Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5385

Search results for: judicial decision making

5385 A Phenomenological Framework of Unconscious Cognition on Judicial Decision Making

Authors: Mariam Shah

Abstract:

This paper will examine the potential influence and role of unconscious cognition on judicial decision making. The theoretical underpinnings of this paper rest on phenomenological theory grounded predominantly in Schutzian phenomenology. Aspects of Husserlian and Gadamerian phenomenology will be included within the phenomenological framework put forward in this paper, in an attempt to provide a more complete and thorough account of how unconscious cognition can influence judicial decision making. This paper has far reaching implications, as the framework provides a foundation for unconscious cognitive factors which can work to influence decision making more generally.

Keywords: decision making, Gadamer, Gadamerian, Husserl, Husserlian, judicial decision making, phenomenology, Schutz, Schutzian

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5384 Stereotypical Perception as an Influential Factor in the Judicial Decision Making Process for Shoplifting Cases Presided over in the UK

Authors: Mariam Shah

Abstract:

Stereotypes are not generally considered to be an acceptable influence upon any decision making process, particularly those involving judicial decision making outcomes. Yet, we are confronted with an uncomfortable truth that stereotypes may be operating to influence judicial outcomes. Variances in sentencing outcomes are not easily explained away by criminological, psychological, or sociological theorem, but may be answered via qualitative research produced within the field of phenomenology. This paper will examine the current literature pertaining to the effect of stereotypes on the criminal justice system within the UK, and will also discuss what the implications are for stereotypical influences upon decision making in the criminal justice system. This paper will give particular focus to shoplifting offences dealt with in UK criminal courts, but this research has long reaching implications for the criminal process more generally.

Keywords: decision making, judicial decision making, phenomenology, shoplifting, stereotypes

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5383 Strict Liability as a Means of Standardising Sentencing Outcomes for Shoplifting Offences Dealt with in UK Magistrates Courts

Authors: Mariam Shah

Abstract:

Strict liability is frequently used in magistrate’s courts for TV license and driving offences.There is existing research suggesting that the strict liability approach to criminal offences can result in ‘absurd’ judicial outcomes, or potentially ‘injustice’.This paper will discuss the potential merits of strict liability as a method for dealing with shoplifting offences.Currently, there is disparity in sentencing outcomes in the UK, particularly in relation to shoplifting offences.This paper will question whether ‘injustice’ is actually in the differentiation of defendants based upon their ‘perceived’ circumstances, which could be resulting in arbitrary judicial decision making.

Keywords: arbitrary, decision making, judicial decision making, shoplifting, stereotypes, strict liability

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5382 'Explainable Artificial Intelligence' and Reasons for Judicial Decisions: Why Justifications and Not Just Explanations May Be Required

Authors: Jacquelyn Burkell, Jane Bailey

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (AI) solutions deployed within the justice system face the critical task of providing acceptable explanations for decisions or actions. These explanations must satisfy the joint criteria of public and professional accountability, taking into account the perspectives and requirements of multiple stakeholders, including judges, lawyers, parties, witnesses, and the general public. This research project analyzes and integrates two existing literature on explanations in order to propose guidelines for explainable AI in the justice system. Specifically, we review three bodies of literature: (i) explanations of the purpose and function of 'explainable AI'; (ii) the relevant case law, judicial commentary and legal literature focused on the form and function of reasons for judicial decisions; and (iii) the literature focused on the psychological and sociological functions of these reasons for judicial decisions from the perspective of the public. Our research suggests that while judicial ‘reasons’ (arguably accurate descriptions of the decision-making process and factors) do serve similar explanatory functions as those identified in the literature on 'explainable AI', they also serve an important ‘justification’ function (post hoc constructions that justify the decision that was reached). Further, members of the public are also looking for both justification and explanation in reasons for judicial decisions, and that the absence of either feature is likely to contribute to diminished public confidence in the legal system. Therefore, artificially automated judicial decision-making systems that simply attempt to document the process of decision-making are unlikely in many cases to be useful to and accepted within the justice system. Instead, these systems should focus on the post-hoc articulation of principles and precedents that support the decision or action, especially in cases where legal subjects’ fundamental rights and liberties are at stake.

