Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 92

Search results for: solidification

92 Prediction of Solidification Behavior of Al Alloy in a Cube Mold Cavity

Authors: N. P. Yadav, Deepti Verma

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the mathematical modeling for solidification of Al alloy in a cube mould cavity to study the solidification behavior of casting process. The parametric investigation of solidification process inside the cavity was performed by using computational solidification/melting model coupled with Volume of fluid (VOF) model. The implicit filling algorithm is used in this study to understand the overall process from the filling stage to solidification in a model metal casting process. The model is validated with past studied at same conditions. The solidification process are analyzed by including the effect of pouring velocity and temperature of liquid metal, effect of wall temperature as well natural convection from the wall and geometry of the cavity. These studies show the possibility of various defects during solidification process.

Keywords: buoyancy driven flow, natural convection driven flow, residual flow, secondary flow, volume of fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
91 New Evaluation Methodology for Solidification Product Durability Assessment

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova, Jakub Hodul, Rostislav Drochytka, Jana Kosikova

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This paper deals with a proposal of a new methodology for durability assessment of solidification product for its safe further use. The new methodology is based on a review of the current state of assessment of treated waste in Czech Republic and abroad. The aim of the paper is to propose an optimal evaluation methodology for verifying properties of solidification product to ensure its safe further use in building industry.

Keywords: solidification, stabilization, durability, waste

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90 Proposal of Solidification/Stabilisation Process of Chosen Hazardous Waste by Cementation

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova

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This paper presents a part of the project solving which is dedicated to the identification of the hazardous waste with the most critical production within the Czech Republic with the aim to study and find the optimal composition of the cement matrix that will ensure maximum content disposal of chosen hazardous waste. In the first stage of project solving – which represents this paper – a specific hazardous waste was chosen, its properties were identified and suitable solidification agents were chosen. Consequently solidification formulas and testing methodology was proposed.

Keywords: cementation, solidification, waste, binder

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
89 The Effects of Microstructure of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Fe Alloys on Micro Hardness, Tensile Strength, and Electrical Resistivity

Authors: Sevda Engin, Ugur Buyuk, Necmettin Marasli

Abstract:

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention because of microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity influenced by eutectic structures. In this research, we examined processing of Al–Si–Fe (Al–11.7wt.%Si–1wt.%Fe) eutectic by directional solidification. The alloy was prepared by vacuum furnace and directionally solidified in Bridgman-type equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 8.25 m/s to 164.80 m/s. The Al–Si–Fe system showed an eutectic transformation, which resulted in the matrix Al, Si and Al5SiFe plate phases. The eutectic spacing between (λ_Si-λ_Si, λ_(Al_5 SiFe)-λ_(Al_5 SiFe)) was measured. Additionally, the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity of the alloy were determined using directionally solidified samples. The effects of growth rates on microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified Al–Si–Fe eutectic alloy were investigated, and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained. It was found that the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity were affected by both eutectic spacing and the solidification parameter.

Keywords: directional solidification, aluminum alloy, microstructure, electrical properties, tensile test, hardness test

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88 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: condensation, radioactive liquid waste, solidification, STRAD project

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
87 Undercooling of Refractory High-Entropy Alloy

Authors: Liang Hu

Abstract:

The innovation of refractory high-entropy alloy (RHEA) formed from refractory metals W, Ta, Mo, Nb, Hf, V, and Zr was firstly implemented in 2010 to obtain better strength at high temperature than conventional HEAs based on Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni. Due to the refractory characteristic and high chemical activity at elevated temperature, electrostatic levitation technique has been utilized to fulfill the rapid solidification of RHEA. Several RHEAs consisting W, Ta, Mo, Nb, Zr have been selected to perform the undercooling and rapid solidification by ESL. They are substantially undercooled by up to 0.2TL. The evolution of as-solidified microstructure and component redistribution with undercooling have been investigated by SEM, EBSD, and EPMA analysis. According to the EPMA results of composing elements at different undercooling levels, the chemical distribution relevant to undercooling was also analyzed.

Keywords: chemical distribution, high-entropy alloy, rapid solidification, undercooling

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86 Influence of Surfactant on Supercooling Degree of Aqueous Titania Nanofluids in Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Hoda Aslani, Mohammad Moghiman, Mohammad Aslani

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Considering the demand to reduce global warming potential and importance of solidification in various applications, there is an increasing interest in energy storage systems to find the efficient phase change materials. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental study and comparison on the potential of titania nanofluids with and without surfactant for cooling energy storage systems. A designed cooling generation device based on compression refrigeration cycle is used to explore nanofluids solidification characteristics. In this work, titania nanoparticles of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 wt.% are dispersed in deionized water as base fluid. Measurement of phase change parameters of nanofluids illustrates that the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant to titania nanofluids advances the onset nucleation time and leads to lower solidification time. Also, the experimental results show that only adding 0.02 wt.% titania nanoparticles, especially in the case of nanofluids with a surfactant, can evidently reduce the supercooling degree by nearly 70%. Hence, it is concluded that there is a great energy saving potential in the energy storage systems using titania nanofluid with PVP.

