Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Joana Fenol

24 Making Sense of Cyber Pornography among Young Adult Couples

Authors: Marianne Lumacang, Jessarine Dultra, Joana Fenol


Filipinos are known to be conservative, sex or pornography is not discussed openly in the Philippines, topic of sex, when raised, will most likely elicit snickers, jokes, and blushes in most Filipino or expressions of disgust. However, a lot of Filipinos are still engaging into this kind of activity for some reasons. The study aims to determine young adult’s point of view about cyber pornography viewing, as well as their reasons for engagement, and its effects on them and their relationship with their partner. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to explore how young adults make sense of cyber pornography viewing. The study focused on Filipino young adults who are in a romantic or married relationship, engage in cyber pornography viewing, and currently residing in Cavite, Philippines. A total of four young adult couples, four females and four males participated in the study as research participants. Data gathered from a total of four young adult couples resulted to a total of nine superordinate themes focusing on (1) exploring young adult couple’s rationales for cyber pornography viewing, (2) experiences of positive effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (3) experiences of negative effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (4) experience of infidelity, (5) experience of necessity, (6) females perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (7) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (8) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards romantic partner, and (9) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards others.

Keywords: cyberpornography, Filipino, interpretative phenomenological analysis, making sense of cyberpornography, young adult

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23 Urban Morphology and Sustainability: Case Study in Lavra, Portugal

Authors: Patrícia Diogo, Joana Diogo, Maria Diogo, Manuel Diogo


The theoretical and practical nature of the research proposal, therefore, intends to associate sustainability and urban regeneration with fishing settlements and diffuse rural cores, aggregating interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches anchored in a comparative analysis based on the case study, assuming that protecting, conserving, improving and valuing urban soil, rustic soil, the environment and the landscape, despite their regional expression, can make valuable contributions to the promotion of the cultural legacy of smart cities and the dissemination of scientific and technological knowledge with national and international impacts.

Keywords: urbanism, innovation, smart green cities, climate change, sustainable cities

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22 Plasmonic Biosensor for Early Detection of Environmental DNA (eDNA) Combined with Enzyme Amplification

Authors: Monisha Elumalai, Joana Guerreiro, Joana Carvalho, Marta Prado


DNA biosensors popularity has been increasing over the past few years. Traditional analytical techniques tend to require complex steps and expensive equipment however DNA biosensors have the advantage of getting simple, fast and economic. Additionally, the combination of DNA biosensors with nanomaterials offers the opportunity to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and the overall performance of the devices. DNA biosensors are based on oligonucleotides as sensing elements. These oligonucleotides are highly specific to complementary DNA sequences resulting in the hybridization of the strands. DNA biosensors are not only an advantage in the clinical field but also applicable in numerous research areas such as food analysis or environmental control. Zebra Mussels (ZM), Dreissena polymorpha are invasive species responsible for enormous negative impacts on the environment and ecosystems. Generally, the detection of ZM is made when the observation of adult or macroscopic larvae's is made however at this stage is too late to avoid the harmful effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop an analytical tool for the early detection of ZM. Here, we present a portable plasmonic biosensor for the detection of environmental DNA (eDNA) released to the environment from this invasive species. The plasmonic DNA biosensor combines gold nanoparticles, as transducer elements, due to their great optical properties and high sensitivity. The detection strategy is based on the immobilization of a short base pair DNA sequence on the nanoparticles surface followed by specific hybridization in the presence of a complementary target DNA. The hybridization events are tracked by the optical response provided by the nanospheres and their surrounding environment. The identification of the DNA sequences (synthetic target and probes) to detect Zebra mussel were designed by using Geneious software in order to maximize the specificity. Moreover, to increase the optical response enzyme amplification of DNA might be used. The gold nanospheres were synthesized and characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained nanospheres present the maximum localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak position are found to be around 519 nm and a diameter of 17nm. The DNA probes modified with a sulfur group at one end of the sequence were then loaded on the gold nanospheres at different ionic strengths and DNA probe concentrations. The optimal DNA probe loading will be selected based on the stability of the optical signal followed by the hybridization study. Hybridization process leads to either nanoparticle dispersion or aggregation based on the presence or absence of the target DNA. Finally, this detection system will be integrated into an optical sensing platform. Considering that the developed device will be used in the field, it should fulfill the inexpensive and portability requirements. The sensing devices based on specific DNA detection holds great potential and can be exploited for sensing applications in-loco.

Keywords: ZM DNA, DNA probes, nicking enzyme, gold nanoparticles

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21 Environment and Water in the Conceptions of a Sustainable Architecture

Authors: Carlos H. Ferreira, Joana R. Pereira


In recent decades, calls for sustainable architecture based on environmental policies have been frequent. Despite a vast number of documents, technical procedures, and publications involving these themes, conceptions, and even architectural practice are often distanced from critical and methodological reflection on the relationship between environment and architecture. Among the various issues that we could consider in this relationship, we highlight in this article the relevance of water in the environment and in the architectural design. From documentary references and works carried out, we seek contributions to a better systematization and framing of water in architectural thinking. We distinguish, on the one hand, more conceptual issues that involve the environmental relationship of water, involving its cycle, relevance in the landscape, and infrastructural commitments. On the other hand, we highlight a more operative component, focusing on the place of water in the design process, from its perception in space-shape dimensions to more specific technical requirements that involve the interdisciplinary boundaries of architecture. In both approaches to water in architectural design, we seek to contribute to greater sensitivity and efficiency in the art of designing a more sustainable future.