Keywords: explainable AI, judicial reasons, public accountability, explanation, justification

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5381 Decision Traps of Military Leaders

Authors: Ahmet Ali Turk, Muhterem Bayram

Abstract:

In this study, it is intended to determine that what kind of traps military leaders fall into during the decision making and how they make take a measure against them. In the study, the domestic and foreign literature on the military leadership has been reviewed and military decision-making process of the different countries has been introduced and study has been designed by making interviews as a sample with 50 people who had made military leadership. The issues resulting from the literature review that led to wrong decisions of military leaders and the points obtained as a result of interview have been evaluated by comparing. As a result, it has been emerged that the personnel who have made especially military leadership are in tendency of making the wrong decision due to decision traps such as excessive self-confidence, lack of experience, unplanned movement, hasty decision making and prohibitive conditions and also the need for increased situational awareness about this condition has been emerged.

Keywords: military leadership, decision making, military decision making, military decision making traps

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5380 Decision Making under Strict Uncertainty: Case Study in Sewer Network Planning

Authors: Zhen Wu, David Lupien St-Pierre, Georges Abdul-Nour

Abstract:

In decision making under strict uncertainty, decision makers have to choose a decision without any information about the states of nature. The classic criteria of Laplace, Wald, Savage, Hurwicz and Starr are introduced and compared in a case study of sewer network planning. Furthermore, results from different criteria are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, this paper discusses the idea that decision making under strict uncertainty (DMUSU) can be viewed as a two-player game and thus be solved by a solution concept in game theory: Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: decision criteria, decision making, sewer network planning, decision making, strict uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
5379 Computing Machinery and Legal Intelligence: Towards a Reflexive Model for Computer Automated Decision Support in Public Administration

Authors: Jacob Livingston Slosser, Naja Holten Moller, Thomas Troels Hildebrandt, Henrik Palmer Olsen

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a model for human-AI interaction in public administration that involves legal decision-making. Inspired by Alan Turing’s test for machine intelligence, we propose a way of institutionalizing a continuous working relationship between man and machine that aims at ensuring both good legal quality and higher efficiency in decision-making processes in public administration. We also suggest that our model enhances the legitimacy of using AI in public legal decision-making. We suggest that case loads in public administration could be divided between a manual and an automated decision track. The automated decision track will be an algorithmic recommender system trained on former cases. To avoid unwanted feedback loops and biases, part of the case load will be dealt with by both a human case worker and the automated recommender system. In those cases an experienced human case worker will have the role of an evaluator, choosing between the two decisions. This model will ensure that the algorithmic recommender system is not compromising the quality of the legal decision making in the institution. It also enhances the legitimacy of using algorithmic decision support because it provides justification for its use by being seen as superior to human decisions when the algorithmic recommendations are preferred by experienced case workers. The paper outlines in some detail the process through which such a model could be implemented. It also addresses the important issue that legal decision making is subject to legislative and judicial changes and that legal interpretation is context sensitive. Both of these issues requires continuous supervision and adjustments to algorithmic recommender systems when used for legal decision making purposes.

Keywords: administrative law, algorithmic decision-making, decision support, public law

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5378 Carrying Out the Steps of Decision Making Process in Concrete Organization

Authors: Eva Štěpánková

Abstract:

The decision-making process is theoretically clearly defined. Generally, it includes the problem identification and analysis, data gathering, goals and criteria setting, alternatives development and optimal alternative choice and its implementation. In practice however, various modifications of the theoretical decision-making process can occur. The managers can consider some of the phases to be too complicated or unfeasible and thus they do not carry them out and conversely some of the steps can be overestimated. The aim of the paper is to reveal and characterize the perception of the individual phases of decision-making process by the managers. The research is concerned with managers in the military environment–commanders. Quantitative survey is focused cross-sectionally in the individual levels of management of the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. On the total number of 135 respondents the analysis focuses on which of the decision-making process phases are problematic or not carried out in practice and which are again perceived to be the easiest. Then it is examined the reasons of the findings.

