Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5074

Search results for: making sense of cyberpornography

5074 Making Sense of Cyber Pornography among Young Adult Couples

Authors: Marianne Lumacang, Jessarine Dultra, Joana Fenol

Abstract:

Filipinos are known to be conservative, sex or pornography is not discussed openly in the Philippines, topic of sex, when raised, will most likely elicit snickers, jokes, and blushes in most Filipino or expressions of disgust. However, a lot of Filipinos are still engaging into this kind of activity for some reasons. The study aims to determine young adult’s point of view about cyber pornography viewing, as well as their reasons for engagement, and its effects on them and their relationship with their partner. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to explore how young adults make sense of cyber pornography viewing. The study focused on Filipino young adults who are in a romantic or married relationship, engage in cyber pornography viewing, and currently residing in Cavite, Philippines. A total of four young adult couples, four females and four males participated in the study as research participants. Data gathered from a total of four young adult couples resulted to a total of nine superordinate themes focusing on (1) exploring young adult couple’s rationales for cyber pornography viewing, (2) experiences of positive effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (3) experiences of negative effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (4) experience of infidelity, (5) experience of necessity, (6) females perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (7) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (8) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards romantic partner, and (9) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards others.

Keywords: cyberpornography, Filipino, interpretative phenomenological analysis, making sense of cyberpornography, young adult

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5073 Pre-Service Teachers’ Reasoning and Sense Making of Variables

Authors: Olteanu Constanta, Olteanu Lucian

Abstract:

Researchers note that algebraic reasoning and sense making is essential for building conceptual knowledge in school mathematics. Consequently, pre-service teachers’ own reasoning and sense making are useful in fostering and developing students’ algebraic reasoning and sense making. This article explores the forms of reasoning and sense making that pre-service mathematics teachers exhibit and use in the process of analysing problem-posing tasks with a focus on first-degree equations. Our research question concerns the characteristics of the problem-posing tasks used for reasoning and sense making of first-degree equations as well as the characteristics of pre-service teachers’ reasoning and sense making in problem-posing tasks. The analyses are grounded in a post-structuralist philosophical perspective and variation theory. Sixty-six pre-service primary teachers participated in the study. The results show that the characteristics of reasoning in problem-posing tasks and of pre-service teachers are selecting, exploring, reconfiguring, encoding, abstracting and connecting. The characteristics of sense making in problem-posing tasks and of pre-service teachers are recognition, relationships, profiling, comparing, laddering and verifying. Beside this, the connection between reasoning and sense making is rich in line of flight in problem-posing tasks, while the connection is rich in line of rupture for pre-service teachers.

Keywords: first-degree equations, problem posing, reasoning, rhizomatic assemblage, sense-making, variation theory

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5072 Personal Income and the Social Confidence in Contemporary China: The Indirect Role of the Sense of Social Equity

Authors: Wenfen Bi, Zeng Lin

Abstract:

As a developing country, China is badly in need of capital and talents to develop the socialist country with Chinese characteristics. However, a large proportion of high income people with know-how technique, wealth and management experience have immigrated or plan to immigrate to other countries. Of course, this phenomenon has attracted the attention from both the government and researchers. One explanation might be that these high-income people lack confidence in China’s social development. Based on the data on W city’s comprehensive social situation surveyed by center for the social survey research of Wuhan university (CSSR) in 2014, this paper employed the structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate whether personal income affects social confidence, via the mediating effect of the sense of social equity (sense of right equity and sense of distributive equity). Bootstrap mediation analysis revealed that after controlling Demographic variables, personal income had a significant negative influence on sense of right equity and in turn, sense of rights equity can significantly positively predict social confidence. While personal income had no significant effect on sense of distributive equity, and sense of distributive equity did not significantly affect macro social confidence. Also, the direct effects of personal income on social confidence became not significant. These findings revealed the inner mechanism of the relationship between the personal income and social confidence in contemporary China, which was caused by mediating effect of sense of rights equity. That is, the higher the personal income, the lower the sense of rights equity, the lower the social confidence. Thus, the boost of the social confidence, especially for the rich, does not only depend on the equitable distribution of material wealth, but also on the right equity and making people feel rights equally in common life.

