Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 927

Search results for: meaning

927 Meaning in Life, Hope, and Mental Health: Relation between Meaning in Life, Hope, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Afghan Refugees in Iran

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

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The present research was carried out in order to investigate the relationship between meaning in life and hope with depression, anxiety and stress in Afghan Refugees in Alborz province in Iran. In this research, method of study is a descriptive correlation type. One hundred and fifty-eight Afghan refugees (64 male, 94 female) participated in this study. All participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaires (MLQ), Hope Scale (HS), and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). The results revealed that Meaning in Life was positively associated with hope, presence of meaning, search of meaning, and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Hope was positively associated with presence of meaning and search of meaning, and hope was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression, anxiety, and stress were positively correlated with each other. Meaning in life and hope could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, meaning of life, hope, depression, anxiety and stress

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926 Moderate Holism as an Explanation for Linguistic Phenomena

Authors: Kênio Angelo Dantas Freitas Estrela

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Traditionally meaning holism is a theory that is related to the meaning attributed to words and their relationships to other words in a language. This theory can be more specifically defined as a defense of the mutual interdependence of all items of linguistic knowledge, so that, for example, to understand the meaning of a given expression, it is necessary to understand a large sector of the language in question or, even the complete language. The aim of this paper is to present a moderate version of meaning holism, which argues that, among other things, meaning holism does not imply the thesis of instability - if there is the change of belief about an object, there is a change of meaning - and, in this way, it is possible to attribute meanings to objects admitting changes of opinions and then beliefs. It will be shown how this version of holism gives an account of the main criticisms made of meaning holism in the last decades and also show how this theory can justify linguistic phenomena (like vagueness and polysemy) that are often treated as problems of language. Finally, it will also be argued that these linguistic phenomena are intrinsic to languages and that the moderate version of meaning holism can justify the occurrence of these phenomena.

Keywords: linguistics, meaning holism, philosophy of language, semantics

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925 The Role of Instruction in Knowledge Construction in Online Learning

Authors: Soo Hyung Kim

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Two different learning approaches were suggested: focusing on factual knowledge or focusing on the embedded meaning in the statements. Each way of learning has positive effects on different question categories, where factual knowledge helps more with simple fact questions, and searching for meaning in given information helps learn causal relationship and the embedded meaning. To test this belief, two groups of learners (12 male and 39 female adults aged 18-37) watched a ten-minute long Youtube video about various factual events of American history, their meaning, and the causal relations of the events. The fact group was asked to focus on factual knowledge in the video, and the meaning group was asked to focus on the embedded meaning in the video. After watching the video, both groups took multiple-choice questions, which consisted of 10 questions asking the factual knowledge addressed in the video and 10 questions asking embedded meaning in the video, such as the causal relationship between historical events and the significance of the event. From ANCOVA analysis, it was found that the factual knowledge showed higher performance on the factual questions than the meaning group, although there was no group difference on the questions about the meaning between the two groups. The finding suggests that teacher instruction plays an important role in learners constructing a different type of knowledge in online learning.

Keywords: factual knowledge, instruction, meaning-based knowledge, online learning

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924 Translation Choices of Logical Meaning from Chinese into English: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Perspective

Authors: Xueying Li

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Different from English, it is common to observe Chinese clauses logically related in an implicit way without any conjunctions. This typological difference has posed a great challenge for Chinese-English translators, as 1) translators may interpret logical meaning in different ways when there are no conjunctions in Chinese Source Text (ST); 2) translators may have questions whether to make Chinese implicit logical meaning explicit or to remain implicit in Target Text (TT), and whether other dimensions of logical meaning (e.g., type of logical meaning) should be shifted or not. Against this background, this study examines a comprehensive arrange of Chinese-English translation choices of logical meaning to deal with this challenge in a systematic way. It compiles several ST-TT passages from a set of translation textbooks in a corpus, namely Ying Yu Bi Yi Shi Wu (Er Ji)) [Translation Practice between Chinese and English: Intermediate Level] and its supportive training book, analyzes how logical meaning in ST are translated in TT in texts across different text types with Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) as the theoretical framework, and finally draws a system network of translation choices of logical meaning from Chinese into English. Since translators may probably think about semantic meaning rather than lexico-grammatical resources in translation, this study goes away from traditional lexico-grammatical choices, but rather describing translation choices from the semantic level. The findings in this study can provide some help and support for translation practitioners so that they can understand that besides explicitation, there are a variety of possible linguistic choices available for making informed decisions when translating Chinese logical meaning into English.

Keywords: Chinese-English translation, logical meaning, systemic functional linguistics, translation choices

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923 Impact of Meaning in Life on Stress and Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Aisha Bano, Rizwan Nazir

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The present study aimed at exploring the impact of meaning in life on psychological well-being and stress among university students. Victor Frankl's paradigm provided the theoretical foundation for this study. A sample of 560 university students was drawn from Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. The sample was drawn using stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using Existence Scale, Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-Being Scale, and Stress Scale. Results of linear regression analysis reveals that high perception of meaning in life will lead to high psychological well-being and low stress among university students. Non-significant differences are found on meaning in life variable with regard to gender in the sample using t-test. Together these results suggest that meaning in life independent of gender, is a significant predictor of the levels of stress and psychological well-being being directly related to psychological well-being and inversely related to stress levels.