Keywords: decision making, decision making process, decision problems, concrete organization

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5377 Strategic Decision Making Practice in Croatia: Which Decision Making Style is More Effective?

Authors: Ivana Bulog

Abstract:

Decision making is a vital part of the business world and any other field of human endeavor. Which way a business organization will take, and where that way will lead it, depends on broad range of decisions made by managers in the managerial structure. Strategic decisions are of the greatest importance for organizational success. Although much empirical research has been done trying to describe and explain its nature and effectiveness, knowledge about strategic decision making is still incomplete. This paper explores the nature of strategic decision making in particular setting - in Croatian companies. The main focus of this research is on the style that decision makers on strategic management level are following when making decisions of life importance for their companies. Two main decision making style that explain the way decision maker collects and processes available information and performs all the activities in strategic decision making process were empirical tested: rational and intuitive one. Besides analyzing their existence on strategic management level in Croatian companies, their effectiveness is analyzed as well. Results showed that decision makers at strategic management level are following both styles somewhat equally in order to function effectively, and that intuitive style is more effective when considering decisions outcomes.

Keywords: decision making style, decision making effectiveness, strategic decisions, management sciences

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5376 Adolescents’ Role in Family Buying Decision Making

Authors: Harleen Kaur, Deepika Jindal Singla

Abstract:

Buying decision making is a complicated process, in which consumer’s decision is under the impact of others. The buying decision making is directed in a way that they have to act as customers in the society. Media and family are key socialising agents for adolescents’. Moreover, changes in the socio-cultural environment in India necessitate that adolescents’ influence in family’s buying decision-making should be investigated. In comparison to Western society, Indian is quite different, when compared in terms of family composition and structure, behaviour, values and norms which effect adolescents’ buying decision-making.

Keywords: adolescents, buying behavior, Indian urban families, consumer socialization

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5375 Career Decision-Making Difficulty and Emotional Quotient: Basis for a Career Guidance Intervention for City College of Angeles

Authors: Rhenan D. Estacio

Abstract:

This research presents the career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of one hundred fifty (150) college students of City College of Angeles, Academic Year 2016-2017. Independent sample T-test and Pearson r correlation were done to shifter and non-shifter in terms of their career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. A significant positive correlation revealed (r=.302) on career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. Also, a significant negative correlation revealed (r=-.329) on career decision making difficulty and a moderating variable which is age. The finding significantly shows that emotional quotient was associated and adds a significant incremental variance with career decision making difficulty. Moreover, age shows a moderating effect on career decision making difficulty by having a significant decline and increment on variables. Furthermore, categorization of career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of said participants are described in this study. In addition, career guidance interventions were suggested based on the results of this study.

Keywords: career, decision-making, difficulty, emotional, quotient

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5374 Critical Evaluation of the Transformative Potential of Artificial Intelligence in Law: A Focus on the Judicial System

Authors: Abisha Isaac Mohanlal

Abstract:

Amidst all suspicions and cynicism raised by the legal fraternity, Artificial Intelligence has found its way into the legal system and has revolutionized the conventional forms of legal services delivery. Be it legal argumentation and research or resolution of complex legal disputes; artificial intelligence has crept into all legs of modern day legal services. Its impact has been largely felt by way of big data, legal expert systems, prediction tools, e-lawyering, automated mediation, etc., and lawyers around the world are forced to upgrade themselves and their firms to stay in line with the growth of technology in law. Researchers predict that the future of legal services would belong to artificial intelligence and that the age of human lawyers will soon rust. But as far as the Judiciary is concerned, even in the developed countries, the system has not fully drifted away from the orthodoxy of preferring Natural Intelligence over Artificial Intelligence. Since Judicial decision-making involves a lot of unstructured and rather unprecedented situations which have no single correct answer, and looming questions of legal interpretation arise in most of the cases, discretion and Emotional Intelligence play an unavoidable role. Added to that, there are several ethical, moral and policy issues to be confronted before permitting the intrusion of Artificial Intelligence into the judicial system. As of today, the human judge is the unrivalled master of most of the judicial systems around the globe. Yet, scientists of Artificial Intelligence claim that robot judges can replace human judges irrespective of how daunting the complexity of issues is and how sophisticated the cognitive competence required is. They go on to contend that even if the system is too rigid to allow robot judges to substitute human judges in the recent future, Artificial Intelligence may still aid in other judicial tasks such as drafting judicial documents, intelligent document assembly, case retrieval, etc., and also promote overall flexibility, efficiency, and accuracy in the disposal of cases. By deconstructing the major challenges that Artificial Intelligence has to overcome in order to successfully invade the human- dominated judicial sphere, and critically evaluating the potential differences it would make in the system of justice delivery, the author tries to argue that penetration of Artificial Intelligence into the Judiciary could surely be enhancive and reparative, if not fully transformative.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, judicial decision making, judicial systems, legal services delivery

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5373 Financial Decision-Making among Finance Students: An Empirical Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Barbora Chmelíková

Abstract:

Making sound financial decisions is an essential skill which can have an impact on life of each consumer of financial products. The aim of this paper is to examine decision-making concerning financial matters and personal finance. The selected target group was university students majoring in finance related fields. The study was conducted in the Czech Republic at Masaryk University in 2015. In order to analyze financial decision-making questions related to basic finance decisions were developed to address the research objective. The results of the study suggest gaps in detecting best solutions to given financial decision-making questions among finance students. The analysis results indicate relation between financial decision-making and own experience with holding and using concrete financial products.

Keywords: financial decision-making, financial literacy, personal finance, university students

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5372 Youth Intelligent Personal Decision Aid

Authors: Norfiza Ibrahim, Norshuhada Shiratuddin, Siti Mahfuzah Sarif

Abstract:

Decision-making system is used to facilitate people in making the right choice for their important daily activities. For the youth, proper guidance in making important decisions is needed. Their skills in decision-making aid decisions will indirectly affect their future. For that reason, this study focuses on the intelligent aspects in the development of intelligent decision support application. The aid apparently integrates Personality Traits (PT) and Multiple Intelligence (MI) data in development of a computerized personal decision aid for youth named as Youth Personal Decision Aid (Youth PDA). This study is concerned with the aid’s helpfulness based on the hybrid intelligent process. There are four main items involved which are reliability, decision making effort, confidence, as well as decision process awareness. Survey method was applied to the actual user of this system, namely the school and the Institute of Higher Education (IPT)’s students. An establish instrument was used to evaluate the study. The results of the analysis and findings in the assessment indicates a high mean value of the four dimensions in helping Youth PDA to be accepted as a useful tool for the youth in decision-making.

Keywords: decision support, multiple intelligent, personality traits, youth personal decision aid

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5371 The Quotation-Based Algorithm for Distributed Decision Making

Authors: Gennady P. Ginkul, Sergey Yu. Soloviov

Abstract:

The article proposes to use so-called "quotation-based algorithm" for simulation of decision making process in distributed expert systems and multi-agent systems. The idea was adopted from the techniques for group decision-making. It is based on the assumption that one expert system to perform its logical inference may use rules from another expert system. The application of the algorithm was demonstrated on the example in which the consolidated decision is the decision that requires minimal quotation.

Keywords: backward chaining inference, distributed expert systems, group decision making, multi-agent systems

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5370 Employing Operations Research at Universities to Build Management Systems

Authors: Abdallah A. Hlayel

Abstract:

Operations research science (OR) deals with good success in developing and applying scientific methods for problem solving and decision-making. However, by using OR techniques, we can enhance the use of computer decision support systems to achieve optimal management for institutions. OR applies comprehensive analysis including all factors that affect on it and builds mathematical modeling to solve business or organizational problems. In addition, it improves decision-making and uses available resources efficiently. The adoption of OR by universities would definitely contributes to the development and enhancement of the performance of OR techniques. This paper provides an understanding of the structures, approaches and models of OR in problem solving and decision-making.

