Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21650

Search results for: flux balance analysis

21650 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux from q=20 kw/m2 to q=102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles.

Keywords: heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model

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21649 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang

Abstract:

According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

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21648 Identifying Metabolic Pathways Associated with Neuroprotection Mediated by Tibolone in Human Astrocytes under an Induced Inflammatory Model

Authors: Daniel Osorio, Janneth Gonzalez, Andres Pinzon

Abstract:

In this work, proteins and metabolic pathways associated with the neuroprotective response mediated by the synthetic neurosteroid tibolone under a palmitate-induced inflammatory model were identified by flux balance analysis (FBA). Three different metabolic scenarios (‘healthy’, ‘inflamed’ and ‘medicated’) were modeled over a gene expression data-driven constructed tissue-specific metabolic reconstruction of mature astrocytes. Astrocyte reconstruction was built, validated and constrained using three open source software packages (‘minval’, ‘g2f’ and ‘exp2flux’) released through the Comprehensive R Archive Network repositories during the development of this work. From our analysis, we predict that tibolone executes their neuroprotective effects through a reduction of neurotoxicity mediated by L-glutamate in astrocytes, inducing the activation several metabolic pathways with neuroprotective actions associated such as taurine metabolism, gluconeogenesis, calcium and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor signaling pathways. Also, we found a tibolone associated increase in growth rate probably in concordance with previously reported side effects of steroid compounds in other human cell types.

Keywords: astrocytes, flux balance analysis, genome scale metabolic reconstruction, inflammation, neuroprotection, tibolone

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21647 Flux Balance Network Expansion Predicts Stage-Specific Human Preimplantation Embryo Metabolism

Authors: Andisheh Dadashi, Derek Martinez

Abstract:

Metabolism is an essential cellular process for the growth and maintenance of organisms. A better understanding of metabolism during embryogenesis may shed light on the developmental origins of human disease. Metabolic networks, however, are vastly complex with many redundant pathways and interconnected circuits. Thus, computational approaches serve as a practical solution for unraveling the genetic basis of embryo metabolism to help guide future experimental investigations. To our knowledge, this study presents the first model of human peri-implantation embryo metabolism via flux balance network expansion. The model accounts for 8 separate reaction compartments (extracellular, peroxisome, mitochondria, cytosol, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nucleus) including transport and exchange reactions between compartments. We found that modulating oxygen uptake promotes lactate diffusion across the outer mitochondrial layer, providing in silico support for a proposed lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle. While RNA-sequencing and other profiling technologies make it possible to elucidate metabolic genotype-phenotype relationships; yet, our understanding of metabolism during early mammalian development is currently limited. Very few studies have examined the temporal or spatial metabolomics of the human embryo, and prohibitively small sample sizes traditionally observed in human embryo research have presented logistical challenges for metabolic flux studies, hindering progress towards the reconstruction of the human embryonic metabolome. Thus, we developed a stage-specific model to serve as a proof-of-concept for the reconstruction of future metabolic developmental models. Our work shows that it is feasible to model human metabolism with respect to time-dependent changes characteristic of peri-implantation development.

Keywords: human peri-implantation embryo metabolism, flux balance analysis, network expansion, pathway analysis.

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21646 The Trend of Competitive Balance in Turkish Football Super League

Authors: Tugbay Inan

Abstract:

Competitive balance is known to have an important effect in determining the result of football matches. The degree of competitiveness is referred as competitive balance in football. Sports economics are the extent to which overall league attendances will be raised by measures, such as media effect, home advantage, revenue sharing, which aim to improve competitive balance. The purpose of present study was to measure the competitive balance in the football league of Turkey. In this study, by using long term competitive balance analysis, some facing problems and precautions were discussed through the seasons (1987-2014) in Turkish Football Super League (TSL). Within the practice of this study, The way that competitive balance level followed was determined in the history of super league (27 years). Based on this purpose, C5 Competitive Balance Index (C5CBI) and a Herfindahl index of competitive balance (HICB) were used. Finally, it is seen that in Super League, competitive balance factor took place time to time, however in total, a view apart from competitive balance is obviously seen.