Keywords: personal income, sense of right equity, sense of social equity, social confidence

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5071 The Connection of the Nibbāna with the Six Sense Bases

Authors: Wattegama Subhavi

Abstract:

A being is the working of the six sense bases. The sense bases are the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body and the mind. Buddhism describes what these sense bases are and how they work. These sense bases can be related to many of the philosophical and psychological teachings of the Buddha. One of the most important teachings of the Buddha is the Four Noble Truths. Buddhism explains that one who needs to attain Nibbāna must understand and realize these Four Noble Truths. These noble truths have a direct connection with the sense bases. The ultimate goal of Buddhism is Nibbāna. But there is no place or a special world called the “Nibbāna”. This paper describes that the noble truths can be identified within one’s own sense bases. The noble truth of suffering occurs within the functioning of the sense bases and the cause of suffering, “craving” operates inside the senses bases and the cessation of suffering, or Nibbāna is also experienced in the Sense Bases. Relevant material will be drawn for this paper directly from the Pāli canonical sources. The major finding is that the first three noble truths can be experienced through the six sense bases. The conclusion derived from the study is that the sense bases have direct relevance to Nibbāna, which is not to be conceived as another place or another dimension, but phenomena that can be experienced through one’s own sense bases, and that the other noble truths are also to be experienced in relation to one’s own sense bases.

Keywords: Buddhism, Four Noble Truths, sense bases, Nibbāna

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5070 Formalizing the Sense Relation of Hyponymy from Logical Point of View: A Study of Mathematical Linguistics in Farsi

Authors: Maryam Ramezankhani

Abstract:

The present research tries to study the possibility of formalizing the sense relation of hyponymy. It applied mathematical tools and also uses mathematical logic concepts especially those from propositional logic. In order to do so, firstly, it goes over the definitions of hyponymy presented in linguistic dictionaries and semantic textbooks. Then, it introduces a formal translation of the sense relation of hyponymy. Lastly, it examines the efficiency of the suggested formula by some examples of natural language.

Keywords: sense relations, hyponymy, formalizing, words’ sense relation, formalizing sense relations

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5069 Sense of Place in Historic City

Authors: Hiba Alkhalaf

Abstract:

Historic cities and places of cultural significance is continuously under the pressure of economic development and social change that threaten its natural and cultural environment. The challenge here is to find a balance between preserving the cultural character while ensuring the socio-economic gains and continuity of its uniqueness. That is by sustaining the use, character, meaning and social interaction associated with the place, in other words the sense of place. The main argument here is what we attempt to conserve is the cultural physical and non-physical dimensions of the historic city. It is based on the proposition that what give the historic city its character is its strong sense of place- whether it is historic or current. When properly identified, its various dimensions (use, meaning and form) would help determine what to sustain and what not by making the development meaningfully related to the uniqueness of the historic place. Accordingly, those socio-economic features within the context of a changing historic environment needed to be clarified. This paper, thus, explores the various perspectives of the role of sense of place within the historic city and its connection to cultural heritage. It also reviews urban conservation practice as it is currently understood in the context of historic city development. It concludes that sense of place lies in complex interrelated relationships between various users of the place and the physical, economic, cultural, political, and environmental contexts in which they interact. This calls for the need to sustain the sense of place as part of the overall urban development and conservation strategies.

Keywords: cultural heritage, historic urban areas, urban development, sense of place

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5068 The Family Sense of Coherence of Early Childhood Education Students

Authors: M. Demir, A. Demir

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students. The Family Sense of Coherence Inventory has applied to 233 (108 girls and 125 boys) early childhood education students in Turkey. At the stage of data collection, with the aim of determining the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students, Family Sense of Coherence Inventory which was developed by Çeçen (2007) was used. In the process of the analysis of data, independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used. According to the results of the study, there were significant differences between some demographic variables in terms of the family sense of coherence.

Keywords: family sense of coherence, early childhood education students

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5067 Factors Affecting Sense of Community in Residential Communities Case Study: Residential Communities in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Parvin Foroughifar

Abstract:

The concept of sense of community refers to residents’ sense of attachment and commitment to the other residents in a residential community. It is implicitly indicative of the mental image of a physical environment in which the residents enjoy strong social ties. Sense of community, a crucial factor in improving quality of life and social welfare, leads to life satisfaction in a residential community. Despite the important functions of such a notion, few empirical studies, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have been so far carried out in Iran to investigate the effective factors in sharpening the sense of community in residential communities. This survey research examined sense of community in 360 above 20-year old residents of three residential communities in Tehran, Iran using cluster sampling and questionnaire. The study yielded the result that variables of local social ties, social control and trust, sense of security, length of residence, use of public spaces, and mixed land use have a significant relationship with sense of community.

