Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 301

Search results for: friends

301 An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis on the Concept of Friends of Children in Conflict with the Law

Authors: Karla Kristine Bay, Jovie Ann Gabin, Allana Joyce Sasotona


This research employed an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the experiences of Children in Conflict with the Law (CICL) which gave light to their concept of ‘friends’. Derived from this context are the following objectives of the study: 1) determining the differentiation of the forms of friends of the CICL; 2) presenting the process of attachment towards detachment in the formation of friendship; and 3) discussing the experiences, and reflections of the CICL on the ‘self’ out of their encounter with friendship. Using the data gathered from the individual drawings of the CICL of their representations of the self, family, friends, community, and Bahay Kalinga as subjects in the meaning-making process utilizing Filipino Psychology methods of pagtatanong-tanong (interview), and pakikipagkwentuhan (conversation), data analysis produced a synthesis of seventeen individual cases. Overall results generated three superordinate themes on the differentiation of the forms of friends which include friends with good influences, friends with bad influences, and friends within the family. While two superordinate themes were produced on the process of attachment towards detachment, namely social, emotional, and psychological experiences on the process of attachment, and emotional and psychological experiences on the process of detachment. Lastly, two superordinate themes were created on the experiences, and reflections of the CICL on the ‘self’ out of their encounter with friendship. This consists of the recognition of the ‘self’ as a responsible agent in developing healthy relationships between the self and others, and reconstruction of the self from the collective experiences of healing, forgiveness, and acceptance. These findings, together with supporting theories discussed the impact of friendship on the emergence of criminal behavior and other dispositions; springing from the child’s dissociation from the family that led to finding belongingness from an external group called friends.

Keywords: children in conflict with the law, criminal behavior, friends, interpretative phenomenological analysis

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300 Floating Quantifiers in Hijazi Arabic

Authors: Tagreed Alzahrani


The syntax of quantifiers has received much attention by linguists, philosophers and logicians within different frameworks and in various languages. However, the syntax of Arabic quantifiers has received limited attention in the literature, especially in relation to floating quantifiers. There have been a few discussions of floating quantifiers in Modern Standard Arabic (henceforth, MSA), although the analysis and the properties of their counterparts in other Saudi dialects are rare. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to provide a clear description of floating quantifiers (FQs) in Hijazi dialect (henceforth, HA) by utilising the following approaches: the adverbial approach, and the derivational (stranding) analysis. For a long time, Linguists have tried to explain the floating quantifiers’ phenomenon, as exemplified in the following sentences: 1. All the friends have watched the movie. 2. The friends have all watched the movie. The adverbial approach assumes that the floating quantifier is a type of adverb, because it occupies the adverbial position next to the verb. Thus, the subject in the first example is all the friends and the subject in the second example is the friends with all becoming an adverb, as it is located in an adverbial position. However, in stranding analysis, it is argued that the floating quantifier becomes stranded when its complement has moved to a higher position in the sentence [SPEC, TP]. Therefore, both sentences have the same subject all the friends, although in second example the friends has moved to a higher position and has stranded the quantifier all. The paper will investigate the floating quantifiers in HA using both approaches. The analysis will show that neither view is entirely successful in providing a unified account for FQs in HA.

Keywords: floating quantifier, adverbial analysis, stranding approach, universal quantifier

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299 An Investigation into Problems Confronting Pre-Service Teachers of French in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Modupe Beatrice Adeyinka


French, as a foreign language in Nigeria, is pronounced to be the second official language and a compulsory subject in the primary school level; hence, colleges of education across the nation are saddled with the responsibility of training teachers for the subject. However, it has been observed that this policy has not been fully implemented, for French teachers in training, do face many challenges, of which translation is chief. In a bid to investigate the major cause of the perceived translation problem, this study examined French translation problems of pre-service teachers in selected colleges of education in the southwest, Nigeria. This study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The simple random sampling technique was used to select four colleges of education in the southwest, where 100 French students were randomly selected by selecting 25 from each school. The pre-service teachers’ French translation problems’ questionnaire (PTFTPQ) was used as an instrument while four research questions were answered and three null hypotheses were tested. Among others, the findings revealed that students do have problems with false friends, though mainly with its interpretation when attempting French-English translation and vice versa; majority of the students make use of French dictionary as a way out and found the material very useful for their understanding of false friends. Teachers were, therefore, urged to attend in-service training where they would be exposed to new and emerging strategies, approaches and methodologies of French language teaching that will make students overcome the challenge of translation in learning French.

Keywords: false friends, French language, pre-service teachers, source language, target language, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
298 The Antecedents of Facebook Check in Adoption Intention: The Perspective of Social Influence

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng


Recently, the competition between websites becomes intense. How to make users “adopt” their websites is an issue of urgent importance for online communities companies. Social procedures (such as social influence) can possibly explain how and why users’ technologies usage behaviors affect other people to use the technologies. This study proposes two types of social influences on the initial usage of Facebook Check In-friends and group members. Besides, this study indicates that Facebook friends’ previous usage of Facebook Check In and Facebook group members’ previous usage of Facebook Check In will positively influence focal actors’ Facebook Check In adoption intention. The article concludes with contributions to academic research and practice.