Keywords: competitive balance, turkish football, c5 competitive balance index, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index

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21645 Integration of Microarray Data into a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Study Flux Distribution after Gene Knockout

Authors: Mona Heydari, Ehsan Motamedian, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati

Abstract:

Prediction of perturbations after genetic manipulation (especially gene knockout) is one of the important challenges in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced that integrates microarray data into the metabolic model. The algorithm was used to study the change in the cell phenotype after knockout of Gss gene in Escherichia coli BW25113. Algorithm implementation indicated that gene deletion resulted in more activation of the metabolic network. Growth yield was more and less regulating gene were identified for mutant in comparison with the wild-type strain.

Keywords: metabolic network, gene knockout, flux balance analysis, microarray data, integration

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21644 A Comprehensive Review of Axial Flux Machines and Its Applications

Authors: Shahbaz Amin, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sahib Khan

Abstract:

This paper presents a thorough review concerning the design types of axial flux permanent magnet machines (AFPM) in terms of different features such as construction, design, materials, and manufacturing. Particular emphasis is given on the design and performance analysis of AFPM machines. A comparison among different permanent magnet machines is also provided. First of all, early and modern axial flux machines are mentioned. Secondly, rotor construction of different axial flux machines is described, then different stator constructions are mentioned depending upon the presence of slots and stator back iron. Then according to the arrangement of the rotor stator structure the machines are classified into single, double and multi-stack arrangements. Advantages, disadvantages and applications of each type of rotor and stator are pointed out. Finally on the basis of the reviewed literature merits, demerits, features and application of different axial flux machines structures are explained and clarified. Thus, this paper provides connection between the machines that are currently being used in industry and the developments of AFPM throughout the years.

Keywords: axial flux machines, axial flux applications, coreless machines, PM machines

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21643 Analysis of Flux-Linkage Performance of DFIG by Using Simulink under Different Types of Faults and Locations

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa Mahmoud Sedky

Abstract:

The double-fed induction generator wind turbine has recently received a great attention. The steady state performance and response of double fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine are now well understood. This paper presents the analysis of stator and rotor flux linkage dq models operation of DFIG under different faults and at different locations.

Keywords: double fed induction motor, wind energy, flux linkage, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
21642 Measurement and Simulation of Axial Neutron Flux Distribution in Dry Tube of KAMINI Reactor

Authors: Manish Chand, Subhrojit Bagchi, R. Kumar

Abstract:

A new dry tube (DT) has been installed in the tank of KAMINI research reactor, Kalpakkam India. This tube will be used for neutron activation analysis of small to large samples and testing of neutron detectors. DT tube is 375 cm height and 7.5 cm in diameter, located 35 cm away from the core centre. The experimental thermal flux at various axial positions inside the tube has been measured by irradiating the flux monitor (¹⁹⁷Au) at 20kW reactor power. The measured activity of ¹⁹⁸Au and the thermal cross section of ¹⁹⁷Au (n,γ) ¹⁹⁸Au reaction were used for experimental thermal flux measurement. The flux inside the tube varies from 10⁹ to 10¹⁰ and maximum flux was (1.02 ± 0.023) x10¹⁰ n cm⁻²s⁻¹ at 36 cm from the bottom of the tube. The Au and Zr foils without and with cadmium cover of 1-mm thickness were irradiated at the maximum flux position in the DT to find out the irradiation specific input parameters like sub-cadmium to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and the epithermal neutron flux shape factor (α). The f value was 143 ± 5, indicates about 99.3% thermal neutron component and α value was -0.2886 ± 0.0125, indicates hard epithermal neutron spectrum due to insufficient moderation. The measured flux profile has been validated using theoretical model of KAMINI reactor through Monte Carlo N-Particle Code (MCNP). In MCNP, the complex geometry of the entire reactor is modelled in 3D, ensuring minimum approximations for all the components. Continuous energy cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.1 as well as S (α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions are considered. The neutron flux has been estimated at the corresponding axial locations of the DT using mesh tally. The thermal flux obtained from the experiment shows good agreement with the theoretically predicted values by MCNP, it was within ± 10%. It can be concluded that this MCNP model can be utilized for calculating other important parameters like neutron spectra, dose rate, etc. and multi elemental analysis can be carried out by irradiating the sample at maximum flux position using measured f and α parameters by k₀-NAA standardization.