Keywords: sense of community, local social ties, sense of security, public space, residential community, Tehran

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5066 How Do Undergraduates of Ethnic Minorities Perceive Their Sense of Belonging to School? A Mixed Study in China

Authors: Xiao-Fang Wang

Abstract:

Researchers of educational psychology have proved that students' sense of belonging to school is conducive to their academic achievement, social relations and mental health. However, little attention is paid to undergraduates' sense of belonging, especially, the distinctive student group, i.e., undergraduate students of ethnic minorities. This article utilized a mixed study approach to investigate the perceptions of undergraduates of ethnic minority toward their sense of belonging to school. The findings from qualitative and quantitative data indicate: 1) generally, the sense of belonging to school of ethnic minority undergraduate students was at the middle level. 2) Gender had an important impact on the sense of belonging, and the sense of girls was much larger than boys’. 3) The sense of belonging to school of students who come from city and town was much larger than the one of students who come from the countryside. 4) The category of subjects had significantly effected on the sense of belonging to school, and, the students from social and art science was larger than those from engineer science. The article is concluded with some valuable and relevant suggestions for university' student management activities and teachers' teaching practice.

Keywords: ethnic minority, undergraduate students, sense of belonging, China

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5065 Number Sense Proficiency and Problem Solving Performance of Grade Seven Students

Authors: Laissa Mae Francisco, John Rolex Ingreso, Anna Krizel Menguito, Criselda Robrigado, Rej Maegan Tuazon

Abstract:

This study aims to determine and describe the existing relationship between number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance of grade seven students from Victorino Mapa High School, Manila. A paper pencil exam containing of 50-item number sense test and 5-item problem-solving test which measures their number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance adapted from McIntosh, Reys, and Bana were used as the research instruments. The data obtained from this study were interpreted and analyzed using the Pearson – Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation to determine the relationship between the two variables. It was found out that students who were low in number sense proficiency tend to be the students with poor problem-solving performance and students with medium number sense proficiency are most likely to have an average problem-solving performance. Likewise, students with high number sense proficiency are those who do excellently in problem-solving performance.

Keywords: number sense, performance, problem solving, proficiency

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5064 Exploring the Effect of Using Lesh Model in Enhancing Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Number Sense

Authors: Areej Isam Barham

Abstract:

Developing students’ number sense is an essential element in the learning of mathematics. Number sense is one of the foundational ideas in mathematics where students need to understand numbers, representing them in different ways, and realize the relationships among numbers. Number sense also reflects students’ understanding of the meaning of operations, how they related to one another, how to compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. Developing students’ number sense in the mathematics classroom requires good preparation for mathematics teachers, those who will direct their students towards the real understanding of numbers and its implementation in the learning of mathematics. This study describes the development of elementary prospective mathematics teachers’ number sense through a mathematics teaching methods course at Qatar University. The study examined the effect of using the Lesh model in enhancing mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense. Thirty-nine elementary prospective mathematics teachers involved in the current study. The study followed an experimental research approach, and quantitative research methods were used to answer the research questions. Pre-post number sense test was constructed and implemented before and after teaching by using the Lesh model. Data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive data analysis and t-test were used to examine the impact of using the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense. Finding of the study indicated poor number sense and limited numeracy skills before implementing the use of the Lesh model, which highly demonstrate the importance of the study. The results of the study also revealed a positive impact on the use of the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense with statistically significant differences. The discussion of the study addresses different features and issues related to the participants’ number sense. In light of the study, the research presents recommendations and suggestions for the future development of mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense.

Keywords: number sense, Lesh model, prospective mathematics teachers, development of number sense

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5063 Bridging the Gap between M and E, and KM: Towards the Integration of Evidence-Based Information and Policy Decision-Making

Authors: Xueqing Ivy Chen, Christo De Coning

Abstract:

It is clear from practice that a gap exists between Result-Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBME) as a discipline, and Knowledge Management (KM) on the other hand. Whereas various government departments have institutionalised these functions, KM and M&E has functioned in isolation from each other in a practical sense in the public sector. It’s therefore necessary to explore the relationship between KM and M&E and the necessity for integration, so that a convergence of these disciplines can be established. An integration of KM and M&E will lead to integration and improvement of evidence-based information and policy decision-making. M&E and KM process models are available but the complementarity between specific process steps of these process models are not exploited. A need exists to clarify the relationships between these functions in order to ensure evidence based information and policy decision-making. This paper will depart from the well-known policy process models, such as the generic model and consider recent on the interface between policy, M&E and KM.