Keywords: existential meaning in life, psychological well-being, stress, students

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922 Negotiation of Meaning among Iranian EFL Learners and the Relationship between the Proficiency Levels and the Transfer of Knowledge

Authors: Z. Komeili, Sh. Abadikhah, H. Talebi

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Interaction and negotiation of meaning in the foreign language (FL) contexts are crucial to L2 development. Although research studies on children in EFL contexts have increased in recent years, the study of Iranian children negotiating meaning during their communicative task performance still needs further study. The purpose of this study was to investigate young EFL learners' interaction and negotiation of meaning (NoM) during task completion and examine the difference in meaning negotiation between the different proficiency levels and the association between the learners’ proficiency levels and their transfer of knowledge. The participants were twenty-eight young Iranian EFL learners forming 14 proficiency-matched dyads and were assigned into two different groups according to their proficiency levels. The dyads were asked to complete the collaborative task; their interaction was transcribed and analyzed in terms of their NoM. To test the transfer of knowledge to the subsequent performance, tailor-made tests were designed based on the NoM of each individual dyad. The results indicated a significant positive relationship between the learners’ level of proficiency and their transfer of knowledge to the subsequent performance. Our findings suggest that the elementary group had engaged in more negotiation of meaning compared to the intermediate group, and the higher the proficiency level, the better they performed in the post-test and benefited from the NoM. The study has some implications for researchers, teachers, and young learners.

Keywords: collaborative tasks, negotiation of meaning, proficiency levels, sociocultural theory, tailor-made test

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921 Cerrado and Vereda: A Survey of Portuguese Lexicon for Brazilian Biomes

Authors: Daniel Marra

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This paper analyses from a semantic-diachronic viewpoint the change of meanings that two lexical items of Brazilian-Portuguese language have gone through. Cerrado and Vereda designate currently the second largest Brazilian biome and one of its most important subsystems. Nevertheless, these two words have long individual histories that can be traced back to their Latin etymons. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to highlight the process by which meaning instantiated itself in these words’ formation and to discuss how semantic change installed subsequently in them. As this paper shows, the aforementioned words have been, in different past, synchronizes, created, and undergone changes of meanings by metaphor and metonymy. Besides, it is argued here that semantic change takes place due to external causes, such as generalization and specialization of meaning. It happens when a specialized use of a lexical item, restricted to a particular linguistic group, is adopted by other groups, having its meaning generalized by them. In these processes, the etymological idea of the word is generally lost, which gains, in the new group, less specific meaning in relation to its etymology, sometimes with no relation to the original idea. As a final point, it is claimed that both the creation of a lexical item and its change of meaning involve pragmatic goals, such as the need the language users have to express a new meaning related to a certain reality in the empirical world.

Keywords: Brazilian biomes, metaphor and metonymy, Portuguese lexicon, semantic change

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920 The Meaning in Life and the Content of Mental Images of Temporal Mental Simulations in Poles and Americans

Authors: Katarzyna Pasternak

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Experiencing the meaning of life is widely recognised as a vital element of well-being and central human motivation. Studies have shown that a higher meaning of life is associated, among other things, with a higher quality of life, higher levels of happiness and better declared health. The subject of the study is the meaning in life measured with The Meaning in Life Questionnaire and the presence of such emotions as nostalgia, awe and hope, and the content of imaginations measured after temporal mental simulations in Americans and Poles. The respondents had to imagine themselves in future, in 40 years and describe two events that would take place at that time. Next, participants assessed the importance of the events described by them, recognised whether during their journey through time they felt awe, hope and nostalgia, and answered the questionnaire examining the meaning in life. 204 (102 from Poland 102 from the USA ) people aged 21 to 60 participated in the study. The study checked whether there were differences in the content of the imaginations of the respondents from Poland and USA, and whether there were statistically significant difference between the declared sense of meaning in life among participants from both countries. The result of the study hane shown that there were no differences in the overall result obtained by the participants in The Meaning in Life Questionnaire , while there were statistically significant differences among the subscales of the questionnaire. It turned out that Americans have a higher presence of meaning in life than Poles, but they obtained lower results in searching of meaning in life. Studies have also shown that there was a statistically significant difference between Poles and Americans in feeling awe after a mental simulation. Poles felt higher level of awe. Images about the future differed between Poles and Americans. Poles judged that the events they described were very important to them. Interestingly, the content of American participants’ imaginations was dominated by topics related to the future of the world, ecology and world peace. There were also ideas about nice moments spent with friends and family. Among Poles, ideas related to professional career and development as well as family events dominated. Research shows that despite the lack of differences in the general meaning in life, Poles are more focused on searching for meaning in life than Americans. The study shows interesting differences between the two cultures.