Keywords: cooling energy storage, nanofluid, PVP, solidification, titania

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85 Effects of Fourth Alloying Additive on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy

Authors: Ugur Buyuk, Sevda Engin

Abstract:

Among the various alloy systems being considered as lead-free solder candidates, Sn-Ag-Cu alloys have been recognized as the most promising because of their excellent reliability and compatibility with current components. Thus, Sn-Ag-Cu alloys have recently attracted considerable attention and have been proposed by the Japanese, the EU and the US consortiums to replace conventional Sn-Pb eutectic solder. However, many problems or unknown characteristics of the Sn-Ag-Cu alloy system such as the best composition, the large undercooling in solidification, and the formation of large intermetallics still exist. It is expected that the addition of some solidification nuclei for Sn-Ag-Cu alloys will refine the solidification microstructure and will suppress undercooling.In the present work, the effects of the fourth elements, i.e., Zn, Ni, Bi, In and Co, on microstructural and mechanical properties of Sn-3.5Ag-0.9Cu lead-free solder were investigated. Sn-3.5Ag-0.9Cu-0.5X (X= Zn, Ni, Bi, In, Co (wt.)) alloys were prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient and growth rates by using a Bridgman type directional solidification furnace. The microstructure, microhardness and ultimate tensile strength of alloys were measured. The effects of fourth elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Ag-Cu eutectic alloys were investigated. The results obtained in the present work were compared with the previous experimental results.

Keywords: lead-free solders, microhardness, microstructure, tensile strength

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84 Investigating the Influence of Solidification Rate on the Microstructural, Mechanical and Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Mg Based Multicomponent Eutectic Alloys Containing High Mg Alloys

Authors: Fatih Kılıç, Burak Birol, Necmettin Maraşlı

Abstract:

The directional solidification process is generally used for homogeneous compound production, single crystal growth, and refining (zone refining), etc. processes. The most important two parameters that control eutectic structures are temperature gradient and grain growth rate which are called as solidification parameters The solidification behavior and microstructure characteristics is an interesting topic due to their effects on the properties and performance of the alloys containing eutectic compositions. The solidification behavior of multicomponent and multiphase systems is an important parameter for determining various properties of these materials. The researches have been conducted mostly on the solidification of pure materials or alloys containing two phases. However, there are very few studies on the literature about multiphase reactions and microstructure formation of multicomponent alloys during solidification. Because of this situation, it is important to study the microstructure formation and the thermodynamical, thermophysical and microstructural properties of these alloys. The production process is difficult due to easy oxidation of magnesium and therefore, there is not a comprehensive study concerning alloys containing high Mg (> 30 wt.% Mg). With the increasing amount of Mg inside Al alloys, the specific weight decreases, and the strength shows a slight increase, while due to formation of β-Al8Mg5 phase, ductility lowers. For this reason, production, examination and development of high Mg containing alloys will initiate the production of new advanced engineering materials. The original value of this research can be described as obtaining high Mg containing (> 30% Mg) Al based multicomponent alloys by melting under vacuum; controlled directional solidification with various growth rates at a constant temperature gradient; and establishing relationship between solidification rate and microstructural, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Therefore, within the scope of this research, some > 30% Mg containing ternary or quaternary Al alloy compositions were determined, and it was planned to investigate the effects of directional solidification rate on the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of these alloys. Within the scope of the research, the influence of the growth rate on microstructure parameters, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of directionally solidified high Mg containing Al-32,2Mg-0,37Si; Al-30Mg-12Zn; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni; Al-32,2Mg-0,37Fe; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni-0,4Si; Al-33,3Mg-0,35Si-0,11Fe (wt.%) alloys with wide range of growth rate (50-2500 µm/s) and fixed temperature gradient, will be investigated. The work can be planned as; (a) directional solidification of Al-Mg based Al-Mg-Si, Al-Mg-Zn, Al-Mg-Ni, Al-Mg-Fe, Al-Mg-Ni-Si, Al-Mg-Si-Fe within wide range of growth rates (50-2500 µm/s) at a constant temperature gradient by Bridgman type solidification system, (b) analysis of microstructure parameters of directionally solidified alloys by using an optical light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), (c) measurement of microhardness and tensile strength of directionally solidified alloys, (d) measurement of electrical conductivity by four point probe technique at room temperature (e) measurement of thermal conductivity by linear heat flow method at room temperature.

Keywords: directional solidification, electrical conductivity, high Mg containing multicomponent Al alloys, microhardness, microstructure, tensile strength, thermal conductivity

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83 Numerical Investigation of Phase Change Materials (PCM) Solidification in a Finned Rectangular Heat Exchanger