Keywords: result-based monitoring and evaluation, RBME, knowledge management, KM, evident based decision making, public policy, information systems, institutional arrangement

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5062 Architectural Experience of the Everyday in Bangkok CBD

Authors: Thirayu Jumsai Na Ayudhya

Abstract:

The attempt to understand about what architecture means to people as they go about their everyday life revealed that knowledge such as environmental psychology, environmental perception, environmental aesthetics, inadequately address the contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. In my previous research, it was found that people’s making senses of their everyday architecture can be addressed in terms of four super‐ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). In this research, Bangkok CBD was selected as the focal urban context that the integrated style of architecture is noticeable. It is expected that in a unique urban context like Bangkok CBD unprecedented super-ordinate themes will be unveiled through the reflection of people’s everyday experiences. In this research, people’s architectural experience conducted in Bangkok CBD, Thailand, will be presented succinctly. The research addresses the question of how do people make sense of their everyday architecture/buildings especially in a unique urban context, Bangkok CBD, and identifies ways in which people make sense of their everyday architecture. Two key methodologies are adopted. First, Participant-Produced-Photograph (PPP) allows people to express their experiences of the everyday urban context freely without any interference or forced-data generating by researchers. Second, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) are also applied as main methodologies. With IPA methodology, a small pool of participants is considered giving the detailed level of analysis and its potential to produce a meaningful outcome.

Keywords: architectural experience, building appreciation, design psychology, environmental psychology, sense-making, the everyday experience, transactional theory

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5061 The Link between Strategic Sense-Making and Performance in Dubai Public Sector

Authors: Mohammad Rahman, Guy Burton, Megan Mathias

Abstract:

Strategic management as an organizational practice was adopted by the public sector in the New Public Management (NPM) era that began in most parts of the world in the 1980s. Strategy as a new public management concept was subscribed by governments in both developed and developing world, as they were persuaded that clearly defined vision, mission and goals, as well as programs and projects - aligned with the goals - could potentially help achieve government vision at the national level and organizational goals at the service-delivery level. The advocates for strategic management in the public sector saw an inherent link between strategy and performance, claiming that the implementation of organizational strategy has an effect on the overall performance of an organization. Arguably, many government entities that have failed in enhancing team and individual performance had poorly-designed strategy or weak strategy implementation. Another key argument about low-level performance is linked with lack of strategic sense-making and orientation by middle managers in particular. Scholars maintain that employees at all levels need to understand strategic management plan in order to facilitate its implementation. Therefore, involving employees (particularly the middle managers) from the beginning potentially helps an organization avoid the drop in performance, and on the contrary would increase their commitment. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is well known for adopting public sector reform strategies and tools since the 1990s. This observation is contextually pertinent in the case of the Government of Dubai, which has provided a Strategy Execution Guide to all of its entities to achieve high level strategic success in service delivery. The Dubai public sector also adopts road maps for e-Government, Smart Dubai, Expo 2020, investment, environment, education, health and other sectors. Evidently, some of these strategies are bringing tangible (e.g. Smart Dubai transformation) results in a transformational manner. However, the amount of academic research and literature on the strategy process vis-à-vis staff performance in the Government of Dubai is limited. In this backdrop, this study examines how individual performance of public sector employees in Dubai is linked with their sense-making, engagement and orientation with strategy development and implementation processes. Based on a theoretical framework, this study will undertake a sample-based questionnaire survey amongst middle managers in Dubai public sector to (a) measure the level of engagement of middle managers in strategy development and implementation processes as perceived by them; (b) observe the organizational landscape in which role expectations are placed on middle managers; and (c) examine the impact of employee engagement in strategy development process and the conditions for role expectations on individual performance. The paper is expected to provide new insights on the interface between strategic sense-making and performance in order to contribute a better understanding of the current culture/practices of staff engagement in strategic management in the public sector of Dubai.