Keywords: social influence, adoption intention, facebook check in, previous usage behavior

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297 Analysis of the Social Problems of the Early Adolescents in Northeast China

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang, Georgianna Duarte


The social problems of early adolescents in Northeast China were examined with the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). In this study, the data consisted of 2532 early adolescents. The relevant variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends, as independent variables have been included in this study. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The analysis results indicated that sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends, as predictors can be used in a predictive model, which significantly predict the social problem T-score.

Keywords: social problems, ASEBA, early adolescents, predictive Model

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296 What Factors Contributed to the Adaptation Gap during School Transition in Japan?

Authors: Tadaaki Tomiie, Hiroki Shinkawa


The present study was aimed to examine the structure of children’s adaptation during school transition and to identify a commonality and dissimilarity at the elementary and junior high school. 1,983 students in the 6th grade and 2,051 students in the 7th grade were extracted by stratified two-stage random sampling and completed the ASSESS that evaluated the school adaptation from the view point of ‘general satisfaction’, ‘teachers’ support’, ‘friends’ support’, ‘anti-bullying relationship’, ‘prosocial skills’, and ‘academic adaptation’. The 7th graders tend to be worse adaptation than the 6th graders. A structural equation modeling showed the goodness of fit for each grades. Both models were very similar but the 7th graders’ model showed a lower coefficient at the pass from ‘teachers’ support’ to ‘friends’ support’. The role of ‘teachers’ support’ was decreased to keep a good relation in junior high school. We also discussed how we provide a continuous assistance for prevention of the 7th graders’ gap.

Keywords: school transition, social support, psychological adaptation, K-12

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295 Effects and Coping Strategies of Cyber Bullying in Pakistan: A Gender Response

Authors: Rabia Qusien


New media has emerged as a significant force in the society which connects people across the globe. Where new media brought many advantages for its users, there is a darker aspect of new technology in the form of cyberbullying. Researcher has employed survey method to reach to its targeted audience. Sample of 604 respondents was selected from one of metropolitan city of Pakistan Lahore to collect the data. Equal sample from both genders was selected to apply gender analysis. Results of this study indicate that cyber bullying is having significant psychological and educational effects. Females face more cyber bullying incidents as compared to males so they face more severe effects of cyber bullying. A comprehensive analysis of managing strategies depicts that mostly youth tries to handle this issue personally but at times they seek the support of their family and friends when they face severe issues. Due to privacy concerns females get more upset and they are more likely to seek social support from friends and family.

Keywords: cyber bullying, cyber victims, educational impacts, psychological impacts

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294 Parents-Children Communication in College

Authors: Yin-Chen Liu, Chih-Chun Wu, Mei-He Shih


In this technology society, using ICT(Information and communications technology) to contact each other is very common. Interpersonal ICT communication maintains social support. Therefore, the study investigated the ICT communication between undergraduates and their parents, and gender differences were also detected. The sample size was 1,209 undergraduates, including 624(51.6%) males, 584(48.3%) females, and 1 gender unidentified. In the sample, 91.8% of the sample used phones to contact their fathers and 93.8% of them use phones to contact their mothers. 78.5% and 87.6% of the sample utilized LINE to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. As for Facebook, only 13.4% and 16.5% of the sample would use to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. Aforementioned results implied that the undergraduates nowadays use phone and LINE to contact their parents more common than Facebook. According to results from Pearson correlations, the more undergraduates refused to add their fathers as their Facebook friends, the more they refused to add their mothers as Facebook friends. The possible reasons for it could be that to distinguish different social network such as family and friends. Another possible reason could be avoiding parents’ controlling. It could be why the kids prefer to use phone and LINE to Facebook when contacting their parents. Result from Pearson correlations showed that the more undergraduates actively contact their fathers, the more they actively contact their mothers. On the other hand, the more their fathers actively contact them, the more their mothers actively contact them. Based on the results, this study encourages both parents and undergraduates to contact each other, for any contact between any two family members is associated with contact between other two family members. Obviously, the contact between family members is bidirectional. Future research might want to investigate if this bidirectional contact is associated with the family relation. For gender differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that compared to sons, daughters actively contacted their parents more. Maybe it is because parents keep saying that it is dangerous out there for their daughters, so they build up the habit for their daughters to contact them more. Results from paired sample t-tests showed that the undergraduates agreed that talking to mother on the phone had more satisfaction, felt more intimacy and supported than fathers.

Keywords: family ICT communication, parent-child ICT communication, FACEBOOK and LINE, gender differences

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293 The Impact of Covid-19 on Anxiety Levels in the General Population of the United States: An Exploratory Survey