Keywords: meaning in life, mental simulations, imaginations, temporal mental simulations, future, cultural differences

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919 The Real Meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility and It Impact to a Business

Authors: J. Tamosaityte

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The research paper analyzed the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) meaning and how the meaning of CSR evoluted and changed during the last years. The paper suggests to expand CSR understanding in framework of Corporate Socially Responsible Behavior (CSRB), CSR integration into business strategy and CSR effect with stakeholders engagement, when all the business is based on CSR. A business that is fully based on CSR may act in a more successful way and reach better business results in the long-term perspective. Strong business’s commitment to CSR might also strengthen company’s reputation and be one of significant element to achieve business sustainability.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, corporate socially responsible behavior, strategy, stakeholders engagement, reputation

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918 The Loss of Oral Performative Semantic Influence of the Qur'an in Its Translations

Authors: Alalddin Al-Tarawneh

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In its literal translation, the Qur’an is frequently subject to misinterpretation as a result of failures to deliver its meaning into any language. This paper relies on the genuine aspect that the Qur’an is an oral performance in its nature; and the objective of any Qur’an translation is to deliver its meaning in English. Therefore, it approaches the translation of the Qur’an beyond the usual formal linguistic approach in order to include an extra-textual factor. This factor is the recitation or oral performance of the Qur’an, that is, tajweed as it is termed in Arabic. The translations used in this paper to apply the suggested approach were carefully chosen to be representative of the problems that exist in many Qur’an translations. These translations are The Meaning of the Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary by Ali (1989), The Meaning of the Glorious Koran by Pickthall (1997/1930), and The Quran: Arabic Text with Corresponding English Meanings by Sahih (2010). Through the examples cited in this paper, it is suggested that the agents involved in producing a ‘translation’ of the Holy Qur’an have to take into account its oral aspect which yields additional senses and meanings that are not being captured by adhering to the words of the ‘written’ discourse. This paper attempts in its translation into English.

Keywords: oral performance, tajweed, Qur'an translation, recitation

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917 Intersectionality and Sensemaking: Advancing the Conversation on Leadership as the Management of Meaning

Authors: Clifford Lewis

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This paper aims to advance the conversation of an alternative view of leadership, namely ‘leadership as the management of meaning’. Here, leadership is considered as a social process of the management of meaning within an employment context, as opposed to a psychological trait, set of behaviours or relational consequence as seen in mainstream leadership research. Specifically, this study explores the relationship between intersectional identities and the management of meaning. Design: Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with women and men of colour working in the South African private sector organisations in various leadership positions. Employing an intersectional approach using gender and race, participants were selected by using purposive and snowball sampling concurrently. Thematic and Axial coding was used to identify dominant themes. Findings: Findings suggest that, both gender and race shape how leaders manage meaning. Findings also confirm that intersectionality is an appropriate approach when studying the leadership experiences of those groups who are underrepresented in organisational leadership structures. The findings points to the need for further research into the differential effects of intersecting identities on organisational leadership experiences and that ‘leadership as the management of meaning’ is an appropriate approach for addressing this knowledge gap. Theoretical Contribution: There is a large body of literature on the complex challenges faced by women and people of colour in leadership but there is relatively little empirical work on how identity influences the management of meaning. This study contributes to the leadership literature by providing insight into how intersectional identities influence the management of meaning at work and how this impacts the leadership experiences of largely marginalised groups. Practical Implications: Understanding the leadership experiences of underrepresented groups is important because of both legal mandates and for building diverse talent for organisations and societies. Such an understanding assists practitioners in being sensitive to simplistic notions of challenges individuals might face in accessing and practicing leadership in organisations. Advancing the conversation on leadership as the management of meaning allows for a better understanding of complex challenges faced by women and people of colour and an opportunity for organisations to systematically remove unfair structural obstacles and develop their diverse leadership capacity.

Keywords: intersectionality, diversity, leadership, sensemaking

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916 A Case Study of Zhang Yimou, Using Color Evidence From “Hero and the Shadow” and How the Color Is Symbolized in Contemporary Society?

Authors: Rakiba Sultana

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This paper investigates how different colors are used and bring symbolic meaning comparatively in Zhang Yimou's movies Hero and Shadow. The study also explores how those colors are symbolized in contemporary society. The researcher analyzes the movies Hero and the Shadow to investigate them using colors and how they are used in contemporary society. Hero exposes the colorful colors to expose the Chinese traditions, whereas Shadow explores the gray, black, and white with the ink paints. Also, in contemporary society, sometimes, the author gets a similar symbolic meaning of the colors. Sometimes, the contemporary's meaning is different from the one used in these two movies.

Keywords: Chinese movie, visuals, colors, traditional painting, contemporary society, and Western countries

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915 Meaning and Cultivating Factors of Mindfulness as Experienced by Thai Females Who Practice Dhamma

Authors: Sukjai Charoensuk, Penphan Pitaksongkram, Michael Christopher

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Preliminary evidences supported the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing symptoms associated with a variety of medical and psychological conditions. However, the measurements of mindfulness are questionable since they have not been developed based-on Buddhist experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe meaning and cultivating factors of mindfulness as experienced by Thai females who practice Dhamma. Participants were purposively selected to include 2 groups of Thai females who practice Dhamma. The first group consisted of 6 female Buddhist monks, and the second group consisted of 7 female who practice Dhamma without ordaining. Data were collected using in-depth interview. The instruments used were demographic data questionnaire and guideline for in-depth interview developed by researchers. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that Thai women who practice Dhamma described their experience in 2 themes, which were meaning and cultivating factors of mindfulness. The meaning composed of 4 categories; 1) Being Present, 2) Self-awareness, 3) Contemplation, and 4) Neutral. The cultivating factors of mindfulness composed of 2 categories; In-personal factors and Ex-personal factors. The In-personal cultivating factors included 4 sub-categories; Faith and Love, the Five Precepts, Sound body, and Practice. The Ex-personal cultivating factors included 2 sub-categories; Serenity, and Learning. These findings increase understanding about meaning of mindfulness and its cultivating factors. These could be used as a guideline to promote mental health and develop nursing interventions using mindfulness based, as well as, develop the instrument for assessing mindfulness in Thai context.