Keywords: employee performance, government of Dubai, middle managers, strategic sense-making

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5060 Landscape Factors Eliciting the Sense of Relaxation in Urban Green Space

Authors: Kaowen Grace Chang

Abstract:

Urban green spaces play an important role in promoting wellbeing through the sense of relaxation for urban residents. Among many designing factors, what the principal ones that could effectively influence people’s sense of relaxation? And, what are the relationship between the sense of relaxation and those factors? Regarding those questions, there is still little evidence for sufficient support. Therefore, the purpose of this study, based on individual responses to environmental information, is to investigate the landscape factors that relate to well-being through the sense of relaxation in mixed-use urban environments. We conducted the experimental design and model construction utilizing choice-based conjoint analysis to test the factors of plant arrangement pattern, plant trimming condition, the distance to visible automobile, the number of landmark objects, and the depth of view. Through the operation of balanced fractional orthogonal design, the goal is to know the relationship between the sense of relaxation and different designs. In a result, the three factors of plant trimming condition, the distance to visible automobile, and the depth of view shed are significantly effective to the sense of relaxation. The stronger magnitude of maintenance and trimming, the further distance to visible automobiles, and deeper view shed that allow the users to see further scenes could significantly promote green space users’ sense of relaxation in urban green spaces.

Keywords: urban green space, landscape planning and design, sense of relaxation, choice model

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5059 Narrative Psychology and Its Role in Illuminating the Experience of Suffering

Authors: Maureen Gibney

Abstract:

The examination of narrative in psychology has a long tradition, starting with psychoanalytic theory and embracing over time cognitive, social, and personality psychology, among others. Narrative use has been richly detailed as well in medicine, nursing, and social service. One aspect of narrative that has ready utility in higher education and in clinical work is the exploration of suffering and its meaning. Because it is such a densely examined topic, suffering provides a window into identity, sense of purpose, and views of humanity and of the divine. Storytelling analysis permits an exploration of a host of specific manifestations of suffering such as pain and illness, moral injury, and the impact of prolonged suffering on love and relationships. This presentation will review the origins and current understandings of narrative theory in general, and will draw from psychology, medicine, ethics, nursing, and social service in exploring the topic of suffering in particular. It is suggested that the use of narrative themes such as meaning making, agency and communion, generativity, and loss and redemption allows for a finely grained analysis of common and more atypical sources of suffering, their resolution, and the acceptance of their continuation when resolution is not possible. Such analysis, used in professional work and in higher education, can enrich one’s empathy and one’s sense of both the fragility and strength of everyday life.

Keywords: meaning making, narrative theory, suffering, teaching

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5058 Development and Validation of Sense of Humor Questionnaire in China

Authors: Yunshi Peng, Shanshan Gao, Sang Qin

Abstract:

The sense of humor is an integration of cognition, emotion and behavioral tendencies in the process of expressing humor. Previous studies evidenced the positive impact of sense of humor on promoting mental health. However, very few studies investigated this with Chinese populations. The absence of a validated questionnaire limits empirical research on sense of humor in China. This study aimed to develop a Chinese instrument to examine the sense of humor among college students in China. A pool of 72 items was developed by conducting a series of qualitative methods including open-ended questionnaire, individual interviews and literature analysis, followed by an expert rating. A total of 500 college students were recruited from 7 provinces in China to complete all 72 items. The factor structure of sense of humor was established and 25 items were eventually formed by utilizing the exploratory factor analyses (EFA). The questionnaire composed 4 subscales: humor comprehension, humor creativity, attitudes towards humor and optimism level. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) from a follow-up study with a different sample of 1200 colleges students showed good model fit. All subscales and the overall questionnaire display satisfying internal consistency. Correlations with criterion variables demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. The sense of humor questionnaire is a psychometrically-sound instrument for the population of college students in China. This is applicable for future studies to identify the structure of sense of humor and evaluate the levels of humor for individuals.

Keywords: college students, EFA and CFA, questionnaire, sense of humor

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5057 Comparison of the Proprioception Sense and Standing Balance in Patients with Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty Surgery

Authors: S. Daneshi, G. Shahcheraghi, F. Ghaffarinejad

Abstract:

Back ground: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people around the world during the aging process. Knee joint proprioception sense decrease with OA and Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery may affect them. We investigated two parameters of proprioception sense (the joint position sense and kinesthesia) and standing balance in affected limbs before and after TKA, in patient with Knee OA. Methods and Materials: In this Analytic study, 10 patients who were candidate for TKA during two months in Dena Hospital of Shiraz, selected for further analysis. All of cases were female in range of 55-70 years old. Participants assessed before and two weeks after TKA using three instruments: electrogoniometer and continuous passive motion (CPM) to assess Knee joint position sense and kinesthesia in 20 and 45 degrees; and chronometer to assess duration of standing balance on affected leg with open and closed eyes. Results: To examine differences between before and after of TKA scorings Willcoxon Signed Rank and Mann-Whitney was performed which indicated no significant differences between knee joint position sense and kinesthesia in 20 and 45 degrees (P>0.05) and no significant differences between Standing Balance in a patient with knee OA before and after TKA (P>0.05). Conclusion: The study indicates that, OA can affect proprioception sense and standing balance but TKA doesn’t have any effect on these parameters. Intra articular structures such as cruciate ligaments and mines are responsible for proprioception sense in normal knee joint. Since in severe knee OA the number of mechanoreceptors in these intra articular structures decrease and their function reduce more than normal knee joint, so the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) become defected, thus after TKA surgery which this ligament is removed no significant change was found in proprioception sense. As a result of involving proprioception sense, muscles strength and the function of vestibular system in balance, standing balance did not show significant difference before and after TKA.

Keywords: knee joint, proprioception sense, standing balance, rehabilitation sciences

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5056 Overcoming Urban Challenges through Culture and Social Sustainability in Caracas’ Barrios

Authors: Gabriela Quintana Vigiola

Abstract:

Social sustainability is an issue scarcely addressed by different authors, being one of its key factors the psychosocial processes of sense of place, sense of community and appropriation. In Caracas’s barrios (Venezuela) these were developed through sharing the construction of the place and different struggles that brought the neighbours together. However, one of the main problems they face is criminal violence, hence being its social sustainability threatened and affected by it. This matter can be addressed by acknowledging communities’ sense of place and engaging in cultural events.

Keywords: Caracas’ barrios, cultural engagement, developing countries, social sustainability

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5055 Decision Traps of Military Leaders

Authors: Ahmet Ali Turk, Muhterem Bayram

Abstract:

In this study, it is intended to determine that what kind of traps military leaders fall into during the decision making and how they make take a measure against them. In the study, the domestic and foreign literature on the military leadership has been reviewed and military decision-making process of the different countries has been introduced and study has been designed by making interviews as a sample with 50 people who had made military leadership. The issues resulting from the literature review that led to wrong decisions of military leaders and the points obtained as a result of interview have been evaluated by comparing. As a result, it has been emerged that the personnel who have made especially military leadership are in tendency of making the wrong decision due to decision traps such as excessive self-confidence, lack of experience, unplanned movement, hasty decision making and prohibitive conditions and also the need for increased situational awareness about this condition has been emerged.

Keywords: military leadership, decision making, military decision making, military decision making traps

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5054 Decision Making Approach through Generalized Fuzzy Entropy Measure

Authors: H. D. Arora, Anjali Dhiman

Abstract:

Uncertainty is found everywhere and its understanding is central to decision making. Uncertainty emerges as one has less information than the total information required describing a system and its environment. Uncertainty and information are so closely associated that the information provided by an experiment for example, is equal to the amount of uncertainty removed. It may be pertinent to point out that uncertainty manifests itself in several forms and various kinds of uncertainties may arise from random fluctuations, incomplete information, imprecise perception, vagueness etc. For instance, one encounters uncertainty due to vagueness in communication through natural language. Uncertainty in this sense is represented by fuzziness resulting from imprecision of meaning of a concept expressed by linguistic terms. Fuzzy set concept provides an appropriate mathematical framework for dealing with the vagueness. Both information theory, proposed by Shannon (1948) and fuzzy set theory given by Zadeh (1965) plays an important role in human intelligence and various practical problems such as image segmentation, medical diagnosis etc. Numerous approaches and theories dealing with inaccuracy and uncertainty have been proposed by different researcher. In the present communication, we generalize fuzzy entropy proposed by De Luca and Termini (1972) corresponding to Shannon entropy(1948). Further, some of the basic properties of the proposed measure were examined. We also applied the proposed measure to the real life decision making problem.