Authors: Mounir Baccar, Imen Jmal

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Because of the rise in energy costs, thermal storage systems designed for the heating and cooling of buildings are becoming increasingly important. Energy storage can not only reduce the time or rate mismatch between energy supply and demand but also plays an important role in energy conservation. One of the most preferable storage techniques is the Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES) by Phase Change Materials (PCM) due to its important energy storage density and isothermal storage process. This paper presents a numerical study of the solidification of a PCM (paraffin RT27) in a rectangular thermal storage exchanger for air conditioning systems taking into account the presence of natural convection. Resolution of continuity, momentum and thermal energy equations are treated by the finite volume method. The main objective of this numerical approach is to study the effect of natural convection on the PCM solidification time and the impact of fins number on heat transfer enhancement. It also aims at investigating the temporal evolution of PCM solidification, as well as the longitudinal profiles of the HTF circling in the duct. The present research undertakes the study of two cases: the first one treats the solidification of PCM in a PCM-air heat exchanger without fins, while the second focuses on the solidification of PCM in a heat exchanger of the same type with the addition of fins (3 fins, 5 fins, and 9 fins). Without fins, the stratification of the PCM from colder to hotter during the heat transfer process has been noted. This behavior prevents the formation of thermo-convective cells in PCM area and then makes transferring almost conductive. In the presence of fins, energy extraction from PCM to airflow occurs at a faster rate, which contributes to the reduction of the discharging time and the increase of the outlet air temperature (HTF). However, for a great number of fins (9 fins), the enhancement of the solidification process is not significant because of the effect of confinement of PCM liquid spaces for the development of thermo-convective flow. Hence, it can be concluded that the effect of natural convection is not very significant for a high number of fins. In the optimum case, using 3 fins, the increasing temperature of the HTF exceeds approximately 10°C during the first 30 minutes. When solidification progresses from the surfaces of the PCM-container and propagates to the central liquid phase, an insulating layer will be created in the vicinity of the container surfaces and the fins, causing a low heat exchange rate between PCM and air. As the solid PCM layer gets thicker, a progressive regression of the field of movements is induced in the liquid phase, thus leading to the inhibition of heat extraction process. After about 2 hours, 68% of the PCM became solid, and heat transfer was almost dominated by conduction mechanism.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, front solidification, PCM, natural convection

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82 Investigation of Heat Transfer Mechanism Inside Shell and Tube Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Saeid Seddegh, Xiaolin Wang, Alan D. Henderson, Dong Chen, Oliver Oims

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The main objective of this research is to study the heat transfer processes and phase change behaviour of a phase change material (PCM) in shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. The thermal behaviour in a vertical and horizontal shell-and-tube heat energy storage system using a pure thermal conduction model and a combined conduction-convection heat transfer model is compared in this paper. The model is first validated using published experimental data available in literature and then used to study the temperature variation, solid-liquid interface, phase distribution, total melting and solidification time during melting and solidification processes of PCMs. The simulated results show that the combined convection and conduction model can better describe the energy transfer in PCMs during melting process. In contrast, heat transfer by conduction is more significant during the solidification process since the two models show little difference. Also, it was concluded that during the charging process for the horizontal orientation, convective heat transfer has a strong effect on melting of the upper part of the solid PCM and is less significant during melting of the lower half of the solid PCM. However, in the vertical orientation, convective heat transfer is the same active during the entire charging process. In the solidification process, the thermal behavior does not show any difference between horizontal and vertical systems.

Keywords: latent heat thermal energy storage, phase change material, natural convection, melting, shell and tube heat exchanger, melting, solidification

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81 Lignin Pyrolysis to Value-Added Chemicals: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Binod Shrestha, Sandrine Hoppe, Thierry Ghislain, Phillipe Marchal, Nicolas Brosse, Anthony Dufour

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The thermochemical conversion of lignin has received an increasing interest in the frame of different biorefinery concepts for the production of chemicals or energy. It is needed to better understand the physical and chemical conversion of lignin for feeder and reactor designs. In-situ rheology reveals the viscoelastic behaviour of lignin upon thermal conversion. The softening, re-solidification (char formation), swelling and shrinking behaviours are quantified during pyrolysis in real-time [1]. The in-situ rheology of an alkali lignin (Protobind 1000) was conducted in high torque controlled strain rheometer from 35°C to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1. The swelling, through glass phase transition overlapped with depolymerization, and solidification (crosslinking and “char” formation) are two main phenomena observed during lignin pyrolysis. The onset of temperatures for softening and solidification for this lignin has been found to be 141°C and 248°C respectively. An ex-situ characterization of lignin/char residues obtained at different temperatures after quenching in the rheometer gives a clear understanding of the pathway of lignin degradation. The lignin residues were sampled from the mid-point temperatures of the softening range and solidification range to study the chemical transformations undergoing. Elemental analysis, FTIR and solid state NMR were conducted after quenching the solid residues (lignin/char). The quenched solid was also extracted by suitable solvent and followed by acetylation and GPC-UV analysis. The combination of 13C NMR and GPC-UV reveals the depolymerization followed by crosslinking of lignin/char. NMR and FTIR provide the evolution of functional moieties upon temperature. Physical and chemical mechanisms occurring during lignin pyrolysis are accounted in this study. Thanks to all these complementary methods.