Authors: Amro Matyori, Fatimah Sherbeny, Askal Ali, Olayiwola Popoola


Objectives: The study evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on anxiety levels in the general population in the United States. Methods: The study used an online questionnaire. It adopted the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7) instrument. It is a self-administered scale with seven items used as a screening tool and severity measure for generalized anxiety disorder. The participants rated the frequency of anxiety symptoms in the last two weeks on a Likert scale, which ranges from 0-3. Then the item points are summed to provide the total score. Results: Thirty-two participants completed the questionnaire. Among them, 24 (83%) females and 5 (17%) males. The age range of 18-24-year-old represented the most respondents. Only one of the participants tested positive for the COVID-19, and 39% of them, one of their family members, friends, or colleagues, tested positive for the coronavirus. Moreover, 10% have lost a family member, a close friend, or a colleague because of COVID-19. Among the respondents, there were ten who scored approximately five points on the GAD-7 scale, which indicates mild anxiety. Furthermore, eight participants scored 10 to 14 points, which put them under the category of moderate anxiety, and one individual who was categorized under severe anxiety scored 15 points. Conclusions: It is identified that most of the respondents scored the points that put them under the mild anxiety category during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also noticed that severe anxiety was the lowest among the participants, and people who tested positive and/or their family members, close friends, and colleagues were more likely to experience anxiety. Additionally, participants who lost friends or family members were also at high risk of anxiety. It is obvious the COVID-19 outcomes and too much thinking about the pandemic put people under stress which led to anxiety. Therefore, continuous assessment and monitoring of psychological outcomes during pandemics will help to establish early well-informed interventions.

Keywords: anxiety and covid-19, covid-19 and mental health outcomes, influence of covid-19 on anxiety, population and covid-19 impact on mental health

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292 Different Friendships' Influences on Chinese High School Students' Mental Well Beings

Authors: Richard Chen


The study is mainly focused on the influence of different kinds of friendships on the well being of Chinese high school students. The main objective is to find out whether friendship style focusing on depth rather than breadth and whether making friends based on similarities in personality and character rather than interests and hobbies improve students’ mental state. Overall, 262 high school participants completed our study by filling out questionnaires online across China. Data showed, unexpectedly, optimal combinations of friendship styles indicate that students who seek depth of connection in friendship benefit more by focusing more on hobbies than on personalities, and those aiming to expand their social connections would be happier and less stressed when they made friends with those who shared their personalities rather than hobbies. The relationship between stress and the frequency of self-talk was also investigated, and a positive correlation between the pressure a student felt, and the frequency of self-talk behavior was confirmed. The results shed light on relationship management and wellbeing among Chinese high school students and may be applied by counselors and teachers to improve the overall level of satisfaction for Chinese high school students.

Keywords: hobbies, personalities, happiness, pressure, self-talk

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291 Personality Traits and Starting a Romantic Relationship on Social Media in a Turkish Sample

Authors: Ates Gul Ergun, Melda Tacyildiz


The current study focuses on the relationship between the personality traits and starting a romantic relationship on social media. It is interested in the study whether there are any personality trait differences between individuals who started their romantic relationships on social media platforms or through circle of friends in daily life. Sixty five participants between the ages of 18-30 filled out a three-question-survey about romantic relationships and social media, with the Big Five Inventory. Four separate independent samples t tests comparing agreeableness and extraversion scores on the environment of participants first interacted (online vs. real-life) and where they fırst meet without interaction (online vs. real-life) were carried out. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between people who had the first interaction with their partner online vs. real-life in terms of extraversion and agreeableness traits. The more extrovert and agreeable traits reported the more people were likely to interact with their partner through circle of friends in real-life. Furthermore, it was found that people who are less agreeable have a tendency to interact with their partners in social media for the first time. However, there was no statistically significant difference between how participants met with their partners without interaction (online vs. real-life) in terms of extraversion and agreeableness traits. This study has shown the relationships between personality traits and starting a romantic relationship on social media versus in real-life but not the reasons behind it. Further research could examine such reasons. In addition, the data only includes Turkish sample. By virtue of the cultural restriction in the present study, it is suggested that the future research should also include different cultures to investigate how people spend time with their friends and also in social media which can be changed according to individualism levels of countries. Overall, the study emphasizes the importance and the role of social media in individual’s lives, and it opens the ways associated with personal traits and social media relationships for further researches.

Keywords: agreeableness, big five, extraversion, romantic relationships, social media

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290 User Selections on Social Network Applications

Authors: C. C. Liang


MSN used to be the most popular application for communicating among social networks, but Facebook chat is now the most popular. Facebook and MSN have similar characteristics, including usefulness, ease-of-use, and a similar function, which is the exchanging of information with friends. Facebook outperforms MSN in both of these areas. However, the adoption of Facebook and abandonment of MSN have occurred for other reasons. Functions can be improved, but users’ willingness to use does not just depend on functionality. Flow status has been established to be crucial to users’ adoption of cyber applications and to affects users’ adoption of software applications. If users experience flow in using software application, they will enjoy using it frequently, and even change their preferred application from an old to this new one. However, no investigation has examined choice behavior related to switching from Facebook to MSN based on a consideration of flow experiences and functions. This investigation discusses the flow experiences and functions of social-networking applications. Flow experience is found to affect perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use influences information ex-change with friends, and perceived usefulness; information exchange influences perceived usefulness, but information exchange has no effect on flow experience.