Keywords: neutron flux, neutron activation analysis, neutron flux shape factor, MCNP, Monte Carlo N-Particle Code

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21641 Evaluating the Potential of a Fast Growing Indian Marine Cyanobacterium by Reconstructing and Analysis of a Genome Scale Metabolic Model

Authors: Ruchi Pathania, Ahmad Ahmad, Shireesh Srivastava

Abstract:

Cyanobacteria is a promising microbe that can capture and convert atmospheric CO₂ and light into valuable industrial bio-products like biofuels, biodegradable plastics, etc. Among their most attractive traits are faster autotrophic growth, whole year cultivation using non-arable land, high photosynthetic activity, much greater biomass and productivity and easy for genetic manipulations. Cyanobacteria store carbon in the form of glycogen which can be hydrolyzed to release glucose and fermented to form bioethanol or other valuable products. Marine cyanobacterial species are especially attractive for countries with scarcity of freshwater. We recently identified a marine native cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. BDU 130192 which has good growth rate and high level of polyglucans accumulation compared to Synechococcus PCC 7002. In this study, firstly we sequenced the whole genome and the sequences were annotated using the RAST server. Genome scale metabolic model (GSMM) was reconstructed through COBRA toolbox. GSMM is a computational representation of the metabolic reactions and metabolites of the target strain. GSMMs construction through the application of Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), which uses external nutrient uptake rates and estimate steady state intracellular and extracellular reaction fluxes, including maximization of cell growth. The model, which we have named isyn942, includes 942 reactions and 913 metabolites having 831 metabolic, 78 transport and 33 exchange reactions. The phylogenetic tree obtained by BLAST search revealed that the strain was a close relative of Synechococcus PCC 7002. The flux balance analysis (FBA) was applied on the model iSyn942 to predict the theoretical yields (mol product produced/mol CO₂ consumed) for native and non-native products like acetone, butanol, etc. under phototrophic condition by applying metabolic engineering strategies. The reported strain can be a viable strain for biotechnological applications, and the model will be helpful to researchers interested in understanding the metabolism as well as to design metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of various bioproducts.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, flux balance analysis, genome scale metabolic model, metabolic engineering

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21640 Relationship between Body Composition and Balance in Young Adults

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Overweight and obesity has been associated with postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and balance. One hundred and thirty two young adults (58 male, 74 female) were included in the study. Mean age of participants were found as 21.21±1.51 years. Body composition (body mass index, total body fat ratio, total body muscle ratio) and balance (right anterior, right postero-medial, right postero-lateral, left anterior, left postero-medial, left postero-lateral) were evaluated by Tanita BC-418 and Y balance test, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the parameters. Significance level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. According to results, no correlation was found between body mass index and balance parameters. There was negative correlation between total body fat ratio and balance parameters (r=0.419-0.509, p˂0.05). On the other hand, positive correlation was found between total body muscle ratio and balance parameters (r=0.390-0.494, p˂0.05). This study demonstrated that body fat and muscle ratio affects the balance. Body composition should be considered in rehabilitation programs including postural balance training.

Keywords: balance, body composition, body mass, young adults

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21639 The Influence of Different Flux Patterns on Magnetic Losses in Electric Machine Cores

Authors: Natheer Alatawneh

Abstract:

The finite element analysis of magnetic fields in electromagnetic devices shows that the machine cores experience different flux patterns including alternating and rotating fields. The rotating fields are generated in different configurations range between circular and elliptical with different ratios between the major and minor axis of the flux locus. Experimental measurements on electrical steel exposed to different flux patterns disclose different magnetic losses in the samples under test. Consequently, electric machines require special attention during the cores loss calculation process to consider the flux patterns. In this study, a circular rotational single sheet tester is employed to measure the core losses in electric steel sample of M36G29. The sample was exposed to alternating field, circular field, and elliptical fields with axis ratios of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The measured data was implemented on 6-4 switched reluctance motor at three different frequencies of interest to the industry as 60 Hz, 400 Hz, and 1 kHz. The results disclose a high margin of error that may occur during the loss calculations if the flux patterns issue is neglected. The error in different parts of the machine associated with considering the flux patterns can be around 50%, 10%, and 2% at 60Hz, 400Hz, and 1 kHz, respectively. The future work will focus on the optimization of machine geometrical shape which has a primary effect on the flux pattern in order to minimize the magnetic losses in machine cores.