Keywords: best candidates' method, decision making, decision support system, operations research

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5369 Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Based on Ignatian Discernment Process

Authors: Pathinathan Theresanathan, Ajay Minj

Abstract:

Ignatian Discernment Process (IDP) is an intense decision-making tool to decide on life-issues. Decisions are influenced by various factors outside of the decision maker and inclination within. This paper develops IDP in the context of Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making (FMCDM) process. Extended VIKOR method is a decision-making method which encompasses even conflict situations and accommodates weightage to various issues. Various aspects of IDP, namely three ways of decision making and tactics of inner desires, are observed, analyzed and articulated within the frame work of fuzzy rules. The decision-making situations are broadly categorized into two types. The issues outside of the decision maker influence the person. The inner feeling also plays vital role in coming to a conclusion. IDP integrates both the categories using Extended VIKOR method. Case studies are carried out and analyzed with FMCDM process. Finally, IDP is verified with an illustrative case study and results are interpreted. A confused person who could not come to a conclusion is able to take decision on a concrete way of life through IDP. The proposed IDP model recommends an integrated and committed approach to value-based decision making.

Keywords: AHP, FMCDM, IDP, ignatian discernment, MCDM, VIKOR

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5368 Marketing Mix, Motivation and the Tendency of Consumer Decision Making in Buying Condominium

Authors: Bundit Pungnirund

Abstract:

This research aimed to study the relationship between marketing mix attitudes, motivation of buying decision and tendency of consumer decision making in buying the condominiums in Thailand. This study employed by survey and quantitative research. The questionnaire was used to collect the data from 400 sampled of customers who interested in buying condominium in Bangkok. The descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis were used to analyze data. The research found that marketing mixed factors in terms of product and price were related to buying decision making tendency in terms of price and room size. Marketing mixed factors in terms of price, place and promotion were related to buying decision making tendency in term of word of mouth. Consumers’ buying motivation in terms of social acceptance, self-esteemed and self-actualization were related to buying decision making tendency in term of room size. In addition, motivation in self-esteemed was related to buying decision making tendency within a year.

Keywords: condominium, marketing mix, motivation, tendency of consumer decision making

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5367 Factors Affecting Employee Decision Making in an AI Environment

Authors: Yogesh C. Sharma, A. Seetharaman

Abstract:

The decision-making process in humans is a complicated system influenced by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Human decisions have a ripple effect on subsequent decisions. In this study, the scope of human decision making is limited to employees. In an organisation, a person makes a variety of decisions from the time they are hired to the time they retire. The goal of this research is to identify various elements that influence decision-making. In addition, the environment in which a decision is made is a significant aspect of the decision-making process. Employees in today's workplace use artificial intelligence (AI) systems for automation and decision augmentation. The impact of AI systems on the decision-making process is examined in this study. This research is designed based on a systematic literature review. Based on gaps in the literature, limitations and the scope of future research have been identified. Based on these findings, a research framework has been designed to identify various factors affecting employee decision making. Employee decision making is influenced by technological advancement, data-driven culture, human trust, decision automation-augmentation, and workplace motivation. Hybrid human-AI systems require the development of new skill sets and organisational design. Employee psychological safety and supportive leadership influences overall job satisfaction.

Keywords: employee decision making, artificial intelligence (AI) environment, human trust, technology innovation, psychological safety

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5366 An Integreated Intuitionistic Fuzzy ELECTRE Model for Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

Authors: Babek Erdebilli

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop and describe a new methodology for the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) problem using IFE (Elimination Et Choix Traduisant La Realite (ELECTRE) model. The proposed models enable Decision-Makers (DMs) on the assessment and use Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers (IFN). A numerical example is provided to demonstrate and clarify the proposed analysis procedure. Also, an empirical experiment is conducted to validation the effectiveness.