Keywords: sustainability, environment, water, resilience design

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20 Sustainable Separation of Nicotine from Its Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Zoran Visak, Joana Lopes, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak


Within this study, the separation of nicotine from its aqueous solutions, using inorganic salt sodium chloride or ionic liquid (molten salt) ECOENG212® as salting-out media, was carried out. Thus, liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary solutions (nicotine+water+NaCl) and (nicotine+water+ECOENG212®) were determined at ambient pressure, 0.1 MPa, at three temperatures. The related phase diagrams were constructed in two manners: by adding the determined cloud-points and by the chemical analysis of phases in equilibrium (tie-line data). The latter were used to calculate two important separation parameters - partition coefficients of nicotine and separation factors. The impacts of the initial compositions of the mother solutions and of temperature on the liquid-liquid phase separation and partition coefficients were analyzed and discussed. The results obtained clearly showed that both investigated salts are good salting-out media for the efficient and sustainable separation of nicotine from its solutions with water. However, when compared, sodium chloride exhibited much better separation performance than the ionic liquid.

Keywords: nicotine, liquid-liquid separation, inorganic salt, ionic liquid

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19 Differences in the Processing of Sentences with Lexical Ambiguity and Structural Ambiguity: An Experimental Study

Authors: Mariana T. Teixeira, Joana P. Luz


This paper is based on assumptions of psycholinguistics and investigates the processing of ambiguous sentences in Brazilian Portuguese. Specifically, it aims to verify if there is a difference in processing time between sentences with lexical ambiguity and sentences with structural (or syntactic) ambiguity. We hypothesize, based on the Garden Path Theory, that the two types of ambiguity entail different cognitive efforts, since sentences with structural ambiguity require that two structures be processed, whereas ambiguous phrases whose root of ambiguity is in a word require the processing of a single structure, which admits a variation of punctual meaning, within the scope of only one lexical item. In order to test this hypothesis, 25 undergraduate students, whose average age was 27.66 years, native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, performed a self-monitoring reading task of ambiguous sentences, which had lexical and structural ambiguity. The results suggest that unambiguous sentence processing is faster than ambiguous sentence processing, whether it has lexical or structural ambiguity. In addition, participants presented a mean reading time greater for sentences with syntactic ambiguity than for sentences with lexical ambiguity, evidencing a greater cognitive effort in sentence processing with structural ambiguity.

Keywords: Brazilian portuguese, lexical ambiguity, sentence processing, syntactic ambiguity

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18 Characterization and Predictors of Paranoid Ideation in Youths

Authors: Marina Sousa, Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, Joana Cabral, Vera Pereira, Suzana Nunes Caldeira, Ermelindo Peixoto


Paranoid ideation is a common thought process that constitutes a defense against perceived social threats. The current study aimed at the characterization of paranoid ideation in youths and to explore the possible predictors involved in the development of paranoid ideations. Paranoid ideation, shame, submission, early childhood memories and current depressive, anxious and stress symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 1516 Portuguese youths. Higher frequencies of paranoid ideation were observed, particularly in females and youths from lower socio-economic status. The main predictors identified relates to submissive behaviors and adverse childhood experiences, and especially to shame feelings. The current study emphasizes that the these predictors are similar to findings in adults and clinical populations, and future implications to research and clinical practice aiming at paranoid ideations are discussed, as well as the pertinence of the study of mediating factors that allow a wider understanding of this thought process in younger populations and the prevention of psychopathology in adulthood.

Keywords: adolescence, early memories, paranoid ideation, parenting styles, shame, submissiveness

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17 Mechanical Properties and Thermal Comfort of 3D Printed Hand Orthosis for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Paulo H. R. G. Reis, Joana P. Maia, Davi Neiva Alves, Mariana R. C. Aquino, Igor B. Guimaraes, Anderson Horta, Thiago Santiago, Mariana Volpini


Additive manufacturing is a manufacturing technique used in many fields as a tool for the production of complex parts accurately. This technique has a wide possibility of applications in bioengineering, mainly in the manufacture of orthopedic devices, thanks to the versatility of shapes and surface details. The present article aims to evaluate the mechanical viability of a wrist-hand orthosis made using additive manufacturing techniques with Nylon 12 polyamide and compare this device with the wrist-hand orthosis manufactured by the traditional process with thermoplastic Ezeform. The methodology used is based on the application of computational simulations of voltage and temperature, from finite element analysis, in order to evaluate the properties of displacement, mechanical stresses and thermal comfort in the two devices. The execution of this work was carried out through a case study with a 29-year-old male patient. The modeling software involved was Meshmixer from US manufacturer Autodesk and Fusion 360 from the same manufacturer. The results demonstrated that the orthosis developed by 3D printing, from Nylon 12, presents better thermal comfort and response to the mechanical stresses exerted on the orthosis.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite elements, hand orthosis, thermal comfort, neurorehabilitation

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16 Development and Validation of the Response to Stressful Situations Scale in the General Population

Authors: Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, Marina Sousa, Joana Cabral, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Ermelindo Peixoto


The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a Response to Stressful Situations Scale (RSSS) for the Portuguese population. This scale assesses the degree of stress experienced in scenarios that can constitute positive, negative and more neutral stressors, and also describes the physiological, emotional and behavioral reactions to those events according to their intensity. These scenario include typical stressor scenarios relevant to patients with schizophrenia, which are currently absent from most scale, assessing specific risks that these stressors may bring on subjects, which may prove useful in non-clinical and clinical populations (i.e. patients with mood or anxiety disorders, schizophrenia). Results from Principal Components Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of on two adult samples from general population allowed to confirm a three-factor model with good fit indices: χ2 (144)= 370.211, p = 0.000; GFI = 0.928; CFI = 0.927; TLI = 0.914, RMSEA = 0.055, P( rmsea ≤ 0.005) = 0.096; PCFI = 0.781. Further data analysis on the scale revealed that RSSS is an adequate assessment tool of stress response in adults to be used in further research and clinical settings, with good psychometric characteristics, adequate divergent and convergent validity, good temporal stability and high internal consistency.