Keywords: alternating core losses, electric machines, finite element analysis, rotational core losses

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21638 Assessment of the Energy Balance Method in the Case of Masonry Domes

Authors: M. M. Sadeghi, S. Vahdani

Abstract:

Masonry dome structures had been widely used for covering large spans in the past. The seismic assessment of these historical structures is very complicated due to the nonlinear behavior of the material, their rigidness, and special stability configuration. The assessment method based on energy balance concept, as well as the standard pushover analysis, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in the case of masonry dome structures. The Soltanieh dome building is used as an example to which two methods are applied. The performance points are given from superimposing the capacity, and demand curves in Acceleration Displacement Response Spectra (ADRS) and energy coordination are compared with the nonlinear time history analysis as the exact result. The results show a good agreement between the dynamic analysis and the energy balance method, but standard pushover method does not provide an acceptable estimation.

Keywords: energy balance method, pushover analysis, time history analysis, masonry dome

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
21637 Effect of Zinc Oxide on Characteristics of Active Flux TIG Welds of 1050 Aluminum Plates

Authors: H. Fazlinejad, A. Halvaee

Abstract:

In this study, characteristics of ATIG welds using ZnO flux on aluminum was investigated and compared with TIG welds. Autogenously AC-ATIG bead on plate welding was applied on Al1050 plate with a coating of ZnO as the flux. Different levels of welding current and flux layer thickness was considered to study the effect of heat input and flux quantity on ATIG welds and was compared with those of TIG welds. Geometrical investigation of the weld cross sections revealed that penetration depth of the ATIG welds with ZnO flux, was increased up to 2 times in some samples compared to the TIG welds. Optical metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations revealed similar microstructures in TIG and ATIG welds. Composition of the ATIG welds slag was also analyzed using X-ray diffraction. In both TIG and ATIG samples, the lowest values of microhardness were observed in the HAZ.

Keywords: ATIG, active flux, weld penetration, Al 1050, ZnO

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21636 Finite Element Analysis of High Performance Synchronous Reluctance Machines

Authors: T. Mohanarajah, J. Rizk, M. Nagrial, A. Hellany

Abstract:

This paper analyses numerous features of the synchronous Reluctance Motor (Syn-RM) and propose a rotor for high electrical torque, power factor & efficiency using Finite Element Method (FEM). A comprehensive analysis completed on solid rotor structure while the total thickness of the flux guide kept constant. A number of tests carried out for nine different studies to find out optimum location of the flux guide, the optimum location of multiple flux guides & optimum wall thickness between flux guides for high-performance reluctance machines. The results are concluded with the aid of FEM simulation results, the saliency ratio and machine characteristics (location, a number of barriers & wall width) analysed.

Keywords: electrical machines, finite element method, synchronous reluctance machines, variable reluctance machines

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21635 Optimizing Cell Culture Performance in an Ambr15 Microbioreactor Using Dynamic Flux Balance and Computational Fluid Dynamic Modelling

Authors: William Kelly, Sorelle Veigne, Xianhua Li, Zuyi Huang, Shyamsundar Subramanian, Eugene Schaefer

Abstract:

The ambr15™ bioreactor is a single-use microbioreactor for cell line development and process optimization. The ambr system offers fully automatic liquid handling with the possibility of fed-batch operation and automatic control of pH and oxygen delivery. With operating conditions for large scale biopharmaceutical production properly scaled down, micro bioreactors such as the ambr15™ can potentially be used to predict the effect of process changes such as modified media or different cell lines. In this study, gassing rates and dilution rates were varied for a semi-continuous cell culture system in the ambr15™ bioreactor. The corresponding changes to metabolite production and consumption, as well as cell growth rate and therapeutic protein production were measured. Conditions were identified in the ambr15™ bioreactor that produced metabolic shifts and specific metabolic and protein production rates also seen in the corresponding larger (5 liter) scale perfusion process. A Dynamic Flux Balance model was employed to understand and predict the metabolic changes observed. The DFB model-predicted trends observed experimentally, including lower specific glucose consumption when CO₂ was maintained at higher levels (i.e. 100 mm Hg) in the broth. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model of the ambr15™ was also developed, to understand transfer of O₂ and CO₂ to the liquid. This CFD model predicted gas-liquid flow in the bioreactor using the ANSYS software. The two-phase flow equations were solved via an Eulerian method, with population balance equations tracking the size of the gas bubbles resulting from breakage and coalescence. Reasonable results were obtained in that the Carbon Dioxide mass transfer coefficient (kLa) and the air hold up increased with higher gas flow rate. Volume-averaged kLa values at 500 RPM increased as the gas flow rate was doubled and matched experimentally determined values. These results form a solid basis for optimizing the ambr15™, using both CFD and FBA modelling approaches together, for use in microscale simulations of larger scale cell culture processes.