Keywords: cultivating factor, meaning of mindfulness, practice Dhamma, Thai women

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914 Interlanguage Acquisition of a Postposition ‘e’ in Korean: Analysis of the Korean Novice Learners’ Output

Authors: Eunjung Lee

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This study aims to analyze the sentences generated by the beginners who learn ‘e,’ a postposition in Korean and to find out the regularity of learners’ interlanguage upon investigating the usages of ‘e’ that appears by meanings and functions in their interlanguage, and conditions that ‘e’ is used. This study was conducted with mainly two assumptions; first, the learner’s language has the specific type of interlanguage; and second, there is the regularity of interlanguage when students produce ‘e’ under the specific conditions. Learners’ output has various values and can be used as the useful data to understand interlanguage. Therefore, all the sentences containing a postposition ‘e’ by English speaking learners were searched in ‘Learners’ corpus sharing center in The National Institute of Korean Language’ in Korea, and the data were collected upon limiting the levels of learners with Level 1 and 2. 789 sentences that were used with ‘e’ were selected as the final subjects of the analysis. First, to understand the environmental characteristics to be used with a postposition, ‘e’ after summarizing 13 meaning and functions of ‘e’ appeared in three books of Korean dictionary that summarized the Korean grammar, 1) meaning function of ‘e’ that were used in each sentence was classified; 2) the nouns that were combined with ‘e,’ keywords of the sentences, and the characteristics of modifiers, linkers, and predicates appeared in front of ‘e’ were analyzed; 3) the regularity by the novice learners’ meaning and functions were reviewed; and 4) the differences of the regularity by level 1 and 2 learners’ meaning and functions were found. Upon the study results, the novice learners showed 1) they used the nouns related to ‘time(시간), before(전), after(후), next(다음), the next(그다음), then(때), day of the week(요일), and season(계절)’ mainly in front of ‘e’ when they used ‘e’ as the meaning function of time; 2) they used mainly the verbs of ‘go(가다),’ ‘come(오다),’ and ‘go round(다니다)’ as the predicate to match with ‘e’ that was the meaning function of direction and destination; and 3) they used mainly the nouns related to ‘locations or countries’ in front of ‘e,’ a meaning function postposition of ‘place,’ used mainly the verbs ‘be(있다), not be(없다), live(살다), be many(많다)’ after ‘e,’ and ‘i(이) or ka(가)’ was combined mainly in the subject words in case of ‘be(있다), not be(없다)’ or ‘be many(많다),’ and ‘eun(은) or nun(는)’ was combined mainly in the subject words in front of ‘live at’ In addition, 4) they used ‘e’ which indicates ‘cause or reason’ in the form of ‘because( 때문에),’ and 5) used ‘e’ of the subjects as the predicates to match with the predicates such as ‘treat(대하다), like(들다), and catch(걸리다).’ From these results, ‘e’ usage patterns of the Korean novice learners demonstrated very differently by the meaning functions and the learners’ interlanguage regularity could be deducted. However, little difference was found in interlanguage regularity between level 1 and 2. This study has the meaning to try to understand the interlanguage system and regularity in the learners’ acquisition process of postposition ‘e’ and this can be utilized to lessen their errors.

Keywords: interlanguage, interlagnage anaylsis, postposition ‘e’, Korean acquisition

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913 The Arts of Walisanga's Mosques in Java: Structure/Architecture Studies and Its Meaning in Anthropological Perspective

Authors: Slamet Subiyantoro, Mulyanto

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Revealing the structure and symbolism meaning of the walisanga’s mosque arts in Java is very important to explain the philosophy of religious foundation which is a manifestation of the norms/ value system and behavior of the Javanese Islam society that support the culture. This research's aims are also to find the structure pattern of walisanga’s mosque and its symbolic meaning in the context of Javanese Islam society. In order to obtain the research objectives, the research were done in several walisanga’s mosques in Java using anthropological approach which is focused on its interpretation and semiotic analysis. The data were collected through interviews with key informants who well informed about the shape and symbolism of walisanga’s mosques in Java. The observation technique is done through visiting walisanga’s mosques to see directly about its structure/ architecture. In completing the information of comprehensive result of the research, it is also used documents and archives as well as any other source which is analyzed to deepen the discussion in answering the problems research. The flow of analysis is done using an interactive model through stages of data collection, data reduction, data presentation and verification. The analysis is done continuously in a cycle system to draw valid conclusions. The research result indicates that the structure/architecture of walisanga’s mosque in Java is structured/built up vertically as well as horizontally. Its structure/architecture is correlated to each other which is having a sacred meaning that is a process represents the mystical belief such as sangkan paraning dumadi and manuggaling kawula gusti.