Keywords: assessment, stress events, stress response, stress vulnerability

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15 Anti-Angiogenic Effects of the Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snake Crude Venom and Obtustatin

Authors: Narine Ghazaryan, Joana Catarina Macedo, Sara Vaz, Naira Ayvazyan, Elsa Logarinho


Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (MLO) is a poisonous snake in Armenia. Obtustatin represents the shortest known monomeric disintegrin, isolated from the snake venom of MLO, and is known to specifically inhibit α1β1 integrin. Its oncostatic effect is due to the inhibition of angiogenesis, which likely arises from α1β1 integrin inhibition in the endothelial cells. To explore the therapeutic potential of the MLO snake venom and obtustatin, we studied activity of obtustatin and MLO venom in vitro, by testing their efficacy in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-D) and in vivo, using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Our in vitro results showed that obtustatin in comparison with MLO venom did not exhibit cytotoxic activity in HMVEC-D cells in comparison to MLO venom. But in vivo results have shown that 4µg /embryo (90 µM) of obtustatin inhibited angiogenesis induced by FGF2 by 17% while MLO snake venom induced 22% reduction of the angiogenic index. The concentration of obtustatin in the crude MLO venom was 0.3 nM, which is 300.000 times less than the concentration of the obtustatin itself. Given this enormous difference in concentration, it is likely that some components of the crude venom contribute to the observed anti-angiogenic effect. Hypotheses will be ascertained to justify this action: components in the MLO venom may increase obtustatin efficacy or have independent but synergic anti-angiogenic activities.

Keywords: angiogenesis, alpa1 beta 1 integrin, Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, obtustatin

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14 Numerical Methodology to Support the Development of a Double Chamber Syringe

Authors: Lourenço Bastos, Filipa Carneiro, Bruno Vale, Rita Marques Joana Silva, Ricardo Freitas, Ângelo Marques, Sara Cortez, Alberta Coelho, Pedro Parreira, Liliana Sousa, Anabela Salgueiro, Bruno Silva


The process of flushing is considered to be an adequate technique to reduce the risk of infection during the clinical practice of venous catheterization. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of adhesion to this method, in part due to the complexity of this procedure. The project SeringaDuo aimed to develop an innovative double-chamber syringe for intravenous sequential administration of drugs and serums. This device served the purpose of improving the adherence to the practice, through the reduction of manipulations needed, which also improves patient safety, and though the promotion of flushing practice by health professionals, by simplifying this task. To assist on the development of this innovative syringe, a numerical methodology was developed and validated in order to predict the syringe’s mechanical and flow behavior during the fluids’ loading and administration phases, as well as to allow the material behavior evaluation during its production. For this, three commercial numerical simulation software was used, namely ABAQUS, ANSYS/FLUENT, and MOLDFLOW. This methodology aimed to evaluate the concepts feasibility and to optimize the geometries of the syringe’s components, creating this way an iterative process for product development based on numerical simulations, validated by the production of prototypes. Through this methodology, it was possible to achieve a final design that fulfils all the characteristics and specifications defined. This iterative process based on numerical simulations is a powerful tool for product development that allows obtaining fast and accurate results without the strict need for prototypes. An iterative process can be implemented, consisting of consecutive constructions and evaluations of new concepts, to obtain an optimized solution, which fulfils all the predefined specifications and requirements.

Keywords: Venous catheterization, flushing, syringe, numerical simulation

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13 An Enzyme Technology - Metnin™ - Enables the Full Replacement of Fossil-Based Polymers by Lignin in Polymeric Composites

Authors: Joana Antunes, Thomas Levée, Barbara Radovani, Anu Suonpää, Paulina Saloranta, Liji Sobhana, Petri Ihalainen


Lignin is an important component in the exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass. It has been shown that within the next years, the yield of added-value lignin-based chemicals and materials will generate renewable alternatives to oil-based products (e.g. polymeric composites, resins and adhesives) and enhance the economic feasibility of biorefineries. In this paper, a novel technology for lignin valorisation (METNIN™) is presented. METNIN™ is based on the oxidative action of an alkaliphilic enzyme in aqueous alkaline conditions (pH 10-11) at mild temperature (40-50 °C) combined with a cascading membrane operation, yielding a collection of lignin fractions (from oligomeric down to mixture of tri-, di- and monomeric units) with distinct molecular weight distribution, low polydispersity and favourable physicochemical properties. The alkaline process conditions ensure the high processibility of crude lignin in an aqueous environment and the efficiency of the enzyme, yielding better compatibility of lignin towards targeted applications. The application of a selected lignin fraction produced by METNIN™ as a suitable lignopolyol to completely replace a commercial polyol in polyurethane rigid foam formulations is presented as a prototype. Liquid lignopolyols with a high lignin content were prepared by oxypropylation and their full utilization in the polyurethane rigid foam formulation was successfully demonstrated. Moreover, selected technical specifications of different foam demonstrators were determined, including closed cell count, water uptake and compression characteristics. These specifications are within industrial standards for rigid foam applications. The lignin loading in the lignopolyol was a major factor determining the properties of the foam. In addition to polyurethane foam demonstrators, other examples of lignin-based products related to resins and sizing applications will be presented.