Keywords: cell culture, computational fluid dynamics, dynamic flux balance analysis, microbioreactor

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21634 Enrichment and Flux of Heavy Metals along the Coastal Sediments of Pakistan

Authors: Asmat Siddiqui, Noor Us Saher

Abstract:

Heavy metal contamination in the marine environment is a global issue, and in past decades, this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization, especially in developing countries. Marine sediments act as a preliminary indicator of heavy metal contamination in the coastal and estuarine environment, which has adverse effects on biota as well as in the marine system. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contamination status, enrichment, and flux of heavy metals in two monitoring years from coastal sediments of Pakistan. A total of 74 sediment samples were collected from seven coastal areas of Pakistan in two monitoring years, 2001-03 (MY-I) and 2011-13 (MY-II). The geochemical properties (grain size analysis, organic contents and eight heavy metals, i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd) of all sediment samples were analyzed. A significant increase in Fe, Ni and Cr concentrations detected between the years, whereas no significant differences were exhibited in Cu, Zn, Co, Pb and Cd concentrations. The extremely high enrichment (>50) of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were scrutinized in both monitoring years. The annual deposition flux of heavy metals ranged from 0.63 to 66.44 and 0.78 to 68.27 tons per year in MY-I and MY-II, respectively, with the lowest flux evaluated for Cd and highest for Zn in both monitoring years. A significant increase (p <0.05) was observed in the burial flux of Cr and Ni during the last decade in coastal sediments. The use of geo-indicators is helpful to assess the contamination analysis for management and conservation of the marine environment.

Keywords: coastal contamination, enrichment factor, geo-indicator, heavy metal flux

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21633 Flux-Linkage Performance of DFIG Under Different Types of Faults and Locations

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa Mahmoud Sedky

Abstract:

The double-fed induction generator wind turbine has recently received a great attention. The steady state performance and response of double fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine are now well understood. This paper presents the analysis of stator and rotor flux linkage dq models operation of DFIG under different faults and at different locations.

Keywords: double fed induction motor, wind energy, flux linkage, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
21632 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi

Abstract:

It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

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21631 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed

Abstract:

The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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21630 Optimization of a Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machine Using Laminated Segmented Rotor

Authors: Seyedmilad Kazemisangdehi, Seyedmehdi Kazemisangdehi

Abstract:

Flux switching permanent magnet machines are considered for wide range of applications because of their outstanding merits including high torque/power densities, high efficiency, simple and robust rotor structure. Therefore, several topologies have been proposed like the PM exited flux switching machine, hybrid excited flux switching type, and so on. Recently, a novel laminated segmented rotor flux switching permanent magnet machine was introduced. It features flux barriers on rotor structure to enhance the performances of machine including torque ripple reduction and also torque and efficiency improvements at the same time. This is while, the design of barriers was not optimized by the authors. Therefore, in this paper three coefficients regarding the position of the barriers are considered for optimization. The effect of each coefficient on the performance of this machine is investigated by finite element method and finally an optimized design of flux barriers based on these three coefficients is proposed from different points of view including electromagnetic torque maximization and cogging torque/torque ripple minimization. At optimum design from maximum developed torque aspect, this machine generates 0.65 Nm torque higher than that of the not-optimized design with an almost 0.4 % improvement in efficiency.

Keywords: finite element analysis, FSPM, laminated segmented rotor flux switching permanent magnet machine, optimization

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21629 A Study on Analysis of Magnetic Field in Induction Generator for Small Francis Turbine Generator

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Han-Sang Jeong, Yeon-Ho Ok, Jae-Ho Choi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to verify validity of design by testing output of induction generator through finite element analysis before manufacture of induction generator designed. Characteristics in the operating domain of induction generator can be understood through analysis of magnetic field according to load (rotational speed) of induction generator. Characteristics of induction generator such as induced voltage, current, torque, magnetic flux density (magnetic flux saturation), and loss can be predicted by analysis of magnetic field.