Keywords: Walisanga’s mosques, Java, structure and architecture, meaning

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912 “The Effectiveness of Group Logo Therapy on Meaning and Quality of Life of Women in Old Age Home”

Authors: Sophia Cyril Vincent

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Background: As per the Indian Census 2011, there is nearly 104 million elderly population aged above 60 years (53 million females and 51 males), and the count is expected to be 173 million by the end of 2026. Nearly 5.5% of women and 1.5% of men are living alone.1 In India, even though it is the moral duty of the children to take care of aged parents, many elders are landing in old age homes due to the social transformation factors like mushrooming of nuclear families, migration of children, cultural echoes, differences in mindset and values. Nearly 728 old age homes are seen across the country, out of which 78 old age homes with approximately 3000 inmates are seen only in Bangalore2. The existing literature shows that elderly women residing in old age homes experience the challenges like- loneliness, health issues, rejection from children, grief, death anxiety, etc, which leads to mental and physical wellbeing in numerous and tangible ways3. Hence the best and cost-effective way to improve the meaning and quality of life among elderly females is logotherapy, a type of psychotherapeutic analysis and treatment, motivating and driving force4 within the human experience to lead a decent life. Aim: The current research is aimed at studying the effectiveness of a logotherapy intervention on meaning and quality of life among elderly women of old age homes. Samples:200 women aged < 60 years and staying in the old age home for more than 1 year were randomly allocated to the control group and experimental group. Methodology: Using the Meaning in life questionnaire (MLQ)and the World health organization quality of life (WHOQOL) questionnaire, meaning and quality of life were assessed among both groups' women. Intensive Logotherapy and meaning in life program for five days were provided for the experimental group and the control group, with no treatment. Result: Under analysis. Conclusion: It is the right of the elderly woman to lead a happy and peaceful life till her death irrespective of the residing place. Hence, continuous monitoring and effective management are necessary for elderly women.

Keywords: quality of life, meaning of life, logo therapy, old age home

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911 Lexical Knowledge of Verb Particle Constructions with the Particle on by Mexican English Learners

Authors: Sarai Alvarado Pineda, Ricardo Maldonado Soto

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The acquisition of Verb Particle Constructions is a challenge for Spanish speakers learning English. The acquisition is particularly difficult for speakers of languages with no verb particle constructions. The purpose of the current study is to define the procedural steps in the acquisition of constructions with the particle on. There are three outstanding meanings for the particle on; Surface: The movie is based on a true story, Activation: John turn on the light, Continuity: The band played on all night. The central aim of this study is to measure how Mexican Spanish participants respond to both the three meanings mentioned above and the degree of meaning transparency/opacity of on verb particle constructions. Forty Mexican Spanish learners of English (20 basic and 20 advanced) are compared against a control group of 20 American native English speakers through a reaction time test (PsychoPy2 2015). The participants were asked to discriminate 90 items based on their knowledge of these constructions. There are 30 items per meaning divided into two groups of transparent and opaque meaning. Results revealed three major findings: Advanced students have a reaction time similar to that of native speakers (advanced 4.5s versus native 3.7s), while students with a lower level of English proficiency, show a high reaction time (7s). Likewise, there is a shorter reaction time in constructions with lower opacity in the three groups of participants, with differences between each level (basic 6.7s, advanced 4.3s, and native 3.4s). Finally, a difference in reaction time can be identified according to the meaning provided by the construction. The reaction time for the activation category (5.27s) is greater than continuity (5.04s), and this category is also slower than the surface (4.94s). The study shows that the level of sensitivity of English learners increases significantly aiming towards native speaker patterns as determined by the level of transparency of meaning of each construction as well as the degree of entrenchment of each constructional meaning.

Keywords: meaning of the particle, opacity, reaction time, verb particle constructions

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910 Collect Meaningful Information about Stock Markets from the Web

Authors: Saleem Abuleil, Khalid S. Alsamara

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Events represent a significant source of information on the web; they deliver information about events that occurred around the world in all kind of subjects and areas. These events can be collected and organized to provide valuable and useful information for decision makers, researchers, as well as any person seeking knowledge. In this paper, we discuss an ongoing research to target stock markets domain to observe and record changes (events) when they happen, collect them, understand the meaning of each one of them, and organize the information along with meaning in a well-structured format. By using Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) technique, we identified four factors for each event in this paper: verb of action and three roles associated with it, entity name, attribute, and attribute value. We have generated a set of rules and techniques to support our approach to analyze and understand the meaning of the events taking place in stock markets.

Keywords: natuaral language processing, Arabic language, event extraction and understanding, sematic role labeling, stock market

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909 Mood Choices and Modality Patterns in Donald Trump’s Inaugural Presidential Speech

Authors: Mary Titilayo Olowe

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The controversies that trailed the political campaign and eventual choice of Donald Trump as the American president is so great that expectations are high as to what the content of his inaugural speech will portray. Given the fact that language is a dynamic vehicle of expressing intentions, the speech needs to be objectively assessed so as to access its content in the manner intended through the three strands of meaning postulated by the Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG): the ideational, the interpersonal and the textual. The focus of this paper, however, is on the interpersonal meaning which deals with how language exhibits social roles and relationship. This paper, therefore, attempts to analyse President Donald Trump’s inaugural speech to elicit interpersonal meaning in it. The analysis is done from the perspective of mood and modality which are housed in SFG. Results of the mood choice which is basically declarative, reveal an information-centered speech while the high option for the modal verb operator ‘will’ shows president Donald Trump’s ability to establish an equal and reliant relationship with his audience, i.e., the Americans. In conclusion, the appeal of the speech to different levels of Interpersonal meaning is largely responsible for its overall effectiveness. One can, therefore, understand the reason for the massive reaction it generates at the center of global discourse.