Keywords: pyrolysis, bio-chemicals, valorization, mechanism, softening, solidification, cross linking, rheology, spectroscopic methods

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80 Influence of Magnetic Field on Microstructure and Properties of Copper-Silver Composites

Authors: Engang Wang

Abstract:

The Cu-alloy composites are a kind of high-strength and high-conductivity Cu-based alloys, which have excellent mechanical and electrical properties and is widely used in electronic, electrical, machinery industrial fields. However, the solidification microstructure of the composites, such as the primary or second dendrite arm spacing, have important rule to its tensile strength and conductivity, and that is affected by its fabricating method. In this paper, two kinds of directional solidification methods; the exothermic powder method (EP method) and liquid metal cooling method (LMC method), were used to fabricate the Cu-alloy composites with applied different magnetic fields to investigate their influence on the solidifying microstructure of Cu-alloy, and further the fabricated Cu-alloy composites was drawn to wires to investigate the influence of fabricating method and magnetic fields on the drawing microstructure of fiber-reinforced Cu-alloy composites and its properties. The experiment of Cu-Ag alloy under directional solidification and horizontal magnetic fields with different processing parameters show that: 1) For the Cu-Ag alloy with EP method, the dendrite is directionally developed in the cooling copper mould and the solidifying microstructure is effectively refined by applying horizontal magnetic fields. 2) For the Cu-Ag alloy with LMC method, the primary dendrite arm spacing is decreased and the content of Ag in the dendrite increases as increasing the drawing velocity of solidification. 3) The dendrite is refined and the content of Ag in the dendrite increases as increasing the magnetic flux intensity; meanwhile, the growth direction of dendrite is also affected by magnetic field. The research results of Cu-Ag alloy in situ composites by drawing deforming process show that the micro-hardness of alloy is higher by decreasing dendrite arm spacing. When the dendrite growth orientation is consistent with the axial of the samples. the conductivity of the composites increases with the second dendrite arm spacing increases. However, its conductivity reduces with the applied magnetic fields owing to disrupting the dendrite growth orientation.

Keywords: Cu-Ag composite, magnetic field, microstructure, solidification

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79 Gap Formation into Bulk InSb Crystals Grown by the VDS Technique Revealing Enhancement in the Transport Properties

Authors: Dattatray Gadkari, Dilip Maske, Manisha Joshi, Rashmi Choudhari, Brij Mohan Arora

Abstract:

The vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique has been applied to the growth of bulk InSb crystals. The concept of practical stability is applied to the case of detached bulk crystal growth on earth in a simplified design. By optimization of the set up and growth parameters, 32 ingots of 65-75 mm in length and 10-22 mm in diameter have been grown. The results indicate that the wetting angle of the melt on the ampoule wall and the pressure difference across the interface are the crucial factors effecting the meniscus shape and stability. Taking into account both heat transfer and capillarity, it is demonstrated that the process is stable in case of convex menisci (seen from melt), provided that pressure fluctuations remain in a stable range. During the crystal growth process, it is necessary to keep a relationship between the rate of the difference pressure controls and the solidification to maintain the width of gas gap. It is concluded that practical stability gives valuable knowledge of the dynamics and could be usefully applied to other crystal growth processes, especially those involving capillary shaping. Optoelectronic properties were investigated in relation to the type of solidification attached and detached ingots growth. These samples, room temperature physical properties such as Hall mobility, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and microhardness achieved for antimonide samples grown by VDS technique have shown the highest values gained till at this time. These results reveal that these crystals can be used to produce InSb with high mobility for device applications.

Keywords: alloys, electronic materials, semiconductors, crystal growth, solidification, etching, optical microscopy, crystal structure, defects, Hall effect

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78 Modelling of Solidification in a Latent Thermal Energy Storage with a Finned Tube Bundle Heat Exchanger Unit

Authors: Remo Waser, Simon Maranda, Anastasia Stamatiou, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek

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In latent heat storage, a phase change material (PCM) is used to store thermal energy. The heat transfer rate during solidification is limited and considered as a key challenge in the development of latent heat storages. Thus, finned heat exchangers (HEX) are often utilized to increase the heat transfer rate of the storage system. In this study, a new modeling approach to calculating the heat transfer rate in latent thermal energy storages with complex HEX geometries is presented. This model allows for an optimization of the HEX design in terms of costs and thermal performance of the system. Modeling solidification processes requires the calculation of time-dependent heat conduction with moving boundaries. Commonly used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods enable the analysis of the heat transfer in complex HEX geometries. If applied to the entire storage, the drawback of this approach is the high computational effort due to small time steps and fine computational grids required for accurate solutions. An alternative to describe the process of solidification is the so-called temperature-based approach. In order to minimize the computational effort, a quasi-stationary assumption can be applied. This approach provides highly accurate predictions for tube heat exchangers. However, it shows unsatisfactory results for more complex geometries such as finned tube heat exchangers. The presented simulation model uses a temporal and spatial discretization of heat exchanger tube. The spatial discretization is based on the smallest possible symmetric segment of the HEX. The heat flow in each segment is calculated using finite volume method. Since the heat transfer fluid temperature can be derived using energy conservation equations, the boundary conditions at the inner tube wall is dynamically updated for each time step and segment. The model allows a prediction of the thermal performance of latent thermal energy storage systems using complex HEX geometries with considerably low computational effort.