Keywords: multi-criteria decision-making, IFE, DM’s, fuzzy electre model

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5365 'Typical' Criminals: A Schutzian Influenced Theoretical Framework Exploring Type and Stereotype Formation

Authors: Mariam Shah

Abstract:

The way the human mind interprets and comprehends the world it occupies has long been a topic of discussion amongst philosophers and phenomenologists. This paper will focus predominantly on the ideologies espoused by the phenomenologist Alfred Schutz and will investigate how we attribute meaning to an event through the process of typification, and the production and usage of ‘types' and ‘stereotypes.' This paper will then discuss how subjective ideologies innate within us result in unique and subjective decision outcomes, based on a phenomenologically influenced theoretical framework which will illustrate how we form ‘types’ in order to ‘typecast’ and form judgements of everything and everyone we experience. The framework used will be founded in theory espoused by Alfred Schutz, and will review the different types of knowledge we rely on innately to inform our judgements, the relevance we attribute to the information which we acquire, and how we consciously and unconsciously apply this framework to everyday situations. An assessment will then be made of the potential impact that these subjective meaning structures can present when dispensing justice in criminal courts. This paper will investigate how these subjective meaning structures can influence our consciousness on both a conscious and unconscious level, and how this could potentially result in bias judicial outcomes due to negative ‘types’ or ‘stereotypes.' This paper will ultimately illustrate that we unconsciously and unreflexively use pre-formed types and stereotypes to inform our judgements and give meaning to what we have just experienced.

Keywords: Alfred Schutz, criminal courts, decision making, judicial decision making, phenomenology, Schutzian stereotypes, types, typification

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5364 Setting Ground for Improvement of Knowledge Managament System in the Educational Organization

Authors: Mladen Djuric, Ivan Janicijevic, Sasa Lazarevic

Abstract:

One of the organizational issues is how to develop and shape decision making and knowledge management systems which will continually avoid traps of both paralyses by analyses“ and extinction by instinct“, the concepts that are a kind of tolerant limits anti-patterns which define what we can call decision making and knowledge management patterns control zone. This paper discusses potentials for development of a core base for recognizing, capturing, and analyzing anti-patterns in the educational organization, thus creating a space for improving decision making and knowledge management processes in education.

Keywords: anti-patterns, decision making, education, knowledge management

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5363 Framework for the Modeling of the Supply Chain Collaborative Planning Process

Authors: D. Pérez, M. M. E. Alemany

Abstract:

In this work a Framework to model the Supply Chain (SC) Collaborative Planning (CP) Process is proposed, and particularly its Decisional view. The main Framework contributions with regards to previous related works are the following, 1) the consideration of not only the Decision view, the most important one due to the Process type, but other additional three views which are the Physical, Organisation and Information ones, closely related and complementing the Decision View, 2) the joint consideration of two interdependence types, the Temporal (among Decision Centres belonging to different Decision Levels) and Spatial (among Decision Centres belonging to the same Decision Level) to support the distributed Decision-Making process in SC where several decision Centres interact among them in a collaborative manner.

Keywords: collaborative planning, decision view, distributed decision-making, framework

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5362 Management Information System to Help Managers for Providing Decision Making in an Organization

Authors: Ajayi Oluwasola Felix

Abstract:

Management information system (MIS) provides information for the managerial activities in an organization. The main purpose of this research is, MIS provides accurate and timely information necessary to facilitate the decision-making process and enable the organizations planning control and operational functions to be carried out effectively. Management information system (MIS) is basically concerned with processing data into information and is then communicated to the various departments in an organization for appropriate decision-making. MIS is a subset of the overall planning and control activities covering the application of humans technologies, and procedures of the organization. The information system is the mechanism to ensure that information is available to the managers in the form they want it and when they need it.