Keywords: consumer behavior, social media, technology acceptance model, flow experience

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289 The Recovery Experience Study of People with Bipolar Disorder

Authors: Sudkhanoung Ritruechai, Somrak Choovanichwong, Kruawon Tiengtom, Peanchanan Leeudomwong


The purposes of this qualitative research were to study the recovery experience of people with bipolar disorder and also to propose a development approach to the Bipolar Friends Club. The participants were eight people with bipolar disorder for six to twenty years (four women and four men). They have been members of the Bipolar Friends Club for two to ten years. They have no mental symptoms in order to provide sufficient information about their recovery experiences and have returned to everyday life with their family, community, and work. The data were collected by doing an in-depth interview. Two interviews were done, each from 45-90 minutes and four to five weeks apart. The researcher sent the results of the preliminary data analysis to the participants two to three days beforehand. Confirmation of the results of the preliminary data analysis from the first interview was done at the second interview. The research study found that the participants had a positive experience of being a Bipolar Club member. The club continued its activities following Recovery Oriented Service: ROS to the participants. As a result, they recovered in eight areas as follows. 1) Intellectual: The wisdom of joining the group has brought knowledge and experiences from an exchange with others in self-care as well as a positive thinking in life. 2) Social: The participants have set up a group to take care of each other and to do activities which have brought warmth. Their social network which was normally little has also been increased. 3) Spiritual: The concept of religion has been used to lead the life of the participants. 4) Occupational: One participant is a student while the others do work. All of them have done well. 5) Environmental: The participants would be able to adapt to the environment and cope with their problems better. 6) Physical: Most female participants have difficulties with losing weight which leads them saying that they are ‘not fully recovered’. 7) Emotional: The participants feel calmer than before entering the club. They have also developed more tolerance to problems. 8) Financial: The participants would be able to control their spending by themselves and with the help of their family members. The people with bipolar disorder have suggested that the services of the club are perfect and should be continued. The results of the study encourage the Bipolar Friends Club, as well as other clubs/associations that support the recovery of patients. Consideration of the recovery has highlighted the need for ongoing and various life-enhancing programs for the caregivers and their loved ones with bipolar disorder. Then, they would be able to choose the program that suits their needs to improve their life.

Keywords: people with bipolar disorder, recovery, club, experience

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288 Effects of Handheld Video Games on Interpersonal Relationships: A Two-Wave Panel Study on Elementary School Students

Authors: Kanae Suzuki


Handheld video games are popular communication tools among Japanese elementary school students today. This study aims to examine the effects of the use of handheld video games on interpersonal relationships of the students in real and virtual worlds. A two-wave panel survey was conducted for students of ten elementary schools at an interval of approximately six months. The survey questionnaire included questions about the average amount of time spent playing a handheld video game during the past one month, the frequency of communication with players during game play, and the interpersonal relationships, such as the number of real and virtual friends the students have. A multiple regression model was constructed for 324 students to examine causal relationships. The results indicated that the more frequently the students communicated with other players while playing games, the number of the real friends tended to increase. In contrast, no significant effect of the total time spent playing games was found on interpersonal relationships. The findings suggested that communication during game play is an important factor for improving interpersonal relationships of this age group.

Keywords: communication, real friend, social adjustment, virtual friend

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287 Parental and Peer Influences on Juvenile Delinquency: Case Studies in Malaysia

Authors: Tan Bee Piang


The family is always seen as the most important agent of socialization, therefore, abusive parents and broken family have often been highlighted as two main factors contributing to juvenile delinquency. However, several studies have indicated that the peer group is one of the most powerful socialization agents in adolescent development, the influences of family are insignificant after peer influences are taken. This study aimed to investigate the relative influence of parents and peers on juvenile delinquency in Malaysia. Malaysia is a multicultural society, so different types of traditional values and religions permeate all aspects of Malaysian society, and the influences of family and parents are always seen as the most important agents of socialization. 80 juveniles from a reform school in Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study. Based on the experiences of juveniles in this study, it found that peer groups play an important role when the adolescents try to create their own identities. Adolescents merely make friends with those who have similar life experiences, so adolescents are easily influenced by their friends and the juvenile delinquency is mostly group behavior. This research found that there is no significant relationship between family factors and delinquency. The data shows that a significant percentage of juveniles come from middle-class family and most of them are not from broken family. However, most of them have strained family relationship. This research suggests that we should take a look into other causes, like peer influence, of juvenile delinquency in Malaysia.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, peer influence, group behaviour, family relationship

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286 The Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills


Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

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285 Using Athletics to Mitigate the Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills


Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

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284 Taking Risks to Get Pleasure: Reproductive Health Behaviour of Early Adolescents in Pantura Line, Indonesia

Authors: Juariah Salam Suryadi


North coast (Pantura) line is known as a high-risk area related to reproductive health. This is because along the line, there are many food stalls and entertainment industries that at night the function changed to be sexual transaction areas. This business line also facilitate circulation and transaction of drug and substance abuse. The environment conditions can influence adolescents who live in this area. It is because of adolescence characteristics that has high curiosity and looking for their identities. Therefore, purposes of this study were to explore reproductive health behaviour of early adolescents who lived in Pantura line and to suggest intervention based on the adolescents reproductive health conditions. This study was conducted in November 2016 among the seventh-grade students of Pusakajaya Junior High School 1 and 2, Subang District. Number of respondents were 269 students (Male=135, Female=134). The students were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Some teachers also interviewed to complement the data. The quantitative data was analyzed with univariate analysis, while content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Findings of this study showed that 85,2% of male students were smoker. Most of them started smoking at elementary school. Male students who often drunk alcohol were about 25,2% and all of them initiated to drink at elementary school. There were about 21,5% of male students ever used drug and substance abuse. There were 54,6% of the students that confessed having a lover. Most of them were female students. Sexual behaviour that ever done with their lovers were: holding hands (37,4%), kissing (4%) and embracing (6,8%). Although all of the students claimed to have never had sexual intercourse, but 5,9% of them said that they had friends who have had sexual intercourse. Most of the students also had friends with negative characteristics. Their friends were smoker (82,2%), drinker (53,2%) and drug abuse (42%). Most of the students recognized that they took the risks behaviour to get pleasure with their peers. Information from the teachers indicated that most problem of male students were smoking and drug and substance abuse; while sexuality including unwanted pregnancies were reproductive problems of many female students. Therefore, It is recommended to enhance understanding of the adolescents about risks of unhealthy behaviour through continuing reproductive health education, both in school and out of school. Policy support to create positive social environment and adolescents friendly is also suggested.