Keywords: modelling of solidification, finned tube heat exchanger, latent thermal energy storage

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77 Melt Conditioned-Twin Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: Sanjeev Das

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In the present investigation, magnesium strips were produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and melt conditioned twin roll casting (MC-TRC) processes. The microstructures showed uniform fine equiaxed grain morphology in the case of MC-TRC cast samples. In the case of TRC samples elongated grains with centerline segregation was observed. Further investigation showed both the process has different solidification mechanism. Tensile tests were performed at 250–400ºC for both TRC and MCTRC samples. At 250ºC, MC-TRC sample showed significant improvement in strength and ductility. However, at higher temperatures the tensile properties were almost comparable, despite of TRC samples having larger grains compared to MC-TRC samples. It was observed that homogenized MC-TRC samples were easily hot stamped compared to TRC samples.

Keywords: MC-TRC, magnesium alloy, solidification, nucleation

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76 Modelling and Investigation of Phase Change Phenomena of Multiple Water Droplets

Authors: K. R. Sultana, K. Pope, Y. S. Muzychka

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In recent years, the research of heat transfer or phase change phenomena of liquid water droplets experiences a growing interest in aircraft icing, power transmission line icing, marine icing and wind turbine icing applications. This growing interest speeding up the research from single to multiple droplet phenomena. Impingements of multiple droplets and the resulting solidification phenomena after impact on a very cold surface is computationally studied in this paper. The model used in the current study solves the flow equation, composed of energy balance and the volume fraction equations. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effects of several thermo-physical properties (density, thermal conductivity and specific heat) on droplets freezing. The outcome is examined by various important factors, for instance, liquid fraction, total freezing time, droplet temperature and total heat transfer rate in the interface region. The liquid fraction helps to understand the complete phase change phenomena during solidification. Temperature distribution and heat transfer rate help to demonstrate the overall thermal exchange behaviors between the droplets and substrate surface. Findings of this research provide an important technical achievement for ice modeling and prediction studies.

Keywords: droplets, CFD, thermos-physical properties, solidification

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75 Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material

Authors: Mouna Hamed, Ammar B. Brahim

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The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using MATLAB computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, phase change material, melting, solidification

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74 Influence of the Growth Rate on Eutectic Microstructures and Physical Properties of Aluminum–Silicon-Cobalt Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya

Abstract:

Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Co alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate at constant temperature gradient using by Bridgman–type growth apparatus. The values of microstructures (λ) was measured from transverse sections of the samples. The microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) of the directional solidification samples were also measured. Influence of the growth rate and spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. The results obtained in present work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: directional solidification, Al-Si-Co alloy, mechanical properties, electrical properties

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73 Multidimensional Modeling of Solidification Process of Multi-Crystalline Silicon under Magnetic Field for Solar Cell Technology

Authors: Mouhamadou Diop, Mohamed I. Hassan

Abstract:

Molten metallic flow in metallurgical plant is highly turbulent and presents a complex coupling with heat transfer, phase transfer, chemical reaction, momentum transport, etc. Molten silicon flow has significant effect in directional solidification of multicrystalline silicon by affecting the temperature field and the emerging crystallization interface as well as the transport of species and impurities during casting process. Owing to the complexity and limits of reliable measuring techniques, computational models of fluid flow are useful tools to study and quantify these problems. The overall objective of this study is to investigate the potential of a traveling magnetic field for an efficient operating control of the molten metal flow. A multidimensional numerical model will be developed for the calculations of Lorentz force, molten metal flow, and the related phenomenon. The numerical model is implemented in a laboratory-scale silicon crystallization furnace. This study presents the potential of traveling magnetic field approach for an efficient operating control of the molten flow. A numerical model will be used to study the effects of magnetic force applied on the molten flow, and their interdependencies. In this paper, coupled and decoupled, steady and unsteady models of molten flow and crystallization interface will be compared. This study will allow us to retrieve the optimal traveling magnetic field parameter range for crystallization furnaces and the optimal numerical simulations strategy for industrial application.

Keywords: multidimensional, numerical simulation, solidification, multicrystalline, traveling magnetic field

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72 Influence of Brazing Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloy

Authors: M. Zielinska, B. Daniels, J. Gabel, A. Paletko

Abstract:

A common nickel based superalloy Inconel625 was brazed with Ni-base braze filler material (AMS4777) containing melting-point-depressants such as B and Si. Different braze gaps, brazing times and forms of braze filler material were tested. It was determined that the melting point depressants B and Si tend to form hard and brittle phases in the joint during the braze cycle. Brittle phases significantly reduce mechanical properties (e. g. tensile strength) of the joint. Therefore, it is important to define optimal process parameters to achieve high strength joints, free of brittle phases. High ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values can be obtained if the joint area is free of brittle phases, which is equivalent to a complete isothermal solidification of the joint. Isothermal solidification takes place only if the concentration of the melting point depressant in the braze filler material of the joint is continuously reduced by diffusion into the base material. For a given brazing temperature, long brazing times and small braze filler material volumes (small braze gaps) are beneficial for isothermal solidification. On the base of the obtained results it can be stated that the form of the braze filler material has an additional influence on the joint quality. Better properties can be achieved by the use of braze-filler-material in form of foil instead of braze-filler-material in form of paste due to a reduced amount of voids and a more homogeneous braze-filler-material-composition in the braze-gap by using foil.