Keywords: interpersonal, modality, mood, systemic functional grammar

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908 Mindfulness, Acceptance and Meaning in Life for Adults with Cancer

Authors: Fernanda F. Zimmermann, Beverley Burrell, Jennifer Jordan

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Introduction: Supportive care for people affected by cancer is recognised as a priority for research but yet there is little solid evidence of the effectiveness of psychological treatments for those with advanced cancer. The literature suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be acceptable and beneficial for this population. This study aims to develop a mindfulness intervention to provide emotional support for advanced cancer population. The treatment package includes mindfulness meditation, developing an acceptance attitude and reflections on meaning in life. Methods: This study design is a one-group pre-post test with a mixed methods approach. Participants are recruited through public and private hospitals in Christchurch, NZ. Quantitative measures are the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Mindful Coping Scale and, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Qualitative semi-structured interviews enquire about emotional support before and after the diagnosis, participants’ thoughts about meaning in life, expectations and reflections on the mindfulness training. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis. Treatment consists of one to one 30 minutes session weekly for 4 weeks using a pre-recorded CD/podcast of the mindfulness training. This research is part of the presenter’s PhD study. Findings: This project is currently underway. The presenter will provide preliminary data on the acceptability of the mindfulness training package being delivered to participants along with the recruitment strategies. We anticipate that this novel treatment used as a self-management tool will reduce psychological distress and enable better coping for patients with advanced cancer.

Keywords: acceptance, cancer, meaning in life, mindfulness

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907 A Comparative Study on Software Patent: The Meaning of 'Use' in Direct Infringement

Authors: Tien Wei Daniel Hwang

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The computer program inventors, particularly in Fintech, are unwilling to apply for patents in Taiwan after 2014. Passing the ‘statutory subject matter eligibility’ test and becoming the system patent are not the only cause to the reduction in the number of application. Taiwanese court needs to resolve whether the defendants had ‘used’ that software patent in patent direct infringement suit. Both 35 U.S.C. § 271(a) and article 58 paragraph 2 of Taiwan Patent Law don’t define the meaning of ‘use’ in the statutes. Centillion Data Sys., LLC v. Qwest Commc’ns Int’l, Inc. reconsidered the meaning of ‘use’ in system patent infringement, and held that ‘a party must put the invention into service, i.e., control the system as a whole and obtain benefit from it.’ In Taiwan, Intellectual Property Office, Ministry of Economic Affairs, has explained that ‘using’ the patent is ‘achieving the technical effect of the patent.’ Nonetheless, this definition is too broad to apply to not only the software patent but also the traditional patent. To supply the friendly environment for Fintech corporations, this article aims to let Taiwanese court realize why and how United States District Court, S.D. Indiana, Indianapolis Division and United States Court of Appeals, Federal Circuit defined the meaning of ‘use’ in 35 U.S.C. § 271(a). However, this definition is so lax and confuses many defendants in United States. Accordingly, this article indicates the elements in Taiwan Patent Law are different with 35 U.S.C. § 271(a), so Taiwanese court can follow the interpretation of ‘use’ in Centillion Data case without the same obstacle.

Keywords: direct infringement, FinTech, software patent, use

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906 Quantifying Meaning in Biological Systems

Authors: Richard L. Summers

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The advanced computational analysis of biological systems is becoming increasingly dependent upon an understanding of the information-theoretic structure of the materials, energy and interactive processes that comprise those systems. The stability and survival of these living systems are fundamentally contingent upon their ability to acquire and process the meaning of information concerning the physical state of its biological continuum (biocontinuum). The drive for adaptive system reconciliation of a divergence from steady-state within this biocontinuum can be described by an information metric-based formulation of the process for actionable knowledge acquisition that incorporates the axiomatic inference of Kullback-Leibler information minimization driven by survival replicator dynamics. If the mathematical expression of this process is the Lagrangian integrand for any change within the biocontinuum then it can also be considered as an action functional for the living system. In the direct method of Lyapunov, such a summarizing mathematical formulation of global system behavior based on the driving forces of energy currents and constraints within the system can serve as a platform for the analysis of stability. As the system evolves in time in response to biocontinuum perturbations, the summarizing function then conveys information about its overall stability. This stability information portends survival and therefore has absolute existential meaning for the living system. The first derivative of the Lyapunov energy information function will have a negative trajectory toward a system's steady state if the driving force is dissipating. By contrast, system instability leading to system dissolution will have a positive trajectory. The direction and magnitude of the vector for the trajectory then serves as a quantifiable signature of the meaning associated with the living system’s stability information, homeostasis and survival potential.