Keywords: reproductive health, behaviour, early adolescents, pantura line

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283 Predictive Factors of Exercise Behaviors of Junior High School Students in Chonburi Province

Authors: Tanida Julvanichpong


Exercise has been regarded as a necessary and important aspect to enhance physical performance and psychology health. Body weight statistics of students in junior high school students in Chonburi Province beyond a standard risk of obesity. Promoting exercise among Junior high school students in Chonburi Province, essential knowledge concerning factors influencing exercise is needed. Therefore, this study aims to (1) determine the levels of perceived exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived barriers to exercise, perceived benefits of exercise, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, feelings associated with exercise behavior, influence of the family to exercise, influence of friends to exercise, and the perceived influence of the environment on exercise. (2) examine the predicting ability of each of the above factors while including personal factors (sex, educational level) for exercise behavior. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was used as a guide for the study. Sample included 652 students in junior high schools, Chonburi Provience. The samples were selected by Multi-Stage Random Sampling. Data Collection has been done by using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, Eta, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The research results showed that: 1. Perceived benefits of exercise, influence of teacher, influence of environmental, feelings associated with exercise behavior were at a high level. Influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise and influence of friends were at a moderate level. Perceived barriers to exercise were at a low level. 2. Exercise behavior was positively significant related to perceived benefits of exercise, influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, influence of friends, influence of teacher, influence of environmental and feelings associated with exercise behavior (p < .01, respectively) and was negatively significant related to educational level and perceived barriers to exercise (p < .01, respectively). Exercise behavior was significant related to sex (Eta = 0.243, p=.000). 3. Exercise behavior in the past, influence of the family to exercise significantly contributed 60.10 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in male students (p < .01). Exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise, and educational level significantly contributed 52.60 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in female students (p < .01).

Keywords: predictive factors, exercise behaviors, Junior high school, Chonburi Province

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282 Implementing Critical Friends Groups in Schools

Authors: S. Odabasi Cimer, A. Cimer


Recently, the poor quality of education, low achieving students, low international exam performances and little or no effect of the education reforms on the teaching in the classrooms are the main problems of education discussed in Turkey. Research showed that the quality of an education system can not exceed the quality of its teachers and teaching. Therefore, in-service training (INSET) courses are important to improve teacher quality, thereby, the quality of education. However, according to the research conducted on the evaluation of the INSET courses in Turkey, they are not effective in improving the quality of teaching in the classroom. The main reason for this result is because INSET courses are conducted and delivered in limited time and presented theoretically, which does not meet the needs of teachers and as a result, the knowledge and skills taught are not used in the classrooms. Recently, developed countries have been using Critical Friends Groups (CFGs) successfully for the purpose of school-based training of teachers. CFGs are the learning groups which contain 6-10 teachers aimed at fostering their capacities to undertake instructional and personal improvement and schoolwide reform. CFGs have been recognized as a critical feature in school reform, improving teaching practice and improving student achievement. In addition, in the USA, teachers have named CFGs one of the most powerful professional development activities in which they have ever participated. Whereas, in Turkey, the concept is new. This study aimed to investigate the implications of application, evaluation, and promotion of CFGs which has the potential to contribute to teacher development and student learning in schools in Turkey. For this purpose, the study employed a qualitative approach and case study methodology to implement the model in high schools. The research was conducted in two schools and 13 teachers working in these schools participated. The study lasted two years and the data were collected through various data collection tools including interviews, meeting transcripts, questionnaires, portfolios, and diaries. The results of the study showed that CFGs contributed professional development of teachers and their students’ learning. It also contributed to a culture of collaborative work in schools. A number of barriers and challenges which prevent effective implementation were also determined.

Keywords: critical friends group, education reform, science learning, teacher education

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281 Prayer Therapy in a Case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Authors: Rubai M. Ochieng


