Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: hypnosis

3 Development of a Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface for Interactive Robot Therapy: An Exploration of EEG and EMG Features during Hypnosis

Authors: Maryam Alimardani, Kazuo Hiraki

Abstract:

This study presents a framework for development of a new generation of therapy robots that can interact with users by monitoring their physiological and mental states. Here, we focused on one of the controversial methods of therapy, hypnotherapy. Hypnosis has shown to be useful in treatment of many clinical conditions. But, even for healthy people, it can be used as an effective technique for relaxation or enhancement of memory and concentration. Our aim is to develop a robot that collects information about user’s mental and physical states using electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals and performs costeffective hypnosis at the comfort of user’s house. The presented framework consists of three main steps: (1) Find the EEG-correlates of mind state before, during, and after hypnosis and establish a cognitive model for state changes, (2) Develop a system that can track the changes in EEG and EMG activities in real time and determines if the user is ready for suggestion, and (3) Implement our system in a humanoid robot that will talk and conduct hypnosis on users based on their mental states. This paper presents a pilot study in regard to the first stage, detection of EEG and EMG features during hypnosis.

Keywords: hypnosis, EEG, robotherapy, brain-computer interface (BCI)

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2 Malaysian Knowledge, Belief and Attitude towards Hypnosis as a Health Intervention: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Ying Chern Yeoh, Mark J. Forshaw

Abstract:

Although hypnosis has been widely endorsed in Europe since 1950s, it was still viewed as a typically new therapy in Asia. There are very little findings regarding hypnosis in Asian countries, especially in culturally diverse countries such as Malaysia. The knowledge of the beneficial effects of hypnosis was not widespread to the public, however knowledge of the negative effects was frequently being highlighted. Therefore, the acceptance of hypnosis as a new effective health treatment can be a challenge in Malaysia. Recognising Malaysian’s perception, belief and attitude towards hypnosis could increase the public awareness of hypnosis, which in turn will alter their misconception and increase acceptance of hypnosis as an effective therapy. Eight individuals (N = 8) from the general public with different background, ethnicity (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and religion (Islamic, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Christianity, free-thinker) and two local experienced practitioners with minimum of five years experiences (N = 2) were being interviewed to determine their views, beliefs and level of acceptance towards hypnosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcribed with pseudonyms and analyzed by using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The three emergent themes were illustrated under the captions of ‘traditional vs mainstream’, ‘myths vs truth’, and ‘dissemination and public awareness’. The finding suggested that individual knowledge and personal experience primarily influenced people’s level of acceptance towards hypnosis as a beneficial health treatment, rather than the diversity of cultural and religious background. Subsequent findings regarding hypnosis and the effort of promoting it will provide the society an opportunity to increase public education and health awareness. Several associations had started to advance its development by organizing conferences and setting up therapeutic centers. However, health promotion on hypnosis is yet to be conducted to raise public awareness of its beneficial effects. By requesting for hypnosis to be included as a subject in medical education and psychology curriculum and formatting it under Ministry of Health’s legislation body might enhance the knowledge of hypnosis for Malaysian as one of the health intervention in the future.

Keywords: awareness, hypnosis, intervention, Malaysian, promotion

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
1 A Case Report: The Role of Gut Directed Hypnotherapy in Resolution of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Medication Refractory Pediatric Male Patient

Authors: Alok Bapatla, Pamela Lutting, Mariastella Serrano

Abstract:

Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits in the absence of an underlying organic cause. Although the exact etiology of IBS is not fully understood, one of the leading theories postulates a pathology within the Brain-Gut Axis that leads to an overall increase in gastrointestinal sensitivity and pejorative changes in gastrointestinal motility. Research and clinical practice have shown that Gut Directed Hypnotherapy (GDH) has a beneficial clinical role in improving Mind-Gut control and thereby comorbid conditions such as anxiety, abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. Aims: This study presents a 17-year old male with underlying anxiety and a one-year history of IBS-Constipation Predominant Subtype (IBS-C), who has demonstrated impressive improvement of symptoms following GDH treatment following refractory trials with medications including bisacodyl, senna, docusate, magnesium citrate, lubiprostone, linaclotide. Method: The patient was referred to a licensed clinical psychologist specializing in clinical hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), who implemented “The Standardized Hypnosis Protocol for IBS” developed by Dr. Olafur S. Palsson, Psy.D at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The hypnotherapy protocol consisted of a total of seven weekly 45-minute sessions supplemented with a 20-minute audio recording to be listened to once daily. Outcome variables included the GAD-7, PHQ-9 and DCI-2, as well as self-ratings (ranging 0-10) for pain (intensity and frequency), emotional distress about IBS symptoms, and overall emotional distress. All variables were measured at intake prior to administration of the hypnosis protocol and at the conclusion of the hypnosis treatment. A retrospective IBS Questionnaire (IBS Severity Scoring System) was also completed at the conclusion of the GDH treatment for pre-and post-test ratings of clinical symptoms. Results: The patient showed improvement in all outcome variables and self-ratings, including abdominal pain intensity, frequency of abdominal pain episodes, emotional distress relating to gut issues, depression, and anxiety. The IBS Questionnaire showed a significant improvement from a severity score of 400 (defined as severe) prior to GDH intervention compared to 55 (defined as complete resolution) at four months after the last session. IBS Questionnaire subset questions that showed a significant score improvement included abdominal pain intensity, days of pain experienced per 10 days, satisfaction with bowel habits, and overall interference of life affected by IBS symptoms. Conclusion: This case supports the existing research literature that GDH has a significantly beneficial role in improving symptoms in patients with IBS. Emphasis is placed on the numerical results of the IBS Questionnaire scoring, which reflects a patient who initially suffered from severe IBS with failed response to multiple medications, who subsequently showed full and sustained resolution

Keywords: pediatrics, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, hypnotherapy, gut-directed hypnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 113