in a holistic way. One of the names of the Quran is al-shifa' meaning ‘that which heals’ or ‘the restorer of health’ to refer to spiritual, intellectual, psychological, and physical health. The general aim of medical science, according to Islam, is to secure and adopt suitable measures which, with Allah’s permission, help to preserve or restore the health of the human body. Islam motivates the Physician to view the patient as one organism. The patient has physical, social, psychological, and spiritual dimensions that must be considered in synthesis with an integrated, holistic approach. Aims & Objectives: - To suggest herbs which are mentioned in Ayurveda Unani with potential palliative activity in case of Cancer patients. - Most of tibb nabawi [Prophetic Medicine] is preventive medicine and must have been divinely inspired. - Spiritual Aspects of Healing: Prayer, dua, recitation of the Quran - Remembrance of Allah play a central role.Materials & Method: Literary review of the herbs supported with experiential evidence will be discussed. Discussion: On the basis of collected data subject will be discussed in length. Conclusion: Will be presented in paper.

Keywords: palliative care, holistic, Ayurvedic and Unani traditional system of medicine, Quran, hadith

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4 Immune Responses and Pathological Manifestations in Chicken to Oral Infection with Salmonella typhimurium

Authors: Mudasir Ahmad Syed, Raashid Ahmd Wani, Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Uneeb Urwat, Riaz Ahmad Shah, Nazir Ahmad Ganai


Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) is a primary avian pathogen responsible for severe intestinal pathology in younger chickens and economic losses. However, the Salmonella Typhimurium is also able to cause infection in humans, described by typhoid fever and acute gastro-intestinal disease. A study was conducted at days to investigate pathological, histopathological, haemato-biochemical, immunological and expression kinetics of NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein) gene family (NRAMP1 and NRAMP2) in broiler chickens following experimental infection of Salmonella Typhimurium at 0,1,3,5,7,9,11,13 and 15 days respectively. Infection was developed in birds through oral route at 2×108 CFU/ml. Clinical symptoms appeared 4 days post infection (dpi) and after one-week birds showed progressive weakness, anorexia, diarrhea and lowering of head. On postmortem examination, liver showed congestion, hemorrhage and necrotic foci on surface, while as spleen, lungs and intestines revealed congestion and hemorrhages. Histopathological alterations were principally observed in liver in second week post infection. Changes in liver comprised of congestion, areas of necrosis, reticular endothelial hyperplasia in association with mononuclear cell and heterophilic infiltration. Hematological studies confirm a significant decrease (P<0.05) in RBC count, Hb concentration and PCV. White blood cell count showed significant increase throughout the experimental study. An increase in heterophils was found up to 7dpi and a decreased pattern was observed afterwards. Initial lymphopenia followed by lymphocytosis was found in infected chicks. Biochemical studies showed a significant increase in glucose, AST and ALT concentration and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in total protein and albumin level in the infected group. Immunological studies showed higher titers of IgG in infected group as compared to control group. The real time gene expression of NRAMPI and NRAMP2 genes increased significantly (P<0.05) in infected group as compared to controls. The peak expression of NRAMP1 gene was seen in liver, spleen and caecum of infected birds at 3dpi, 5dpi and 7dpi respectively, while as peak expression of NRAMP2 gene in liver, spleen and caecum of infected chicken was seen at 9dpi, 5dpi and 9dpi respectively. This study has role in diagnostics and prognostics in the poultry industry for the detection of salmonella infections at early stages of poultry development.

Keywords: biochemistry, histopathology, NRAMP, poultry, real time expression, Salmonella Typhimurium

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3 Non-Timber Forest Products and Livelihood Linkages: A Case of Lamabagar, Nepal

Authors: Sandhya Rijal, Saroj Adhikari, Ramesh R. Pant


Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have attracted substantial interest in the recent years with the increasing recognition that these can provide essential community needs for improved and diversified rural livelihood and support the objectives of biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, various challenges are witnessed in their sustainable harvest and management. Assuming that sustainable management with community stewardship can offer one of the solutions to existing challenges, the study assesses the linkages between NTFPs and rural livelihood in Lamabagar village of Dolakha, Nepal. The major objective was to document the status of NTFPs and their contributions in households of Lamabagar. For status documentation, vegetation sampling was done using systematic random sampling technique. 30 plots of 10 m × 10 m were laid down in six parallel transect lines at horizontal distance of 160 m in two different community forests. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 76 households (excluding non-response rate) using stratified random sampling technique for contribution analysis. Likewise, key informant interview and focus group discussions were also conducted for data triangulations. 36 different NTFPs were recorded from the vegetation sample in two community forests of which 50% were used for medicinal purposes. The other uses include fodder, religious value, and edible fruits and vegetables. Species like Juniperus indica, Daphne bholua Aconitum spicatum, and Lyonia ovalifolia were frequently used for trade as a source of income, which was sold in local market. The protected species like Taxus wallichiana and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora were also recorded in the area for which the trade is prohibited. The protection of these species urgently needs community stewardship. More than half of the surveyed households (55%) were depending on NTFPs for their daily uses, other than economic purpose whereas 45% of them sold those products in the market directly or in the form of local handmade products as a source of livelihood. NTFPs were the major source of primary health curing agents especially for the poor and unemployed people in the study area. Hence, the NTFPs contributed to livelihood under three different categories: subsistence, supplement income and emergency support, depending upon the economic status of the households. Although the status of forest improved after handover to the user group, the availability of valuable medicinal herbs like Rhododendron anthopogon, Swertia nervosa, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, and Aconitum spicatum were declining. Inadequacy of technology, lack of easy transport access, and absence of good market facility were the major limitations for external trade of NTFPs in the study site. It was observed that people were interested towards conservation only if they could get some returns: economic in terms of rural settlements. Thus, the study concludes that NTFPs could contribute rural livelihood and support conservation objectives only if local communities are provided with the easy access of technology, market and capital.