Keywords: electromagnetic analysis, induction generator, small hydro power generator, small francis turbine generator

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21628 Developing the Methods for the Study of Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, J. Ezarrugh, M. Agila

Abstract:

Static and dynamic balance are essential in daily and sports life. Many factors have been identified as influencing static balance control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the (XCoM) method and other relevant variables (CoP, CoM, Fh, KE, P, Q, and, AI) to investigate sport related activities such as hopping and jumping. Many studies have represented the CoP data without mentioning its accuracy, so several experiments were done to establish the agreement between the CoP and the projected CoM in a static condition. Five male healthy (Mean ± SD:- age 24.6 years ±4.5, height 177 cm ± 6.3, body mass 72.8 kg ± 6.6) participated in this study. Results found that The implementation of the XCoM method was found to be practical for evaluating both static and dynamic balance. The general findings were that the CoP, the CoM, the XCoM, Fh, and Q were more informative than the other variables (e.g. KE, P, and AI) during static and dynamic balance. The XCoM method was found to be applicable to dynamic balance as well as static balance.

Keywords: centre of mass, static balance, dynamic balance, extrapolated centre of mass

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21627 Static Balance in the Elderly: Comparison Between Elderly Performing Physical Activity and Fine Motor Coordination Activity

Authors: Andreia Guimaraes Farnese, Mateus Fernandes Reu Urban, Leandro Procopio, Renato Zangaro, Regiane Albertini

Abstract:

Senescence changes include postural balance, inferring the risk of falls, and can lead to fractures, bedridden, and the risk of death. Physical activity, e.g., cardiovascular exercises, is notable for improving balance due to brain cell stimulations, but fine coordination exercises also elevate cell brain metabolism. This study aimed to verify whether the elderly person who performs fine motor activity has a balance similar to that of those who practice physical activity. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the activity practice: control group (CG) with seven participants for the sedentary individuals, motor coordination group (MCG) with six participants, and activity practitioner group (PAG) with eight participants. Data comparisons were from the Berg balance scale, Time up and Go test, and stabilometric analysis. Descriptive statistical and ANOVA analyses were performed for data analysis. The results reveal that including fine motor activities can improve the balance of the elderly and indirectly decrease the risk of falls.

Keywords: balance, barapodometer, coordination, elderly

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21626 Research on Placement Method of the Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensor Based on Online Detection of the Transformer Winding Deformation

Authors: Wei Zheng, Mao Ji, Zhe Hou, Meng Huang, Bo Qi

Abstract:

The transformer is the key equipment of the power system. Winding deformation is one of the main transformer defects, and timely and effective detection of the transformer winding deformation can ensure the safe and stable operation of the transformer to the maximum extent. When winding deformation occurs, the size, shape and spatial position of the winding will change, which directly leads to the change of magnetic flux leakage distribution. Therefore, it is promising to study the online detection method of the transformer winding deformation based on magnetic flux leakage characteristics, in which the key step is to study the optimal placement method of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer. In this paper, a simulation model of the transformer winding deformation is established to obtain the internal magnetic flux leakage distribution of the transformer under normal operation and different winding deformation conditions, and the law of change of magnetic flux leakage distribution due to winding deformation is analyzed. The results show that different winding deformation leads to different characteristics of the magnetic flux leakage distribution. On this basis, an optimized placement of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer is proposed to provide a basis for the online detection method of transformer winding deformation based on the magnetic flux leakage characteristics.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage, sensor placement method, transformer, winding deformation

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21625 Comparative Analysis of DTC Based Switched Reluctance Motor Drive Using Torque Equation and FEA Models

Authors: P. Srinivas, P. V. N. Prasad

Abstract:

Since torque ripple is the main cause of noise and vibrations, the performance of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) can be improved by minimizing its torque ripple using a novel control technique called Direct Torque Control (DTC). In DTC technique, torque is controlled directly through control of magnitude of the flux and change in speed of the stator flux vector. The flux and torque are maintained within set hysteresis bands. The DTC of SRM is analysed by two methods. In one of the methods, the actual torque is computed by conducting Finite Element Analysis (FEA) on the design specifications of the motor. In the other method, the torque is computed by Simplified Torque Equation. The variation of peak current, average current, torque ripple and speed settling time with Simplified Torque Equation model is compared with FEA based model.