Keywords: diffusion brazing, microstructure, superalloy, tensile strength

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71 Wastes of Oil Drilling: Treatment Techniques and Their Effectiveness

Authors: Abbas Hadj Abbas, Hacini Massaoud, Aiad Lahcen

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In Hassi-Messoud’s oil industry, the systems which are water based (WBM) are generally used for drilling in the first phase. For the rest of the well, the oil mud systems are employed (OBM). In the field of oil exploration, panoply of chemical products is employed in the drilling fluids formulation. These components of different natures and whose toxicity and biodegradability are of ill-defined parameters are; however, thrown into nature. In addition to the hydrocarbon (HC, such as diesel) which is a major constituent of oil based mud, we also can notice spills as well as a variety of other products and additives on the drilling sites. These wastes are usually stored in places called (crud wastes). These may cause major problems to the ecosystem. To treat these wastes, we have considered two methods which are: solidification/ stabilization (chemical) and thermal. So that we can evaluate the techniques of treatment, a series of analyses are performed on dozens of specimens of wastes before treatment. After that, and on the basis of our analyses of wastes, we opted for diagnostic treatments of pollution before and after solidification and stabilization. Finally, we have done some analyses before and after the thermal treatment to check the efficiency of the methods followed in the study.

Keywords: wastes treatment, the oil pollution, the norms, wastes drilling

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70 Effect of Lead Content on Physical Properties of the Al–Si Eutectic Alloys

Authors: Hasan Kaya

Abstract:

Effect of lead content on the microstructure, mechanical (microhardness, ultimate tensile strength) and electrical resistivity properties of Al–Si eutectic alloys has been investigated. Al–12.6 Si–xSn (x=1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. %) were prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in the vacuum atmosphere. These alloys were directionally solidified under constant temperature gradient (5.50 K/mm) and growth rate (8.25 μm/s) by using a Bridgman–type directional solidification furnace. Eutectic spacing, microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were expressed as functions of the composition by using a linear regression analysis. The dependency of the eutectic spacing, microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity on the composition (Sn content) were determined. According to experimental results, the microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity of the solidified samples increase with increasing the Sn content, but decrease eutectic spacing. Variation of electrical resistivity with the temperature in the range of 300-500 K for studied alloys was also measured by using a standard d.c. four-point probe technique.

Keywords: content elements, solidification, microhardness, strength

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69 Full-Scale 3D Simulation of the Electroslag Rapid Remelting Process

Authors: E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig

Abstract:

The standard electroslag remelting (ESR) process can ideally control the solidification of an ingot and produce homogeneous structure with minimum defects. However, the melt rate of electrode is rather low that makes the whole process uneconomical especially to produce small ingot sizes. In contrast, continuous casting is an economical process to produce small ingots such as billets at high casting speed. Unfortunately, deep liquid melt pool forms in the billet ingot of continuous casting that leads to center porosity and segregation. As such, continuous casting is not suitable to produce segregation prone alloys like tool steel or several super alloys. On the other hand, the electro slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process has advantages of both traditional ESR and continuous casting processes to produce billets. In the ESRR process, a T-shaped mold is used including a graphite ring that takes major amount of current through the mold. There are only a few reports available in the literature discussing about this topic. The research on the ESRR process is currently ongoing aiming to improve the design of the T-shaped mold, to decrease overall heat loss in the process, and to obtain a higher temperature at metal meniscus. In the present study, a 3D model is proposed to investigate the electromagnetic, thermal, and flow fields in the whole process as well as solidification of the billet ingot. We performed a fully coupled numerical simulation to explore the influence of the electromagnetically driven flow (MHD) on the thermal field in the slag and ingot. The main goal is to obtain some fundamental understanding of the formation of melt pool of the solidifying billet ingot in the ESRR process.

Keywords: billet ingot, magnetohydrodynamics (mhd), numerical simulation, remelting, solidification, t-shaped mold.

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68 Evaluation of As-Cast U-Mo Alloys Processed in Graphite Crucible Coated with Boron Nitride

Authors: Kleiner Marques Marra, Tércio Pedrosa

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This paper reports the production of uranium-molybdenum alloys, which have been considered promising fuel for test and research nuclear reactors. U-Mo alloys were produced in three molybdenum contents: 5 wt.%, 7 wt.%, and 10 wt.%, using an electric vacuum induction furnace. A boron nitride-coated graphite crucible was employed in the production of the alloys and, after melting, the material was immediately poured into a boron nitride-coated graphite mold. The incorporation of carbon was observed, but it happened in a lower intensity than in the case of the non-coated crucible/mold. It is observed that the carbon incorporation increased and alloys density decreased with Mo addition. It was also noticed that the increase in the carbon or molybdenum content did not seem to change the as-cast structure in terms of granulation. The three alloys presented body-centered cubic crystal structure (g phase), after solidification, besides a seeming negative microsegregation of molybdenum, from the center to the periphery of the grains. There were signs of macrosegregation, from the base to the top of the ingots.