Keywords: meaning, information, Lyapunov, living systems

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905 A Linguistic Analysis of the Inconsistencies in the Meaning of Some -er Suffix Morphemes

Authors: Amina Abubakar

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English like any other language is rich by means of arbitrary, conventional, symbols which lend it to lot of inconsistencies in spelling, phonology, syntax, and morphology. The research examines the irregularities prevalent in the structure and meaning of some ‘er’ lexical items in English and its implication to vocabulary acquisition. It centers its investigation on the derivational suffix ‘er’, which changes the grammatical category of word. English language poses many challenges to Second Language Learners because of its irregularities, exceptions, and rules. One of the meaning of –er derivational suffix is someone or somebody who does something. This rule often confuses the learners when they meet with the exceptions in normal discourse. The need to investigate instances of such inconsistencies in the formation of –er words and the meanings given to such words by the students motivated this study. For this purpose, some senior secondary two (SS2) students in six randomly selected schools in the metropolis were provided a large number of alphabetically selected ‘er’ suffix ending words, The researcher opts for a test technique, which requires them to provide the meaning of the selected words with- er. The marking of the test was scored on the scale of 1-0, where correct formation of –er word and meaning is scored one while wrong formation and meaning is scored zero. The number of wrong and correct formations of –er words meaning were calculated using percentage. The result of this research shows that a large number of students made wrong generalization of the meaning of the selected -er ending words. This shows how enormous the inconsistencies are in English language and how are affect the learning of English. Findings from the study revealed that though students mastered the basic morphological rules but the errors are generally committed on those vocabulary items that are not frequently in use. The study arrives at this conclusion from the survey of their textbook and their spoken activities. Therefore, the researcher recommends that there should be effective reappraisal of language teaching through implementation of the designed curriculum to reflect on modern strategies of teaching language, identification, and incorporation of the exceptions in rigorous communicative activities in language teaching, language course books and tutorials, training and retraining of teachers on the strategies that conform to the new pedagogy.

Keywords: ESL(English as a second language), derivational morpheme, inflectional morpheme, suffixes

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904 Qualitative Inquiry on Existential Concerns and Well-Being among the Youth of Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia: Case Study of Addis Ababa University

Authors: Ezgiamn Abraha Hagos

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Higher education is important for college students to develop their authentic identity by means of getting exposure to diverse ideas and experiences. However, current college students are not successfully achieving a satisfying sense of meaning and purpose in their lives, which often places them in a state of existential vacuum. Thus, this study uncovers the existential concerns of youth in higher education by means of assessing their view on meaningful life and integration of it as a guide into their lives and challenges faced in doing so. Data were procured from thirty undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia via interview, naïve sketch method, and content analysis of selected magazines and newspapers. Data were analyzed using organization, immersion, generating themes, coding, offering interpretation as well as checking the data. Relationship, education, and belief were found to be main sources of meaning. But, many of the study participants failed to articulate their meaning in life explicitly and identified to be in a state of drifting. Moreover, hopelessness, economic problems and quality of training impinge their sense of meaning in life negatively. The content analysis principally embodied the youth in higher education as a group of people confronted with rafts of challenges such as debauchery, moral crisis, self-destructive behaviors and hankering for support and direction. Thus, crafting the asset-based approach and counseling services that will prepare the youth for the future and develop holistically in terms of body and mind are tremendously vital.

Keywords: higher education institutions; meaning in life; youth

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903 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali Al Shaari, Khalid M. El Fitori

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In the field of Quran Studies known as Ghareeb A Quran (the study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters). Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designed to look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms. There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works. For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM). DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters. In Differences Matrix, we used the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, differences matrix, ontology

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902 Holy Quran’s Hermeneutics from Self-Referentiality to the Quran by Quran’s Interpretation

Authors: Mohammad Ba’azm

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The self-referentiality method as the missing ring of the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation has a precise application at the level of the Quranic vocabulary, but after entering the domain of the verses, chapters and the whole Qur’an, it reveals its defect. Self-referentiality cannot show the clear concept of the Quranic scriptures, unlike the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation method that guides us to the comprehension and exact hermeneutics. The Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation is a solid way of comprehension of the verses of the Qur'an and does not use external resources to provide implications and meanings with different theoretical and practical supports. In this method, theoretical supports are based on the basics and modalities that support and validate the legitimacy and validity of the interpretive method discussed, and the practical supports also relate to the practitioners of the religious elite. The combination of these two methods illustrates the exact understanding of the Qur'an at the level of Quranic verses, chapters, and the whole Qur’an. This study by examining the word 'book' in the Qur'an shows the difference between the two methods, and the necessity of attachment of these, in order to attain a desirable level for comprehensions meaning of the Qur'an. In this article, we have proven that by aspects of the meaning of the Quranic words, we cannot say any word has an exact meaning.