Keywords: Management Information Systems (MIS), information technology, decision-making, MIS in Organizations

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5361 A Straightforward Approach for Determining the Weights of Decision Makers Based on Angle Cosine and Projection Method

Authors: Qiang Yang, Ping-An Du

Abstract:

Group decision making with multiple attribute has attracted intensive concern in the decision analysis area. This paper assumes that the contributions of all the decision makers (DMs) are not equal to the decision process based on different knowledge and experience in group setting. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach to determine weights of DMs in the group decision making problems. In this paper, the weights of DMs are determined in the group decision environment via angle cosine and projection method. First of all, the average decision of all individual decisions is defined as the ideal decision. After that, we define the weight of each decision maker (DM) by aggregating the angle cosine and projection between individual decision and ideal decision with associated direction indicator μ. By using the weights of DMs, all individual decisions are aggregated into a collective decision. Further, the preference order of alternatives is ranked in accordance with the overall row value of collective decision. Finally, an example in a chemical company is provided to illustrate the developed approach.

Keywords: angel cosine, ideal decision, projection method, weights of decision makers

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5360 Experimental Assessment of the Effectiveness of Judicial Instructions and of Expert Testimony in Improving Jurors’ Evaluation of Eyewitness Evidence

Authors: Alena Skalon, Jennifer L. Beaudry

Abstract:

Eyewitness misidentifications can sometimes lead to wrongful convictions of innocent people. This occurs in part because jurors tend to believe confident eyewitnesses even when the identification took place under suggestive conditions. Empirical research demonstrated that jurors are often unaware of the factors that can influence the reliability of eyewitness identification. Most common legal safeguards that are designed to educate jurors about eyewitness evidence are judicial instructions and expert testimony. To date, very few studies assessed the effectiveness of judicial instructions and most of them found that judicial instructions make jurors more skeptical of eyewitness evidence or do not have any effect on jurors’ judgments. Similar results were obtained for expert testimony. However, none of the previous studies focused on the ability of legal safeguards to improve jurors’ assessment of evidence obtained from suggestive identification procedures—this is one of the gaps addressed by this paper. Furthermore, only three studies investigated whether legal safeguards improve the ultimate accuracy of jurors’ judgments—that is, whether after listening to judicial instructions or expert testimony jurors can differentiate between accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses. This presentation includes two studies. Both studies used genuine eyewitnesses (i.e., eyewitnesses who watched the crime) and manipulated the suggestiveness of identification procedures. The first study manipulated the presence of judicial instructions; the second study manipulated the presence of one of two types of expert testimony: a traditional, verbal expert testimony or expert testimony accompanied by visual aids. All participant watched a video-recording of an identification procedure and of an eyewitness testimony. The results indicated that neither judicial instructions nor expert testimony affected jurors’ judgments. However, consistent with the previous findings, when the identification procedure was non-suggestive, jurors believed accurate eyewitnesses more often than inaccurate eyewitnesses. When the procedure was suggestive, jurors believed accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses at the same rate. The paper will discuss the implications of these studies and directions for future research.

Keywords: expert testimony, eyewitness evidence, judicial instructions, jurors’ decision making, legal safeguards

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5359 Decision Making System for Clinical Datasets

Authors: P. Bharathiraja

Abstract:

Computer Aided decision making system is used to enhance diagnosis and prognosis of diseases and also to assist clinicians and junior doctors in clinical decision making. Medical Data used for decision making should be definite and consistent. Data Mining and soft computing techniques are used for cleaning the data and for incorporating human reasoning in decision making systems. Fuzzy rule based inference technique can be used for classification in order to incorporate human reasoning in the decision making process. In this work, missing values are imputed using the mean or mode of the attribute. The data are normalized using min-ma normalization to improve the design and efficiency of the fuzzy inference system. The fuzzy inference system is used to handle the uncertainties that exist in the medical data. Equal-width-partitioning is used to partition the attribute values into appropriate fuzzy intervals. Fuzzy rules are generated using Class Based Associative rule mining algorithm. The system is trained and tested using heart disease data set from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository. The data was split using a hold out approach into training and testing data. From the experimental results it can be inferred that classification using fuzzy inference system performs better than trivial IF-THEN rule based classification approaches. Furthermore it is observed that the use of fuzzy logic and fuzzy inference mechanism handles uncertainty and also resembles human decision making. The system can be used in the absence of a clinical expert to assist junior doctors and clinicians in clinical decision making.