Keywords: uranium-molybdenum alloys, incorporation of carbon, solidification, macrosegregation and microsegregation

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67 The Effect of Electromagnetic Stirring during Solidification of Nickel Based Alloys

Authors: Ricardo Paiva, Rui Soares, Felix Harnau, Bruno Fragoso

Abstract:

Nickel-based alloys are materials well suited for service in extreme environments subjected to pressure and heat. Some industrial applications for Nickel-based alloys are aerospace and jet engines, oil and gas extraction, pollution control and waste processing, automotive and marine industry. It is generally recognized that grain refinement is an effective methodology to improve the quality of casted parts. Conventional grain refinement techniques involve the addition of inoculation substances, the control of solidification conditions, or thermomechanical treatment with recrystallization. However, such methods often lead to non-uniform grain size distribution and the formation of hard phases, which are detrimental to both wear performance and biocompatibility. Stirring of the melt by electromagnetic fields has been widely used in continuous castings with success for grain refinement, solute redistribution, and surface quality improvement. Despite the advantages, much attention has not been paid yet to the use of this approach on functional castings such as investment casting. Furthermore, the effect of electromagnetic stirring (EMS) fields on Nickel-based alloys is not known. In line with the gaps/needs of the state-of-art, the present research work targets to promote new advances in controlling grain size and morphology of investment cast Nickel based alloys. For such a purpose, a set of experimental tests was conducted. A high-frequency induction furnace with vacuum and controlled atmosphere was used to cast the Inconel 718 alloy in ceramic shells. A coil surrounded the casting chamber in order to induce electromagnetic stirring during solidification. Aiming to assess the effect of the electromagnetic stirring on Ni alloys, the samples were subjected to microstructural analysis and mechanical tests. The results show that electromagnetic stirring can be an effective methodology to modify the grain size and mechanical properties of investment-cast parts.

Keywords: investment casting, grain refinement, electromagnetic stirring, nickel alloys

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66 Decomposition of Solidification Carbides during Cyclic Thermal Treatments in a Co-Based Alloy Deposit Applied to Stainless Steel

Authors: Sellidj Abdelaziz, Lebaili Soltane

Abstract:

A cobalt-based alloy type Co-Cr-Ni-WC was deposited by plasma transferred arc projection (PTA) on a stainless steel valve. The alloy is characterized at the equilibrium by a solid solution Co (γ) mainly dendritic, and eutectic carbides M₇C₃ and ηM₆C. At the deposit/substrate interface, this microstructure is modified by the fast cooling mode of the alloy when applied in the liquid state on the relatively cold steel substrate. The structure formed in this case is heterogeneous and metastable phases can occur and evolve over temperature service. Coating properties and reliability are directly related to microstructures formed during deposition. We were interested more particularly in this microstructure formed during the solidification of the deposit in the region of the interface joining the soldered couple and its evolution during cyclic heat treatments at temperatures similar to those of the thermal environment of the valve. The characterization was carried out by SEM-EDS microprobe CAMECA, XRD, and micro hardness profiles. The deposit obtained has a linear and regular appearance that is free of cracks and with little porosity. The morphology of the microstructure represents solidification stages that are relatively fast with a temperature gradient high at the beginning of the interface by forming a plane front solid solution Co (γ). It gradually changes with the decreasing temperature gradient by getting farther from the junction towards the outer limit of the deposit. The matrix takes the forms: cellular, mixed (cells and dendrites) and dendritic. Dendritic growth is done according to primary ramifications in the direction of the heat removal which takes place in the direction perpendicular to the interface, towards the external surface of the deposit, following secondary and tertiary undeveloped arms. The eutectic carbides M₇C₃ and ηM₆C formed are very thin and are located in the intercellular and interdendritic spaces of the solid solution Co (γ).

Keywords: Co-Ni-Cr-W-C alloy, solid deposit, microstructure, carbides, cyclic heat treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
65 Geopolymerization Methods for Clay Soils Treatment

Authors: Baba Hassane Ahmed Hisseini, Abdelkrim Bennabi, Rabah Hamzaoui, Lamis Makki, Gaetan Blanck

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Most of the clay soils are known as problematic soils due to their water content, which varies greatly over time. It is observed that they are used to be subject to shrinkage and swelling, thus causing a problem of stability on the structures of civil engineering construction work. They are often excavated and placed in a storage area giving rise to the opening of new quarries. This method has become obsolete today because to protect the environment, we are leading to think differently and opening the way to new research for the improvement of the performance of this type of clay soils to reuse them in the construction field. The solidification and stabilization technique is used to improve the properties of poor quality soils to transform them into materials with a suitable performance for a new use in the civil engineering field rather than to excavate them and store them in the discharge area. In our case, the polymerization method is used for bad clay soils classified as high plasticity soil class A4 according to the French standard NF P11-300, where classical treatment methods with cement or lime are not efficient. Our work concerns clay soil treatment study using raw materials as additives for solidification and stabilization. The geopolymers are synthesized by aluminosilicates materials like fly ash, metakaolin, or blast furnace slag and activated by alkaline solution based on sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) or a mixture of both of them. In this study, we present the mechanical properties of the soil clay (A4 type) evolution with geopolymerisation methods treatment. Various mix design of aluminosilicates materials and alkaline solutions were carried at different percentages and different curing times of 1, 7, and 28 days. The compressive strength of the untreated clayey soil could be increased from simple to triple. It is observed that the improvement of compressive strength is associated with a geopolymerization mechanism. The highest compressive strength was found with metakaolin at 28 days.