Keywords: entropy, fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, generalized fuzzy entropy, decision making

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5053 I Look Powerful So You Will Yield to Me: The Effects of Embodied Power and the Perception of Power on Conflict Management

Authors: Fai-Ho E. Choi, Wing-Tung Au

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of embodiment on conflict management. As shown in the research literature, the physiological (i.e. bodily postures) can affect the emotional and cognitive proceedings of human beings, but little has been shown on whether such effects would have ramifications in decision-making related to other individuals. In this study, conflict is defined as when two parties have seemingly incompatible goals, and the two have to deal with each other in order to maximize one’s own gain. In a matched-gender experiment, university undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either the high power condition or the low power condition, with participants in each condition instructed to perform a fix set of bodily postures that would either embody them with a high sense of power or a low sense of power. One high-power participant would pair up with a low-power participant to engage in an integrative bargaining task and a dictator game. Participants also filled out a pre-trial questionnaire and a post-trial questionnaire measuring general sense of power, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Personality was controlled for. Results are expected to support our hypotheses that people who are embodied with power will be more unyielding in a conflict management situation, and that people who are dealing with another person embodied with power will be more yielding in a conflict management situation. As conflicts arise frequently both within and between organizations, a better understanding of how human beings function in conflicts is important. This study should provide evidence that bodily postures can influence the perceived sense of power of the parties involved and hence influence the conflict outcomes. Future research needs to be conducted to investigate further how people perceive themselves and how they perceive their opponents in conflicts, such that we can come up with a behavioral theory of conflict management.

Keywords: conflict management, embodiment, negotiation, perception

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5052 Conceptualizing Thoughtful Intelligence for Sustainable Decision Making

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen

Abstract:

Thoughtful intelligence offers a sustainable position to enhance the influence of decision-makers. Thoughtful Intelligence implies the understanding to realize the impact of one’s thoughts, words and actions on the survival, dignity and development of the individuals, groups and nations. Thoughtful intelligence has received minimal consideration in the area of Decision Support Systems, with an end goal to evaluate the quantity of knowledge and its viability. This pattern degraded the imbibed contribution of thoughtful intelligence required for sustainable decision making. Given the concern, this paper concentrates on the question: How to present a model of Thoughtful Decision Support System (TDSS)? The aim of this paper is to appreciate the concepts of thoughtful intelligence and insinuate a Decision Support System based on thoughtful intelligence. Thoughtful intelligence includes three dynamic competencies: i) Realization about long term impacts of decisions that are made in a specific time and space, ii) A great sense of taking actions, iii) Intense interconnectivity with people and nature and; seven associate competencies, of Righteousness, Purposefulness, Understanding, Contemplation, Sincerity, Mindfulness, and Nurturing. The study utilizes two methods: Focused group discussion to count prevailing Decision Support Systems; 70% results of focus group discussions found six decision support systems and the positive inexistence of thoughtful intelligence among decision support systems regarding sustainable decision making. Delphi focused on defining thoughtful intelligence to model (TDSS). 65% results helped to conceptualize (definition and description) of thoughtful intelligence. TDSS is offered here as an addition in the decision making literature. The clients are top leaders.

Keywords: thoughtful intelligence, sustainable decision making, thoughtful decision support system

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5051 Making Sense of Places: A Comparative Study of Three Contexts in Thailand

Authors: Thirayu Jumsai Na Ayudhya

Abstract:

The study of what architecture means to people in their everyday lives inadequately addresses the contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. This article succinctly presents theoretical framework obtained from the comparative study of how people experience the everyday architecture in three different contexts including 1) Bangkok CBD, 2) Phuket island old-town, and 3) Nan province old-town. The way people make sense of the everyday architecture can be addressed in four super-ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). In this article, these super-ordinate themes were verified whether they recur in three studied-contexts. In each studied-context, the participants were divided into two groups, 1) local people, 2) visitors. Participants were asked to take photographs of the everyday architecture during the everyday routine and to participate the elicit-interview with photographs produced by themselves. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was adopted to interpret elicit-interview data. Sub-themes emerging in each studied-context were brought into the cross-comparison among three studied- contexts. It is found that four super-ordinate themes recur with additional distinctive sub-themes. Further studies in other different contexts, such as socio-political, economic, cultural differences, are recommended to complete the theoretical framework.

Keywords: sense of place, the everyday architecture, architectural experience, the everyday

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5050 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman

Abstract:

Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

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5049 Theorem on Inconsistency of The Classical Logic

Authors: T. J. Stepien, L. T. Stepien

Abstract:

This abstract concerns an extremely fundamental issue. Namely, the fundamental problem of science is the issue of consistency. In this abstract, we present the theorem saying that the classical calculus of quantifiers is inconsistent in the traditional sense. At the beginning, we introduce a notation, and later we remind the definition of the consistency in the traditional sense. S1 is the set of all well-formed formulas in the calculus of quantifiers. RS1 denotes the set of all rules over the set S1. Cn(R, X) is the set of all formulas standardly provable from X by rules R, where R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. The couple < R,X > is called a system, whenever R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. Definition: The system < R,X > is consistent in the traditional sense if there does not exist any formula from the set S1, such that this formula and its negation are provable from X, by using rules from R. Finally, < R0+, L2 > denotes the classical calculus of quantifiers, where R0+ consists of Modus Ponens and the generalization rule. L2 is the set of all formulas valid in the classical calculus of quantifiers. The Main Result: The system < R0+, L2 > is inconsistent in the traditional sense.