Cancer, which accounts for 7 percent of deaths per year in Kenya, is the third highest cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. Awareness Campaigns have tended to focus on leading cancers including breast and cervical for women as well as prostrate and Esophageal for men. Consequently, less common cancers such as Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) are rarely properly understood by the general population and a section of the medical fraternity. Diagnoses of AML in patients who may not have heard about it sometimes results in shock, denial and confusion not just to the diagnosed, but also to their family and friends. The diagnosed and caregivers are bound to receive a lot of contradicting information about prognosis, care and treatment of AML. This information, which often comes from diverse sources including doctors, friends, internet and social media platforms, causes further confusion and panic. The situation is handled differently by different people. Religious people sometimes resort to prayer. This paper, written from the perspective of a care giver, is based on data collected from a case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia diagnosed in a 32 year old male who lost his life within six weeks of diagnosis. The sample constitutes of 16 people who participated in prayers. Out of this total, 5 were males including the diagnosed and 11 were females. All the 16 were Christians of protestant orientation including Anglicans, Quakers and Church of God members. Data was collected by the researcher herself through participant of observation. Findings discuss how the 16 participants prayed individually at different times, together in an overnight prayer meeting and every morning through a group social media platform. They shared songs and words of encouragement from the bible. The group prayed for healing, peace and strength to the diagnosed and family, financial breakthrough and doctors’ work and decisions, among other challenges that came with the situation. The paper reveals the immense benefits of prayer to the diagnosed and his close relatives and friends. They include acceptance of the condition and a positive attitude in handling the challenges that arose from the disease and treatment processes. The challenges arising from the prayer approach of handling the situation are also discussed. The paper concludes that prayer as therapy goes a long way in cancer management.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, Kenya, participant observation, prayer

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280 Teaching Kindness as Moral Virtue in Preschool Children: The Effectiveness of Picture-Storybook Reading and Hand-Puppet Storytelling

Authors: Rose Mini Agoes Salim, Shahnaz Safitri


The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of teaching kindness in preschool children by using several techniques. Kindness is a physical act or emotional support aimed to build or maintain relationships with others. Kindness is known to be essential in the development of moral reasoning to distinguish between the good and bad things. In this study, kindness is operationalized as several acts including helping friends, comforting sad friends, inviting friends to play, protecting others, sharing, saying hello, saying thank you, encouraging others, and apologizing. It is mentioned that kindness is crucial to be developed in preschool children because this is the time the children begin to interact with their social environment through play. Furthermore, preschool children's cognitive development makes them begin to represent the world with words, which then allows them to interact with others. On the other hand, preschool children egocentric thinking makes them still need to learn to consider another person's perspective. In relation to social interaction, preschool children need to be stimulated and assisted by adult to be able to pay attention to other and act with kindness toward them. On teaching kindness to children, the quality of interaction between children and their significant others is the key factor. It is known that preschool children learn about kindness by imitating adults on their two way interaction. Specifically, this study examines two types of teaching techniques that can be done by parents as a way to teach kindness, namely the picture-storybook reading and hand-puppet storytelling. These techniques were examined because both activities are easy to do and both also provide a model of behavior for the child based on the character in the story. To specifically examine those techniques effectiveness in teaching kindness, two studies were conducted. Study I involves 31 children aged 5-6 years old with picture-storybook reading technique, where the intervention is done by reading 8 picture books for 8 days. In study II, hand-puppet storytelling technique is examined to 32 children aged 3-5 years old. The treatments effectiveness are measured using an instrument in the form of nine colored cards that describe the behavior of kindness. Data analysis using Wilcoxon Signed-rank test shows a significant difference on the average score of kindness (p < 0.05) before and after the intervention has been held. For daily observation, a ‘kindness tree’ and observation sheets are used which are filled out by the teacher. Two weeks after interventions, an improvement on all kindness behaviors measured is intact. The same result is also gained from both ‘kindness tree’ and observational sheets.

Keywords: kindness, moral teaching, storytelling, hand puppet

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279 A Deep Learning Approach to Online Social Network Account Compromisation

Authors: Edward K. Boahen, Brunel E. Bouya-Moko, Changda Wang


The major threat to online social network (OSN) users is account compromisation. Spammers now spread malicious messages by exploiting the trust relationship established between account owners and their friends. The challenge in detecting a compromised account by service providers is validating the trusted relationship established between the account owners, their friends, and the spammers. Another challenge is the increase in required human interaction with the feature selection. Research available on supervised learning (machine learning) has limitations with the feature selection and accounts that cannot be profiled, like application programming interface (API). Therefore, this paper discusses the various behaviours of the OSN users and the current approaches in detecting a compromised OSN account, emphasizing its limitations and challenges. We propose a deep learning approach that addresses and resolve the constraints faced by the previous schemes. We detailed our proposed optimized nonsymmetric deep auto-encoder (OPT_NDAE) for unsupervised feature learning, which reduces the required human interaction levels in the selection and extraction of features. We evaluated our proposed classifier using the NSL-KDD and KDDCUP'99 datasets in a graphical user interface enabled Weka application. The results obtained indicate that our proposed approach outperformed most of the traditional schemes in OSN compromised account detection with an accuracy rate of 99.86%.

Keywords: computer security, network security, online social network, account compromisation

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278 The Potential Factors Relating to the Decision of Return Migration of Myanmar Migrant Workers: A Case Study in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

Authors: Musthaya Patchanee


The aim of this research is to study potential factors relating to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province by conducting a random sampling of 400 people aged between 15-59 who migrated from Myanmar. The information collected through interviews was analyzed to find a percentage and mean using the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis. The results have shown that 33.25% of Myanmar migrant workers want to return to their home country within the next 1-5 years, 46.25%, in 6-10 years and the rest, in over 10 years. The factors relating to such decision can be concluded that the scale of the decision of return migration has a positive relationship with a statistical significance at 0.05 with a conformity with friends and relatives (r=0.886), a relationship with family and community (r=0.782), possession of land in hometown (r=0.756) and educational level (r=0.699). However, the factor of property possession in Prachuap Khiri Khan is the only factor with a high negative relationship (r=0.-537). From the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis, the results have shown that the conformity with friends and relatives and educational level factors are influential to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, which can predict the decision at 86.60% and the multiple regression equation from the analysis is Y= 6.744+1.198 conformity + 0.647 education.