Keywords: direct toque control, simplified torque equation, finite element analysis, torque ripple

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21624 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: end effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor

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21623 Study of the Effect of Inclusion of TiO2 in Active Flux on Submerged Arc Welding of Low Carbon Mild Steel Plate and Parametric Optimization of the Process by Using DEA Based Bat Algorithm

Authors: Sheetal Kumar Parwar, J. Deb Barma, A. Majumder

Abstract:

Submerged arc welding is a very complex process. It is a very efficient and high performance welding process. In this present study an attempt have been done to reduce the welding distortion by increased amount of oxide flux through TiO2 in submerged arc welding process. Care has been taken to avoid the excessiveness of the adding agent for attainment of significant results. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based BAT algorithm is used for the parametric optimization purpose in which DEA Data Envelopment Analysis is used to convert multi response parameters into a single response parameter. The present study also helps to know the effectiveness of the addition of TiO2 in active flux during submerged arc welding process.

Keywords: BAT algorithm, design of experiment, optimization, submerged arc welding

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21622 The Influence of Using Soft Knee Pads on Static and Dynamic Balance among Male Athletes and Non-Athletes

Authors: Yaser Kazemzadeh, Keyvan Molanoruzy, Mojtaba Izady

Abstract:

The balance is the key component of motor skills to maintain postural control and the execution of complex skills. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of soft knee pads on static and dynamic balance of male athletes. For this aim, thirty young athletes in different sport fields with 3 years professional sport training background and thirty healthy young men nonathletic (age: 24.5 ± 2.9, 24.3 ± 2.4, weight: 77.2 ± 4.3 and 80/9 ± 6/3 and height: 175 ± 2/84, 172 ± 5/44 respectively) as subjects selected. Then, subjects in two manner (without knee and with soft knee pads made of neoprene) execute standard error test (BESS) to assess static balance and star test to assess dynamic balance. For analyze of data, t-tests and one-way ANOVA were significant 05/0 ≥ α statistical analysis. The results showed that the use of soft knee significantly reduced error rate in static balance test (p ≥ 0/05). Also, use a soft knee pads decreased score of athlete group and increased score of nonathletic group in star test (p ≥ 0/05). These findings, indicates that use of knees affects static and dynamic balance in athletes and nonathletic in different manner and may increased athletic performance in sports that rely on static balance and decreased performance in sports that rely on dynamic balance.

Keywords: static balance, dynamic balance, soft knee, athletic men, non athletic men

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21621 Efficient Estimation of Maximum Theoretical Productivity from Batch Cultures via Dynamic Optimization of Flux Balance Models

Authors: Peter C. St. John, Michael F. Crowley, Yannick J. Bomble

Abstract:

Production of chemicals from engineered organisms in a batch culture typically involves a trade-off between productivity, yield, and titer. However, strategies for strain design typically involve designing mutations to achieve the highest yield possible while maintaining growth viability. Such approaches tend to follow the principle of designing static networks with minimum metabolic functionality to achieve desired yields. While these methods are computationally tractable, optimum productivity is likely achieved by a dynamic strategy, in which intracellular fluxes change their distribution over time. One can use multi-stage fermentations to increase either productivity or yield. Such strategies would range from simple manipulations (aerobic growth phase, anaerobic production phase), to more complex genetic toggle switches. Additionally, some computational methods can also be developed to aid in optimizing two-stage fermentation systems. One can assume an initial control strategy (i.e., a single reaction target) in maximizing productivity - but it is unclear how close this productivity would come to a global optimum. The calculation of maximum theoretical yield in metabolic engineering can help guide strain and pathway selection for static strain design efforts. Here, we present a method for the calculation of a maximum theoretical productivity of a batch culture system. This method follows the traditional assumptions of dynamic flux balance analysis: that internal metabolite fluxes are governed by a pseudo-steady state and external metabolite fluxes are represented by dynamic system including Michealis-Menten or hill-type regulation. The productivity optimization is achieved via dynamic programming, and accounts explicitly for an arbitrary number of fermentation stages and flux variable changes. We have applied our method to succinate production in two common microbial hosts: E. coli and A. succinogenes. The method can be further extended to calculate the complete productivity versus yield Pareto surface. Our results demonstrate that nearly optimal yields and productivities can indeed be achieved with only two discrete flux stages.

Keywords: A. succinogenes, E. coli, metabolic engineering, metabolite fluxes, multi-stage fermentations, succinate

Procedia PDF Downloads 110