Keywords: Qur’an’s hermeneutic, self-referentiality, The Qur’an by Qur’an’s Interpretation, polysemy

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901 A Contemplative Concept of Existence in Existentialism and in the Notion of the Absurd

Authors: Mohammad Motiee

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The present study aims at presenting Samuel Beckett's attempts to pierce the world of knowledge and understanding with a hope to approach it though he knew it is unattainable. To know about Beckett more and to get the idea about the notion of the absurd, we found it necessary to find the real meaning of existence both in the notion of the absurd and in Existentialism. Among many philosophers, as is evident in this paper, who worked on the concept of existence, Beckett reveals a very peculiar path by which some labelled him a mere absurdist. In this study, we tried to show that unlike this label and also unlike many philosophers' premise, Beckett did not assign his contemplation on the boundaries of existence but to find a way to retreat from it. This is the only way for him to find the real meaning of Self. While Existentialism advocates primary existence, Beckett's Absurdity appreciates a reliable being in a realm out of limits of the world. The Absurd person has no tendency to put himself in the barriers of time and language. Time imprisons one in the frame of days and nights, the solid dimensions in which the Self cannot be evidenced. Beckett shows sadly how the boundaries and dimensions blind the being and how the absurd meaning of existence arises from such a limit in the mundane realm.

Keywords: existence, absurdity, existentialism, self, alienation, being

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900 Multimodal Discourse, Logic of the Analysis of Transmedia Strategies

Authors: Bianca Suárez Puerta

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Multimodal discourse refers to a method of study the media continuum between reality, screens as a device, audience, author, and media as a production from the audience. For this study we used semantic differential, a method proposed in the sixties by Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum, starts from the assumption that under each particular way of perceiving the world, in each singular idea, there is a common cultural meaning that organizes experiences. In relation to these shared symbolic dimension, this method has had significant results, as it focuses on breaking down the meaning of certain significant acts into series of statements that place the subjects in front of some concepts. In Colombia, in 2016, a tool was designed to measure the meaning of a multimodal production, specially the acts of sense of transmedia productions that managed to receive funds from the Ministry of ICT of Colombia, and also, to analyze predictable patterns that can be found in calls and funds aimed at the production of culture in Colombia, in the context of the peace agreement, as a request for expressions from a hegemonic place, seeking to impose a worldview.

Keywords: semantic differential, semiotics, transmedia, critical analysis of discourse

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899 Comics Scanlation and Publishing Houses Translation

Authors: Sharifa Alshahrani

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Comics is a multimodal text wherein meaning is created by taking in all modes of expression at once. It uses two different semiotic modes, the verbal and the visual modes, together to make meaning and these different semiotic modes can be socially and culturally shaped to give meaning. Therefore, comics translation cannot treat comics as a monomodal text by translating only the verbal mode inside or outside the speech balloons as the cultural differences are encoded in the visual mode as well. Due to the development of the internet and editing software, comics translation is not anymore confined to the publishing houses and official translation as scanlation, or the fan translation took the initiative in translating comics for being emotionally attracted to the culture and genre. Scanlation is carried out by volunteering fans who translate out of passion. However, quality is one of the debatable issues relating to scanlation and fan translation. This study will investigate how the dynamic multimodal relationship in comics is exploited and interpreted in the translation by exploring the translation strategies and procedures adopted by the publishing houses and scanlation in interpreting comics into Arabic using three analytical frameworks; cultural references model, multimodal relation model and translation strategies and procedures models.

Keywords: comics, multimodality, translation, scanlation

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898 The Meaning System of Tense: A Systemic Functional Approach

Authors: Cunyu Zhang

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Through literature review about studies related to tense, it is found that there exist disagreements on the definition and existence of Chinese tense. Influenced by some researches on English language which regard tense as a grammatical category based on the verbal inflections of English, some Chinese researchers claim that there is no tense in Chinese language as there are no verbal inflections involved. Meanwhile, other Chinese researchers hold that Chinese still has tense although its verbs are non-inflectional based on the fact that Chinese lexical expressions can imply temporal meaning. We assume that the reasons for the above disagreements in terms of Chinese tense lie in the fact that all the previous studies prefer to view language “from the below” which means expressions of tense are the core part of these studies. However, there are about 6,000 languages with distinct expressions all over the world. Hence, if the language studies only concentrate on expressions, it must become more difficult to understand the nature of language. By contrast, functions of languages are similar; otherwise, the human beings could not communicate with each other. Therefore, we believe that it is necessary for us to have a theoretical study on Chinese tense within the framework of SFL which holds that language is a system where meaning is the core part while form is just the realization of meaning. In addition, SFL is a general linguistic providing a universal framework for languages all over the world. Therefore, based on Systemic Functional Linguistics, the paper firstly redefines tense as a deictic semantic category for describing the speaker’s temporal location of processes and relevant temporal relations. With reference to this definition, this study explores the meaning system of tense. It is proposed that tense expresses four kinds of meaning, namely interpersonal, experiential, logical and textual meanings. From the interpersonal angle, tense helps to exchange temporal information between the speaker and the listener, and the temporal information refers to the anchoring of a concerned process in the past, present or future by the speaker. From the experiential angle, tense plays a role in the temporal locating of material, mental, relational, existential, behavioral and verbal processes by the speaker. From the logical angle, tense denotes the temporal relations at the two levels of clause and clause complex, and such relations fall into simultaneity, anteriority and posteriority. From the textual angle, tense refers to the temporal relations at the level of text, and the temporal relations in question concern linear serial relations and synchronous serial relations.

Keywords: Chinese, meaning system, Systemic Functional Linguistics, tense

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