Keywords: enzyme, lignin valorisation, polyol, polyurethane foam

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12 Ergonomic Adaptations in Visually Impaired Workers - A Literature Review

Authors: Kamila Troper, Pedro Mestre, Maria Lurdes Menano, Joana Mendonça, Maria João Costa, Sandra Demel


Introduction: Visual impairment is a problem that has an influence on hundreds of thousands of people all over the world. Although it is possible for a Visually Impaired person to do most jobs, the right training, technological assistance, and emotional support are essential. Ergonomics be able to solve many of the problems/issues with the relative ease of positioning, lighting and design of the workplace. A little forethought can make a tremendous difference to the ease with which a person with an impairment function. Objectives: Review the main ergonomic adaptation measures reported in the literature in order to promote better working conditions and safety measures for the visually impaired. Methodology: This was an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative literature systematic review study. The main databases used were: PubMed, BIREME, LILACS, with articles and studies published between 2000 and 2021. Results: Based on the principles of the theoretical references of ergonomic analysis of work, the main restructuring of the physical space of the workstations were: Accessibility facilities and assistive technologies; A screen reader that captures information from a computer and sends it in real-time to a speech synthesizer or Braille terminal; Installations of software with voice recognition, Monitors with enlarged screens; Magnification software; Adequate lighting, magnifying lenses in addition to recommendations regarding signage and clearance of the places where the visually impaired pass through. Conclusions: Employability rates for people with visual impairments(both those who are blind and those who have low vision)are low and continue to be a concern to the world and for researchers as a topic of international interest. Although numerous authors have identified barriers to employment and proposed strategies to remediate or circumvent those barriers, people with visual impairments continue to experience high rates of unemployment.

Keywords: ergonomic adaptations, visual impairments, ergonomic analysis of work, systematic review

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11 Comparing the SALT and START Triage System in Disaster and Mass Casualty Incidents: A Systematic Review

Authors: Hendri Purwadi, Christine McCloud


Triage is a complex decision-making process that aims to categorize a victim’s level of acuity and the need for medical assistance. Two common triage systems have been widely used in Mass Casualty Incidents (MCIs) and disaster situation are START (Simple triage algorithm and rapid treatment) and SALT (sort, asses, lifesaving, intervention, and treatment/transport). There is currently controversy regarding the effectiveness of SALT over START triage system. This systematic review aims to investigate and compare the effectiveness between SALT and START triage system in disaster and MCIs setting. Literatures were searched via systematic search strategy from 2009 until 2019 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, Science direct, Medlib, ProQuest. This review included simulated-based and medical record -based studies investigating the accuracy and applicability of SALT and START triage systems of adult and children population during MCIs and disaster. All type of studies were included. Joana Briggs institute critical appraisal tools were used to assess the quality of reviewed studies. As a result, 1450 articles identified in the search, 10 articles were included. Four themes were identified by review, they were accuracy, under-triage, over-triage and time to triage per individual victim. The START triage system has a wide range and inconsistent level of accuracy compared to SALT triage system (44% to 94. 2% of START compared to 70% to 83% of SALT). The under-triage error of START triage system ranged from 2.73% to 20%, slightly lower than SALT triage system (7.6 to 23.3%). The over-triage error of START triage system was slightly greater than SALT triage system (START ranged from 2% to 53% compared to 2% to 22% of SALT). The time for applying START triage system was faster than SALT triage system (START was 70-72.18 seconds compared to 78 second of SALT). Consequently; The START triage system has lower level of under-triage error and faster than SALT triage system in classifying victims of MCIs and disaster whereas SALT triage system is known slightly more accurate and lower level of over-triage. However, the magnitude of these differences is relatively small, and therefore the effect on the patient outcomes is not significance. Hence, regardless of the triage error, either START or SALT triage system is equally effective to triage victims of disaster and MCIs.

Keywords: disaster, effectiveness, mass casualty incidents, START triage system, SALT triage system

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10 Addressing Food Grain Losses in India: Energy Trade-Offs and Nutrition Synergies

Authors: Matthew F. Gibson, Narasimha D. Rao, Raphael B. Slade, Joana Portugal Pereira, Joeri Rogelj


Globally, India’s population is among the most severely impacted by nutrient deficiency, yet millions of tonnes of food are lost before reaching consumers. Across food groups, grains represent the largest share of daily calories and overall losses by mass in India. If current losses remain unresolved and follow projected population rates, we estimate, by 2030, losses from grains for human consumption could increase by 1.3-1.8 million tonnes (Mt) per year against current levels of ~10 Mt per year. This study quantifies energy input to minimise storage losses across India, responsible for a quarter of grain supply chain losses. In doing so, we identify and explore a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) triplet between SDG₂, SDG₇, and SDG₁₂ and provide insight for development of joined up agriculture and health policy in the country. Analyzing rice, wheat, maize, bajra, and sorghum, we quantify one route to reduce losses in supply chains, by modelling the energy input to maintain favorable climatic conditions in modern silo storage. We quantify key nutrients (calories, protein, zinc, iron, vitamin A) contained within these losses and calculate roughly how much deficiency in these dietary components could be reduced if grain losses were eliminated. Our modelling indicates, with appropriate uncertainty, maize has the highest energy input intensity for storage, at 110 kWh per tonne of grain (kWh/t), and wheat the lowest (72 kWh/t). This energy trade-off represents 8%-16% of the energy input required in grain production. We estimate if grain losses across the supply chain were saved and targeted to India’s nutritionally deficient population, average protein deficiency could reduce by 46%, calorie by 27%, zinc by 26%, and iron by 11%. This study offers insight for development of Indian agriculture, food, and health policy by first quantifying and then presenting benefits and trade-offs of tackling food grain losses.