Keywords: decision making, data mining, normalization, fuzzy rule, classification

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5358 Decision Making, Reward Processing and Response Selection

Authors: Benmansour Nassima, Benmansour Souheyla

Abstract:

The appropriate integration of reward processing and decision making provided by the environment is vital for behavioural success and individuals’ well being in everyday life. Functional neurological investigation has already provided an inclusive image on affective and emotional (motivational) processing in the healthy human brain and has recently focused its interest also on the assessment of brain function in anxious and depressed individuals. This article offers an overview on the theoretical approaches that relate emotion and decision-making, and spotlights investigation with anxious or depressed individuals to reveal how emotions can interfere with decision-making. This research aims at incorporating the emotional structure based on response and stimulation with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. It seeks to show how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions bear out that alterations of decision-making can be considered in terms of altered probability and value subtraction. The utmost objective is to critically determine if the probabilistic representation of belief affords could be a critical approach to scrutinize alterations in probability and value representation in subjective with anxiety and depression, and draw round the general implications of this approach.

Keywords: decision-making, motivation, alteration, reward processing, response selection

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5357 The Role of Marketing Information System on Decision-Making: An Applied Study on Algeria Telecoms Mobile "MOBILIS"

Authors: Benlakhdar Mohamed Larbi, Yagoub Asma

Abstract:

Purpose: This study aims at highlighting the significance and importance of utilizing marketing information system (MKIS) on decision-making, by clarifying the need for quick and efficient decision-making due to time saving and preventing of duplication of work. Design, methodology, approach: The study shows the roles of each part of MKIS for developing marketing strategy, which present a real challenge to individuals and institutions in an era characterized by uncertainty and clarifying the importance of each part separately, depending on decision type and the nature of the situation. The empirical research method was evaluated by specialized experts, conducted by means of questionnaires. Correlation analysis was employed to test the validity of the procedure. Results: The empirical study findings confirmed positive relationships between the level of utilizing and adopting ‘decision support system and marketing intelligence’ and the success of an organizational decision-making, and provide the organization with a competitive advantage as it allows the organization to solve problems. Originality/value: The study offer better understanding of performance- increasing market share as an organizational decision making based on marketing information system.

Keywords: database, marketing research, marketing intelligence, decision support system, decision-making

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5356 South Atlantic Architects Validation of the Construction Decision Making Inventory

Authors: Tulio Sulbaran, Sandeep Langar

Abstract:

Architects are an integral part of the construction industry and are continuously incorporating decisions that influence projects during their life cycle. These decisions aim at selecting best alternative from the ones available. Unfortunately, this decision making process is mainly unexplored in the construction industry. No instrument to measure construction decision, based on knowledgebase of decision-makers, has existed. Additionally, limited literature is available on the topic. Recently, an instrument to gain an understanding of the construction decision-making process was developed by Dr. Tulio Sulbaran from the University of Texas, San Antonio. The instrument’s name is 'Construction Decision Making Inventory (CDMI)'. The CDMI is an innovative idea to measure the 'What? When? How? Moreover, Who?' of the construction decision-making process. As an innovative idea, its statistical validity (accuracy of the assessment) is yet to be assessed. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a case study with architects in the south-east of the United States aimed to determine the CDMI validity. The results of the case study are important because they assess the validity of the tool. Furthermore, as the architects evaluated each question within the measurements, this study is also guiding the enhancement of the CDMI.

Keywords: decision, support, inventory, architect

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