Keywords: decision of return migration, factors of return migration, Myanmar migrant workers, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

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277 Examining Resilience, Social Supports, and Self-Esteem as Predictors of the Quality of Life of ODAPUS (Orang Dengan Lupus)

Authors: Yulmaida Amir, Fahrul Rozi, Insany C. Kamil, Fanny Aryani


ODAPUS (Orang dengan Lupus) is an Indonesian term for people with Lupus, a chronic autoimmune disease in which immune system of the body becomes hyperactive and attacks normal tissue. The number of ODAPUS indicate an increase in Indonesia, thereby helping to improve their quality of life to be important to help their recovery. This study aims to examine the effect of resilience, self-esteem, and social support on the quality of life of women who had been diagnosed as having Lupus. Data were collected from 64 ODAPUS in Indonesia, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL), Resilience Scale from Wagnil and Young (1993), self-esteem scale (developed from Coopersmith’s theory), and Social Support Questioner from Northouse (1988). Regression data analysis showed that resilience, social support, and self-esteem predict the quality of life of the ODAPUS simultaneously. If the variable was analysed individually, self-esteem did not significantly contribute to the quality of life. Resilience contributed most significantly to the quality of life, followed by social support. Of five sources of social supports included in the research, support from family members (parents and brother/sisters) has the most significant contribution to the quality of life, followed by support from spouse, and from friends. Interestingly, social support from medical personnel (medical doctors and nurses) had not a significant contribution to the quality of life of ODAPUS. As a conclusion, this research showed that the ability of ODAPUS to cope with difficulty in life, and support from family members, spouse, and friends were the significant predictors for their quality of life.

Keywords: quality of life, resilience, self-esteem, social supports

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276 Migrants as Change Agents: A Study of Social Remittances between Finland and Russia

Authors: Ilona Bontenbal


In this research, the potential for societal change is researched through the idea of migrants as change agents. The viewpoint is on the potential that migrants have for affecting societal change in their country of origin through transmitting transnational peer-to-peer information. The focus is on the information that Russian migrants living in Finland transmit about their experiences and attitudes regarding the Nordic welfare state, its democratic foundation and the social rights embedded in it, to their family and friends in their country of origin. The welfare provision and level of democracy are very different in the two neighbouring countries of Finland and Russia. Finland is a Nordic welfare state with strong democratic institutions and a comprehensive actualizing of civil and social rights. In Russia, the state of democracy has on the other hand been declining, and the social and civil rights of its citizens are constantly undermined. Due to improvements in communications and travel technology, migrants can easily and relatively cheaply stay in contact with their family and friends in their country of origin. This is why it is possible for migrants to act as change agents. By telling about their experiences and attitudes about living in a democratic welfare state, migrants can affect what people in the country or origin know and think about welfare, democracy, and social rights. This phenomenon is approached through the concept of social remittances. Social remittances broadly stand for the ideas, know-how, world views, attitudes, norms of behavior, and social capital that flows through transnational networks from receiving- to sending- country communities and the other way around. The viewpoint is that historically and culturally formed democratic welfare models cannot be copied entirely nor that each country should achieve identical development paths, but rather that migrants themselves choose which aspects they see as important to remit to their acquaintances in their country of origin. This way the potential for social change and the agency of the migrants is accentuated. The empirical research material of this study is based on 30 qualitative interviews with Russian migrants living in Finland. Russians are the largest migrant group in Finland and Finland is a popular migration destination especially for individuals living in North-West Russia including the St. Petersburg region. The interviews are carried out in 2018-2019. The preliminary results indicate that Russian migrants discuss social rights and welfare a lot with their family members and acquaintances living in Russia. In general, the migrants feel that they have had an effect on the way that their friends and family think about Finland, the West, social rights and welfare provision. Democracy, on the other hand, is seen as a more difficult and less discussed topic. The transformative potential that the transmitted information and attitudes could have outside of the immediate circle of acquaintances on larger societal change is seen as ambiguous although not negligible.

Keywords: migrants as change agents, Russian migrants, social remittances, welfare and democracy

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275 Impact of International Student Mobility on European and Global Identity: A Case Study of Switzerland

Authors: Karina Oborune


International student mobility involves a unique spatio-temporal context and exploring the various aspects of mobile students’ experience can lead to new findings within identity studies. The previous studies have mainly focused on student mobility within Europe and its impact on European identity arguing that students who participate in intra-European mobility already feel European before exchange. Contrary to previous studies, in this paper student mobility is analyzed from different point of view. In order to see whether a true Europeanization of identities is taking place, it is necessary to contrast European identity with alternative supranational identity which could similarly result from student mobility and in particular a global identity. Besides, in the paper there is explored whether geographical constellation (host country continental location during mobility- Europe vs. outside of Europe) plays a role. Based on newly developed model of multicultural, social and socio-demographic variables there is argued that after intra-European mobility only global identity of students could be increased (H1), but the mobility to countries outside of Europe causes changes in European identity (H2). The quantitative study (survey, n=1440, 22 higher education institutions, experimental group of former and future/potential mobile students and control group of non-mobile students) was held in Switzerland where is equally high number of students who participate in intra-European and outside of Europe mobility. The results of multivariate linear regression showed that students who participate in exchange in Europe increase their European identity due to having close friends from Europe, as well as due to length of the mobility experience had impact, but students who participate in exchange outside of Europe increase their global identity due to having close friends from outside of Europe and proficiency in foreign languages.