Keywords: energy, food loss, grain storage, hunger, India, sustainable development goal, SDG

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9 Nursing-Related Barriers to Children’s Pain Management at Selected Hospitals in Ghana: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

Authors: Abigail Kusi Amponsah, Evans Frimpong Kyei, John Bright Agyemang, Hanson Boakye, Joana Kyei-Dompim, Collins Kwadwo Ahoto, Evans Oduro


Staff shortages, deficient knowledge, inappropriate attitudes, demanding workloads, analgesic shortages, and low prioritization of pain management have been identified in earlier studies as the nursing-related barriers to optimal children’s pain management. These studies have mainly been undertaken in developed countries, which have different healthcare dynamics than those in developing countries. The current study, therefore, sought to identify and understand the nursing-related barriers to children’s pain management in the Ghanaian context. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among 28 purposively sampled nurses working in the pediatric units of five hospitals in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Over the course of three months, participants were interviewed on the barriers which prevented them from optimally managing children’s pain in practice. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and deductively analysed based on a conceptual interest in pain assessment and management-related barriers. NVivo 12 plus software guided data management and analyses. The mean age of participating nurses was 30 years, with majority being females (n =24). Participants had worked in the nursing profession for an average of five years and in the pediatric care settings for an average of two years. The nursing-related barriers identified in the present study included communication difficulties in assessing and evaluating pain management interventions with children who have nonfunctional speech, insufficient training, misconceptions on the experience of pain in children, lack of assessment tools, and insufficient number of nurses to manage the workload and nurses’ inability to prescribe analgesics. The present study revealed some barriers which prevented Ghanaian nurses from optimally managing children’s pain. Nurses should be educated, empowered, and supported with the requisite material resources to effectively manage children’s pain and improve outcomes for families, healthcare systems, and the nation. Future studies should explore the facilitators and barriers from other stakeholders involved in pediatric pain management

Keywords: Nursing-Related Barriers, Children, Pain Management, Ghana

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8 Development of a Turbulent Boundary Layer Wall-pressure Fluctuations Power Spectrum Model Using a Stepwise Regression Algorithm

Authors: Zachary Huffman, Joana Rocha


Wall-pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) developed over aircraft are a significant source of aircraft cabin noise. Since the power spectral density (PSD) of these pressure fluctuations is directly correlated with the amount of sound radiated into the cabin, the development of accurate empirical models that predict the PSD has been an important ongoing research topic. The sound emitted can be represented from the pressure fluctuations term in the Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). Therefore, early TBL empirical models (including those from Lowson, Robertson, Chase, and Howe) were primarily derived by simplifying and solving the RANS for pressure fluctuation and adding appropriate scales. Most subsequent models (including Goody, Efimtsov, Laganelli, Smol’yakov, and Rackl and Weston models) were derived by making modifications to these early models or by physical principles. Overall, these models have had varying levels of accuracy, but, in general, they are most accurate under the specific Reynolds and Mach numbers they were developed for, while being less accurate under other flow conditions. Despite this, recent research into the possibility of using alternative methods for deriving the models has been rather limited. More recent studies have demonstrated that an artificial neural network model was more accurate than traditional models and could be applied more generally, but the accuracy of other machine learning techniques has not been explored. In the current study, an original model is derived using a stepwise regression algorithm in the statistical programming language R, and TBL wall-pressure fluctuations PSD data gathered at the Carleton University wind tunnel. The theoretical advantage of a stepwise regression approach is that it will automatically filter out redundant or uncorrelated input variables (through the process of feature selection), and it is computationally faster than machine learning. The main disadvantage is the potential risk of overfitting. The accuracy of the developed model is assessed by comparing it to independently sourced datasets.

Keywords: aircraft noise, machine learning, power spectral density models, regression models, turbulent boundary layer wall-pressure fluctuations

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7 The Covid Pandemic at a Level III Trauma Center: Challenges in the Management of the Spine Trauma.

Authors: Joana PaScoa Pinheiro, David Goncalves Ferreira, Filipe Ramos, Joaquim Soares Do Brito, Samuel Martins, Marco Sarmento


Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic was identified in January 2020 in China, in the city of Wuhan. The increase in the number of cases over the following months was responsible for the restructuring of hospitals and departments in order to accommodate admissions related to COVID-19. Essential services, such as trauma, had to readapt to maintain their functionality and thus guarantee quick and safe access in case of an emergency. Objectives: This study describes the impact of COVID-19 on a Level III Trauma Center and particularly on the clinical management of hospitalized patients with spine injuries. Study Design & Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study whose results were obtained through the medical records of patients with spine injuries who underwent surgical intervention in the years 2019 and 2020 (period from March 1st to December 31st). A comparison between the two groups was made. In the study patients with injuries in the context of trauma were included who underwent surgery in the periods previously described. Patients hospitalized with a spine injury in a non-traumatic context and/or were not surgically treated were excluded. Results: In total, 137 patients underwent trauma spine surgery of which 71 in 2019 (51.8%) were without significant differences in intergroup comparisons. The most frequent injury mechanism in 2019 was motor vehicle crash (47.9%) compared to 2020 which was of a person falling from a height between 2-4 meters (37.9%). Cervical trauma was reported to be the most frequent spine injury in both years. There was a significant decrease in the need for intensive care in 2020, 51.4% vs 30.3%, p = .015 and the number of complications was also lower in 2020 (1.35% vs 0.98%), including the number of deaths, being the difference marginally significant. There were no significant differences regarding time for presentation to surgery or in the total days of hospitalization. Conclusions: The restructuring made in the trauma unit at a Level III Trauma Center in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic was effective, with no significant differences between the years of 2019 vs 2020 when compared with the time for presentation to surgery or the number of days of hospitalization. It was also found that lockdown rules in 2020 were probably responsible for the decrease in the number of road traffic accidents, which justifies a significant decrease in the need for intensive care as well as in the number of complications in patients hospitalized in the context of spine trauma.

Keywords: trauma, spine, impact, covid-19

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6 Urban Rehabilitation Assessment: Buildings' Integrity and Embodied Energy

Authors: Joana Mourão


Transition to a low carbon economy requires changes in consumption and production patterns, including the improvement of existing buildings’ environmental performance. Urban rehabilitation is a top policy priority in Europe, creating an opportunity to increase this performance. However, urban rehabilitation comprises different typologies of interventions with distinct levels of consideration for cultural urban heritage values and for environmental values, thus with different impacts. Cities rely on both material and non-material forms of heritage that are deep-rooted and resilient. One of the most relevant parts of that urban heritage is the historical pre-industrial housing stock, with an extensive presence in many European cities, as Lisbon. This stock is rehabilitated and transformed at the framework of urban management and local governance traditions, as well as the framework of the global economy, and in that context, faces opportunities and threats that need evaluation and control. The scope of this article is to define methodological bases and research lines for the assessment of impacts that urban rehabilitation initiatives set on the vulnerable and historical pre-industrial urban housing stock, considering it as an environmental and cultural unreplaceable material value and resource. As a framework, this article reviews the concepts of urban regeneration, urban renewal, current buildings conservation and refurbishment, and energy refurbishment of buildings, seeking to define key typologies of urban rehabilitation that represent different approaches to the urban fabric, in terms of scope, actors, and priorities. Moreover, main types of interventions - basing on a case-study in a XVIII century neighborhood in Lisbon - are defined and analyzed in terms of the elements lost in each type of intervention, and relating those to urbanistic, architectonic and constructive values of urban heritage, as well as to environmental and energy efficiency. Further, the article overviews environmental cultural heritage assessment and life-cycle assessment tools, selecting relevant and feasible impact assessment criteria for urban buildings rehabilitation regulation, focusing on multi-level urban heritage integrity. Urbanistic, architectonic, constructive and energetic integrity are studied as criteria for impact assessment and specific indicators are proposed. The role of these criteria in sustainable urban management is discussed. Throughout this article, the key challenges for urban rehabilitation planning and management, concerning urban built heritage as a resource for sustainability, are discussed and clarified.

Keywords: urban rehabilitation, impact assessment criteria, buildings integrity, embodied energy

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5 Educational Challenges: Cultural Behaviours, Psychopathology and Psychological Intervention

Authors: Sandra Figueiredo, Alexandra Pereira, Ana Oliveira, Idia Brito, Ivaniltan Jones, Joana Moreira, Madalena Silva, Maria Paraíba, Milene Silva, Tânia Pinho


In the present society, we are facing behaviours mainly in young individuals that might be considered trends of culture or psychopathology. Both contexts are challenges for Education, Psychology and Health. This paper examines nine case studies specifically in Educational Psychology with the main goal to identify and define phenomena contexts in school culture, the psychopathology involved and to present a psychological intervention for each case. The research was conducted by university students in the period of March 2017-June 2017, in Portugal, and the childhood was focused. The case studies explored the cyberbullying; the bullying - victims and bullies’ perspectives; the obsessive compulsive disorder; perception and inclusion of children from homoparental families; inclusion of foreign students in the higher education system; blindness and the inclusion in physical curricular activities; influence of doc-reality and media in attitudes and self-esteem; and the morningness and eveningness types learning in the same school timetables. The university students were supervised during their research analysis and two methods were available for the intervention research study: the meta-analysis and the empirical study. In the second phase, the pedagogical intervention was designed for the different educational contexts in analysis, especially concerning the school environments. The evidence of literature and the empirical studies showed new trends of school’ behaviours and educational disturbances that require further research and effective (and adequate to age, gender, nationality and culture) pedagogical instruments. Respecting the instruments, on the one hand, to identify behaviors, habits or pathologies and highlight the role and training of teachers, psychologists and health professionals, on the other hand, to promote the early intervention and to enhance healthy child development and orientation of the families. To respond to both milestones, this paper present nine pedagogical techniques and measures that will be discussed on their impact concerning advances for the psychological and educational intervention, centered in the individual and in the new generations of family’ cultures.