Keywords: treatment and valorization of clay-soil, solidification and stabilization, alkali-activation of co-product, geopolymerization

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
64 Microstructural Interactions of Ag and Sc Alloying Additions during Casting and Artificial Ageing to a T6 Temper in a A356 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Dimitrios Bakavos, Dimitrios Tsivoulas, Chaowalit Limmaneevichitr

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Aluminium cast alloys, of the Al-Si system, are widely used for shape castings. Their microstructures can be further improved on one hand, by alloying modification and on the other, by optimised artificial ageing. In this project four hypoeutectic Al-alloys, the A356, A356+ Ag, A356+Sc, and A356+Ag+Sc have been studied. The interactions of Ag and Sc during solidification and artificial ageing at 170°C to a T6 temper have been investigated in details. The evolution of the eutectic microstructure is studied by thermal analysis and interrupted solidification. The ageing kinetics of the alloys has been identified by hardness measurements. The precipitate phases, number density, and chemical composition has been analysed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EDS analysis. Furthermore, the SHT effect onto the Si eutectic particles for the four alloys has been investigated by means of optical microscopy, image analysis, and the UTS strength has been compared with the UTS of the alloys after casting. The results suggest that the Ag additions, significantly enhance the ageing kinetics of the A356 alloy. The formation of β” precipitates were kinetically accelerated and an increase of 8% and 5% in peak hardness strength has been observed compared to the base A356 and A356-Sc alloy. The EDS analysis demonstrates that Ag is present on the β” precipitate composition. After prolonged ageing 100 hours at 170°C, the A356-Ag exhibits 17% higher hardness strength compared to the other three alloys. During solidification, Sc additions change the macroscopic eutectic growth mode to the propagation of a defined eutectic front from the mold walls opposite to the heat flux direction. In contrast, Ag has no significance effect on the solidification mode revealing a macroscopic eutectic growth similar to A356 base alloy. However, the mechanical strength of the as cast A356-Ag, A356-Sc, and A356+Ag+Sc additions has increased by 5, 30, and 35 MPa, respectively. The outcome is a tribute to the refining of the eutectic Si that takes place which it is strong in the A356-Sc alloy and more profound when silver and scandium has been combined. Moreover after SHT the Al alloy with the highest mechanical strength, is the one with Ag additions, in contrast to the as-cast condition where the Sc and Sc+Ag alloy was the strongest. The increase of strength is mainly attributed to the dissolution of grain boundary precipitates the increase of the solute content into the matrix, the spherodisation, and coarsening of the eutectic Si. Therefore, we could safely conclude for an A356 hypoeutectic alloy additions of: Ag exhibits a refining effect on the Si eutectic which is improved when is combined with Sc. In addition Ag enhance, the ageing kinetics increases the hardness and retains its strength at prolonged artificial ageing in a Al-7Si 0.3Mg hypoeutectic alloy. Finally the addition of Sc is beneficial due to the refinement of the α-Al grain and modification-refinement of the eutectic Si increasing the strength of the as-cast product.

Keywords: ageing, casting, mechanical strength, precipitates

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63 Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Liquidity and Mechanical Properties of Phase Formation Reaction Change in Cast Iron by Cooling Curve Analysis

Authors: S. Y. Park, S. M. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. M. Lim

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In this research analyzed the effects that phase formation reaction change in the grey cast iron makes on characteristics of microstructures, liquidity, and mechanical properties through cooling curve when adding rare earth elements (R.E). This research was analyzed with comparison between the case of not adding the rare earth elements (R.E) into the grey cast iron with the standard composition (as 3.3%C-2.1%Si-0.7%Mn-0.1%S) and the case of adding 0.3% rare earth elements (R.E). The thermal analysis parameters have been drawn through eutectic temperature theoretically calculated, recalescence temperature, and undercooling temperature measured from start of eutectic reaction to end of solidification in the cooling curve obtained by thermal analysis to analyze formation behavior of graphite, and the effects by addition of rare earth elements on this have been reviewed. When adding rare earth elements (R.E), the cause of liquidity slowdown was analyzed trough the solidification starting temperature and change of solidification ending temperature. The strength and hardness have been measured to evaluate the mechanical properties, and the sound tensile strength has been evaluated through quality coefficient after measuring relative hardness and normality degree of tensile strength by calculating theoretical tensile strength and theoretical hardness. The change of Pearlite Inter-lamellar Spacing of matrix microstructure and eutectic cell count of macrostructure was measured to analyze the effects of the rare earth elements on the sound tensile strength. The change of eutectic cell count has been clarified through activation of the eutectic reaction, and the cause of pearlite inter-lamellar spacing clarified through eutectoid reaction temperature.

Keywords: cooling curve, element, grey cast iron, thermal analysis, rare earth element

Procedia PDF Downloads 277