Keywords: classical calculus of quantifiers, classical predicate calculus, generalization rule, consistency in the traditional sense, Modus Ponens

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5048 Indicators of Radicalization in Prisons Facilities: Identification and Assessment

Authors: David Kramsky, Barbora Vegrichtova

Abstract:

The prison facility is generally considered as an environment having a corrective purpose. Besides the social sense of remedy, prison is also an environment that potentially determines and affects socially dangerous behavior. The authors, based on long-term empirical research, present the significant indicators that are directly related to the transformation of personality attitudes, motivations and behavior associating with a process of radicalization. One of the most significant symptoms of radicalization is a particular social moral decision making. Individuals in the radicalism process primarily prefer utilitarian manners of decision-making more than personal aspects like empathy for others. The authors will present the method of social moral profiling of the subject in radicalization process as an effective prevention system reducing security risks in society.

Keywords: indicators, moral decision, radicalism, social profile

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5047 Work Engagement, Sense of Humor and Workplace Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

Authors: Vandana Maurya

Abstract:

Positive psychological capital is the key contributor to the competitive advantage of the organizations. Moreover, work engagement and sense of humor are also positive notions and are able to facilitate positive workplace behaviour but the mechanism behind these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work engagement, sense of humor and outcome variables (organizational citizenship behaviour and ethical performance) as well as investigating how psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationships between work engagement, sense of humor and the outcome variables among healthcare professionals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on healthcare professionals (n= 240). Data were collected using questionnaires which includes Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Multi-dimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire, and Ethical Performance Scale (EPS). The results of the regression analyses showed that work engagement and sense of humor both positively predicted the outcome variables. Mediation analysis reveals that psychological capital mediates the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. The study recommends that the framework presented in this study can be an important tool for managers to enhance their employees’ psychological capital by increasing their levels of work engagement and sense of humor. In turn, psychological capital could be a positive resource for employees to dealing more ethically and enhancing more positive workplace behaviour.

Keywords: ethical performance, humor, organizational citizenship behavior, PsyCap, work engagement

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5046 The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense in Liquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods

Authors: Anna Drzewicz, Marzena Tykarska

Abstract:

The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.

Keywords: helical twist sense, liquid crystals, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy

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5045 Factors that Contribute to the Improvement of the Sense of Self-Efficacy of Special Educators in Inclusive Settings in Greece

Authors: Sotiria Tzivinikou, Dimitra Kagkara

Abstract:

Teacher’s sense of self-efficacy can affect significantly both teacher’s and student’s performance. More specific, self-efficacy is associated with the learning outcomes as well as student’s motivation and self-efficacy. For example, teachers with high sense of self-efficacy are more open to innovations and invest more effort in teaching. In addition to this, effective inclusive education is associated with higher levels of teacher’s self-efficacy. Pre-service teachers with high levels of self-efficacy could handle student’s behavior better and more effectively assist students with special educational needs. Teacher preparation programs are also important, because teacher’s efficacy beliefs are shaped early in learning, as a result the quality of teacher’s education programs can affect the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service teachers. Usually, a number of pre-service teachers do not consider themselves well prepared to work with students with special educational needs and do not have the appropriate sense of self-efficacy. This study aims to investigate the factors that contribute to the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service special educators by using an academic practicum training program. The sample of this study is 159 pre-service special educators, who also participated in the academic practicum training program. For the purpose of this study were used quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Teacher’s self-efficacy was assessed by the teachers themselves with the completion of a questionnaire which was based on the scale of Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale. Pre and post measurements of teacher’s self-efficacy were taken. The results of the survey are consistent with those of the international literature. The results indicate that a significant number of pre-service special educators do not hold the appropriate sense of self-efficacy regarding teaching students with special educational needs. Moreover, a quality academic training program constitutes a crucial factor for the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service special educators, as additional for the provision of high quality inclusive education.

Keywords: inclusive education, pre-service, self-efficacy, training program

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