Keywords: contribution, medicinal, subsistence, sustainable harvest

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2 Barbie in India: A Study of Effects of Barbie in Psychological and Social Health

Authors: Suhrita Saha


Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel Inc and it made debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York in 9 March 1959. From being a fashion doll to a symbol of fetishistic commodification, Barbie has come a long way. A Barbie doll is sold every three seconds across the world, which makes the billion dollar brand the world’s most popular doll for the girls. The 11.5 inch moulded plastic doll has a height of 5 feet 9 inches at 1/6 scale. Her vital statistics have been estimated at 36 inches (chest), 18 inches (waist) and 33 inches (hips). Her weight is permanently set at 110 pounds which would be 35 pounds underweight. Ruth Handler, the creator of Barbie wanted a doll that represented adulthood and allowed children to imagine themselves as teenagers or adults. While Barbie might have been intended to be independent, imaginative and innovative, the physical uniqueness does not confine the doll to the status of a play thing. It is a cultural icon but with far reaching critical implications. The doll is a commodity bearing more social value than practical use value. The way Barbie is produced represents industrialization and commodification of the process of symbolic production. And this symbolic production and consumption is a standardized planned one that produce stereotypical ‘pseudo-individuality’ and suppresses cultural alternatives. Children are being subject to and also arise as subjects in this consumer context. A very gendered, physiologically dissected sexually charged symbolism is imposed upon children (both male and female), childhood, their social worlds, identity, and relationship formation. Barbie is also very popular among Indian children. While the doll is essentially an imaginative representation of the West, it is internalized by the Indian sensibilities. Through observation and questionnaire-based interview within a sample population of adolescent children (primarily female, a few male) and parents (primarily mothers) in Kolkata, an Indian metropolis, the paper puts forth findings of sociological relevance. 1. Barbie creates, recreates, and accentuates already existing divides between the binaries like male- female, fat- thin, sexy- nonsexy, beauty- brain and more. 2. The Indian girl child in her associative process with Barbie wants to be like her and commodifies her own self. The male child also readily accepts this standardized commodification. Definition of beauty is thus based on prejudice and stereotype. 3. Not being able to become Barbie creates health issues both psychological and physiological varying from anorexia to obesity as well as personality disorder. 4. From being a plaything Barbie becomes the game maker. Barbie along with many other forms of simulation further creates a consumer culture and market for all kind of fitness related hyper enchantment and subsequent disillusionment. The construct becomes the reality and the real gets lost in the play world. The paper would thus argue that Barbie from being an innocuous doll transports itself into becoming social construct with long term and irreversible adverse impact.

Keywords: barbie, commodification, personality disorder, sterotype

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1 Development of a Bead Based Fully Automated Mutiplex Tool to Simultaneously Diagnose FIV, FeLV and FIP/FCoV

Authors: Andreas Latz, Daniela Heinz, Fatima Hashemi, Melek Baygül


Introduction: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline coronavirus (FCoV) are serious infectious diseases affecting cats worldwide. Transmission of these viruses occurs primarily through close contact with infected cats (via saliva, nasal secretions, faeces, etc.). FeLV, FIV, and FCoV infections can occur in combination and are expressed in similar clinical symptoms. Diagnosis can therefore be challenging: Symptoms are variable and often non-specific. Sick cats show very similar clinical symptoms: apathy, anorexia, fever, immunodeficiency syndrome, anemia, etc. Sample volume for small companion animals for diagnostic purposes can be challenging to collect. In addition, multiplex diagnosis of diseases can contribute to an easier, cheaper, and faster workflow in the lab as well as to the better differential diagnosis of diseases. For this reason, we wanted to develop a new diagnostic tool that utilizes less sample volume, reagents, and consumables than multiplesingleplex ELISA assays Methods: The Multiplier from Dynextechonogies (USA) has been used as platform to develop a Multiplex diagnostic tool for the detection of antibodies against FIV and FCoV/FIP and antigens for FeLV. Multiplex diagnostics. The Dynex®Multiplier®is a fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer that significantly simplifies laboratory workflow. The Multiplier®ease-of-use reduces pre-analytical steps by combining the power of efficiently multiplexing multiple assays with the simplicity of automated microplate processing. Plastic beads have been coated with antigens for FIV and FCoV/FIP, as well as antibodies for FeLV. Feline blood samples are incubated with the beads. Read out of results is performed via chemiluminescence Results: Bead coating was optimized for each individual antigen or capture antibody and then combined in the multiplex diagnostic tool. HRP: Antibody conjugates for FIV and FCoV antibodies, as well as detection antibodies for FeLV antigen, have been adjusted and mixed. 3 individual prototyple batches of the assay have been produced. We analyzed for each disease 50 well defined positive and negative samples. Results show an excellent diagnostic performance of the simultaneous detection of antibodies or antigens against these feline diseases in a fully automated system. A 100% concordance with singleplex methods like ELISA or IFA can be observed. Intra- and Inter-Assays showed a high precision of the test with CV values below 10% for each individual bead. Accelerated stability testing indicate a shelf life of at least 1 year. Conclusion: The new tool can be used for multiplex diagnostics of the most important feline infectious diseases. Only a very small sample volume is required. Fully automation results in a very convenient and fast method for diagnosing animal diseases.With its large specimen capacity to process over 576 samples per 8-hours shift and provide up to 3,456 results, very high laboratory productivity and reagent savings can be achieved.

Keywords: Multiplex, FIV, FeLV, FCoV, FIP

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