Keywords: behaviour, culture trends, educational intervention, psychopathology, obsessive compulsive disorder, cyberbullying, bullying, homoparental families, sleep influence, blindness and sports at school, inclusion of foreign students, media influence in behaviour

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4 Analyzing the Impact of Bariatric Surgery in Obesity Associated Chronic Kidney Disease: A 2-Year Observational Study

Authors: Daniela Magalhaes, Jorge Pedro, Pedro Souteiro, Joao S. Neves, Sofia Castro-Oliveira, Vanessa Guerreiro, Rita Bettencourt- Silva, Maria M. Costa, Ana Varela, Joana Queiros, Paula Freitas, Davide Carvalho


Introduction: Obesity is an independent risk factor for renal dysfunction. Our aims were: (1) evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery (BS) on renal function; (2) clarify the factors determining the postoperative evolution of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR); (3) access the occurrence of oxalate-mediated renal complications. Methods: We investigated a cohort of 1448 obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Those with basal GFR (GFR0) < 30mL/min or without information about the GFR 2-year post-surgery (GFR2) were excluded. Results: We included 725 patients, of whom 647 (89.2%) women, with 41 (IQR 34-51) years, a median weight of 112.4 (IQR 103.0-125.0) kg and a median BMI of 43.4 (IQR 40.6-46.9) kg/m2. Of these, 459 (63.3%) performed gastric bypass (RYGB), 144 (19.9%) placed an adjustable gastric band (AGB) and 122 (16.8%) underwent vertical gastrectomy (VG). At 2-year post-surgery, excess weight loss (EWL) was 60.1 (IQR 43.7-72.4) %. There was a significant improve of metabolic and inflammatory status, as well as a significant decrease in the proportion of patients with diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia (p < 0.0001). At baseline, 38 (5.2%) of subjects had hyperfiltration with a GFR0 ≥ 125mL/min/1.73m2, 492 (67.9%) had a GFR0 90-124 mL/min/1.73m2, 178 (24.6%) had a GFR0 60-89 mL/min/1.73m2, and 17 (2.3%) had a GFR0 < 60 mL/min/1.73m2. GFR decreased in 63.2% of patients with hyperfiltration (ΔGFR=-2.5±7.6), and increased in 96.6% (ΔGFR=22.2±12.0) and 82.4% (ΔGFR=24.3±30.0) of the subjects with GFR0 60-89 and < 60 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively ( p < 0.0001). This trend was maintained when adjustment was made for the type of surgery performed. Of 321 patients, 10 (3.3%) had a urinary albumin excretion (UAE) > 300 mg/dL (A3), 44 (14.6%) had a UAE 30-300 mg/dL (A2) and 247 (82.1%) has a UAE < 30 mg/dL (A1). Albuminuria decreased after surgery and at 2-year follow-up only 1 (0.3%) patient had A3, 17 (5.6%) had A2 and 283 (94%) had A1 (p < 0,0001). In multivariate analysis, the variables independently associated with ΔGFR were BMI (positively) and fasting plasma glucose (negatively). During the 2-year follow-up, only 57 of the 725 patients had transient urinary excretion of calcium oxalate crystals. None has records of oxalate-mediated renal complications at our center. Conclusions: The evolution of GFR after BS seems to depend on the initial renal function, as it decreases in subjects with hyperfiltration, but tends to increase in those with renal dysfunction. Our results suggest that BS is associated with improvement of renal outcomes, without significant increase of renal complications. So, apart the clear benefits in metabolic and inflammatory status, maybe obese adults with nondialysis-dependent CKD should be referred for bariatric surgery evaluation.

Keywords: albuminuria, bariatric surgery, glomerular filtration rate, renal function

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3 Rt-Pcr Negative COVID-19 Infection in a Bodybuilding Competitor Using Anabolic Steroids: A Case Report

Authors: Mariana Branco, Nahida Sobrino, Cristina Neves, Márcia Santos, Afonso Granja, João Rosa Oliveira, Joana Costa, Luísa Castro Leite


This case reports a COVID-19 infection in an unvaccinated adult man with no history of COVID-19 and no relevant clinical history besides anabolic steroid use, undergoing weaning with tamoxifen after a bodybuilding competition. The patient presented a 4cm cervical mass 3 weeks after COVID-19 infection in his cohabitants. He was otherwise asymptomatic and tested negative to multiple RT-PCR tests. Nevertheless, the IgG COVID-19 antibody was positive, suggesting the previous infection. This report raises a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset. Objectives: The goals of this paper are to raise a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset but also to report an uncommon case of COVID-19 infection with consecutive negative gold standard tests. Methodology: The authors used CARE guidelines for case report writing. Introduction: This case reports a COVID-19 infection case in an unvaccinated adult man, with multiple serial negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, presenting with single cervical lymphadenopathy. Although the association between COVID-19 and lymphadenopathy is well established, there are no cases with this presentation, and consistently negative RT-PCR tests have been reported. Methodologies: The authors used CARE guidelines for case report writing. Case presentation: This case reports a 28-year-old Caucasian man with no previous history of COVID-19 infection or vaccination and no relevant clinical history besides anabolic steroid use undergoing weaning with tamoxifendue to participation in a bodybuilding competition. He visits his primary care physician because of a large (4 cm) cervical lump, present for 3 days prior to the consultation. There was a positive family history for COVID-19 infection 3 weeks prior to the visit, during which the patient cohabited with the infected family members. The patient never had any previous clinical manifestation of COVID-19 infection and, despite multiple consecutive RT-PCR testing, never tested positive. The patient was treated with an NSAID and a broad-spectrum antibiotic, with little to no effect. Imagiological testing was performed via a cervical ultrasound, followed by a needle biopsy for histologic analysis. Serologic testing for COVID-19 immunity was conducted, revealing a positive Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (Spike S1) antibody, suggesting the previous infection, given the unvaccinated status of our patient Conclusion: In patients with a positive epidemiologic context and cervical lymphadenopathy, physicians should still consider COVID-19 infection as a differential diagnosis, despite negative PCR testing. This case also raises a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset, never before reported in scientific literature.