Keywords: student mobility, European identity, global identity, global identity

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274 Victim Witnesses of Human Trafficking: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Jireh Reinor L. Vitto, Mylene S. Gumarao, Levy M. Fajanilan, Sheryll Ann M. Castillo, Leonardo B. Dorado, Miriam P. Narbarte


Human trafficking may happen to anyone. The study aimed to explore the experiences of victim witnesses of human trafficking. It utilized a qualitative phenomenological study design. Eighteen women, 15 to 46 years old, had experienced human trafficking (sex or labor trafficking), and with a filed case or not. An in-depth semi-structured, open-ended interview was employed to gather information. Guardians were also interviewed for triangulation purposes. Findings showed that the participants experienced fatigue and abuse for their physical aspect and gained negative feelings such as burdened, sad, scared (fear), stress, anger, trauma, depress and suicidal thoughts for their psychological aspect. For the spiritual aspect, the participants concluded to have enhanced spiritual life where they knew about God, became closer to God, and learned how to pray. They also faced challenges such as dysfunctional family, delinquent friends, exploitation, problems kept from the family, and poverty, which resulted in their becoming victims of human trafficking. To cope with the situation, they utilized family support, prayers, guts or courage (lakas ng loob), negotiation with their employer, and support from kababayans. Their practices and mechanisms to recover were the Blas Ople Center, rescue/entrapment operation, shelter, and embassy. After the incident, the participants shared that they earned to have thoughts of having a good life without going abroad/makabayan, knowledge of overseas Filipino workers, wise choice of friends, contentment, and value for the family.

Keywords: victim-witnesses, human trafficking, lived experiences, challenges, coping strategies

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273 A Study of Language Choice and Use among Young Thai in Malaysia

Authors: Din Eak Arathai


The purpose of this research report is to investigate the language choice and use among the young generation of Malaysian Thais community. Besides that, it aims to investigate if there is a difference in language choice across the different domains. It will also examine if there has been a language shift from Thai to other languages by the young generation of Thai community in Malaysia. First the study focuses on the proficiency of Thai and other languages used by hundred (100) respondents belonging to young generation of Malaysian Thais aged range from 18-35. Next, language use and choice will be presented with a focus on the domains of family, friendship, entertainment and social. Finally, based on the findings and data collected, we will be able to see if language shift from Thai to other languages has occurred among the young Thai generation in Malaysia. The instrument used in this study was a 30-item questionnaire and the findings of the data analysis were presented in the form of frequency counts and percentages. The findings found that Thai language remains the most preferred language of choice among young Malaysian Thais but usage of other languages, such as Malay, English and Mandarin has increased and begun to influence the language choice of young Malaysian Thais and their proficiency of their mother tongue.In all the domains studied, Thai is almost exclusively the preferred language used when communicating with family. Malay is the most preferred language in communicating with friends while English is the most preferred language when communicating with colleagues. With regards to social and entertainment activities, young Malaysian Thais show great affinity for entertainment in the Thai language. In conclusion, the result of the study showed the beginning of young Malaysian Thais shifting to other languages, especially English and Malay through their daily choices when communicating with friends and family and especially through their language preferences in entertainment.

Keywords: language choice, language use, language shift, language maintenance, young Malaysian Thais, code switching, code mixing

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272 The Spread of Drugs in Higher Education

Authors: Wantana Amatariyakul, Chumnong Amatariyakul


The research aims to examine the spread of drugs in higher education, especially amphetamine which is rapidly increasing in Thai society, its causes and effects, including the sociological perspective, in order to explain, prevent, control, and solve the problems. The students who participated in this research are regular students of Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Khon Kaen Campus. The data were collected using questionnaires, group discussions, and in-depth interviews. The quantity data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation and using content analysis to analyzed quality data. The result of the study showed that the students had the results of examination on level of knowledge and understanding on drug abuse projected that the majority of sample group attained their knowledge on drug abuse respectively. Despite their uncertainty, the majority of samples presumed that amphetamine, marijuana and grathom (Mitragyna Speciosa Korth) would most likely be abused. The reason for first drug abuse is because they want to try and their friends convince them, as well as, they want to relax or solve the problems in life, respectively. The bad effects appearing to the drug addicts shows that their health deteriorates or worsens, as well as, they not only lose their money but also face with worse mental states. The reasons that respondents tried to avoid using drugs or refused drugs offered by friends were: not wanting to disappoint or upset their family members, fear of rejection by family members, afraid of being arrested by the police, afraid of losing their educational opportunity and ruining their future respectively. Students therefore defended themselves against drug addiction by refusing to try all drugs. Besides this, the knowledge about the danger and the harm of drugs persuaded them to stay away from drugs.

Keywords: drugs, higher education, drug addiction, spread of drugs

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