Keywords: COVID-19, cervical lymphadenopathy, anabolic steroids, primary care

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2 Environmental Impact of Pallets in the Supply Chain: Including Logistics and Material Durability in a Life Cycle Assessment Approach

Authors: Joana Almeida, Kendall Reid, Jonas Bengtsson


Pallets are devices that are used for moving and storing freight and are nearly omnipresent in supply chains. The market is dominated by timber pallets, with plastic being a common alternative. Either option underpins the use of important resources (oil, land, timber), the emission of greenhouse gases and additional waste generation in most supply chains. This study uses a dynamic approach to the life cycle assessment (LCA) of pallets. It demonstrates that what ultimately defines the environmental burden of pallets in the supply chain is how often the length of its lifespan, which depends on the durability of the material and on how pallets are utilized. This study proposes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pallets in supply chains supported by an algorithm that estimates pallet durability in function of material resilience and of logistics. The LCA runs from cradle-to-grave, including raw material provision, manufacture, transport and end of life. The scope is representative of timber and plastic pallets in the Australian and South-East Asia markets. The materials included in this analysis are: -tropical mixed hardwood, unsustainably harvested in SE Asia; -certified softwood, sustainably harvested; -conventional plastic, a mix of virgin and scrap plastic; -recycled plastic pallets, 100% mixed plastic scrap, which are being pioneered by Re > Pal. The logistical model purports that more complex supply chains and rougher handling subject pallets to higher stress loads. More stress shortens the lifespan of pallets in function of their composition. Timber pallets can be repaired, extending their lifespan, while plastic pallets cannot. At the factory gate, softwood pallets have the lowest carbon footprint. Re > pal follows closely due to its burden-free feedstock. Tropical mixed hardwood and plastic pallets have the highest footprints. Harvesting tropical mixed hardwood in SE Asia often leads to deforestation, leading to emissions from land use change. The higher footprint of plastic pallets is due to the production of virgin plastic. Our findings show that manufacture alone does not determine the sustainability of pallets. Even though certified softwood pallets have lower carbon footprint and their lifespan can be extended by repair, the need for re-supply of materials and disposal of waste timber offsets this advantage. It also leads to most waste being generated among all pallets. In a supply chain context, Re > Pal pallets have the lowest footprint due to lower replacement and disposal needs. In addition, Re > Pal are nearly ‘waste neutral’, because the waste that is generated throughout their life cycle is almost totally offset by the scrap uptake for production. The absolute results of this study can be confirmed by progressing the logistics model, improving data quality, expanding the range of materials and utilization practices. Still, this LCA demonstrates that considering logistics, raw materials and material durability is central for sustainable decision-making on pallet purchasing, management and disposal.

Keywords: carbon footprint, life cycle assessment, recycled plastic, waste

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1 Smart and Active Package Integrating Printed Electronics

Authors: Joana Pimenta, Lorena Coelho, José Silva, Vanessa Miranda, Jorge Laranjeira, Rui Soares


In this paper, the results of R&D on an innovative food package for increased shelf-life are presented. SAP4MA aims at the development of a printed active device that enables smart packaging solutions for food preservation, targeting the extension of the shelf-life of the packed food through the controlled release of active natural antioxidant agents at the onset of the food degradation process. To do so, SAP4MA focuses on the development of active devices such as printed heaters and batteries/supercapacitors in a label format to be integrated on packaging lids during its injection molding process, promoting the passive release of natural antioxidants after the product is packed, during transportation and in the shelves, and actively when the end-user activates the package, just prior to consuming the product at home. When the active device present on the lid is activated, the release of the natural antioxidants embedded in the inner layer of the packaging lid in direct contact with the headspace atmosphere of the food package starts. This approach is based on the use of active functional coatings composed of nano encapsulated active agents (natural antioxidants species) in the prevention of the oxidation of lipid compounds in food by agents such as oxygen. Thus keeping the product quality during the shelf-life, not only when the user opens the packaging, but also during the period from food packaging up until the purchase by the consumer. The active systems that make up the printed smart label, heating circuit, and battery were developed using screen-printing technology. These systems must operate under the working conditions associated with this application. The printed heating circuit was studied using three different substrates and two different conductive inks. Inks were selected, taking into consideration that the printed circuits will be subjected to high pressures and temperatures during the injection molding process. The circuit must reach a homogeneous temperature of 40ºC in the entire area of the lid of the food tub, promoting a gradual and controlled release of the antioxidant agents. In addition, the circuit design involves a high level of study in order to guarantee maximum performance after the injection process and meet the specifications required by the control electronics component. Furthermore, to characterize the different heating circuits, the electrical resistance promoted by the conductive ink and the circuit design, as well as the thermal behavior of printed circuits on different substrates, were evaluated. In the injection molding process, the serpentine-shaped design developed for the heating circuit was able to resolve the issues connected to the injection point; in addition, the materials used in the support and printing had high mechanical resistance against the pressure and temperature inherent to the injection process. Acknowledgment: This research has been carried out within the Project “Smart and Active Packing for Margarine Product” (SAP4MA) running under the EURIPIDES Program being co-financed by COMPETE 2020 – the Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalization and under Portugal 2020 through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Keywords: smart package, printed heat circuits, printed batteries, flexible and printed electronic

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