Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 129

Search results for: droplet

129 Geometrical Based Unequal Droplet Splitting Using Microfluidic Y-Junction

Authors: Bahram Talebjedi, Amirmohammad Sattari, Ahmed Zoher Sihorwala, Mina Hoorfar

Abstract:

Among different droplet manipulations, controlled droplet-splitting is of great significance due to its ability to increase throughput and operational capability. Furthermore, unequal droplet-splitting can provide greater flexibility and a wider range of dilution factors. In this study, we developed two-dimensional, time-dependent complex fluid dynamics simulations to model droplet formation in a flow focusing device, followed by splitting in a Y-shaped junction with sub-channels of unequal widths. From the results obtained from the numerical study, we correlated the diameters of the droplets in the sub-channels to the Weber number, thereby demarcating the droplet splitting and non-splitting regimes.

Keywords: microfluidics, unequal droplet splitting, two phase flow, flow focusing device

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
128 Combustion Analysis of Suspended Sodium Droplet

Authors: T. Watanabe

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Combustion analysis of suspended sodium droplet is performed by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equations. The combustion model consists of the pre-ignition and post-ignition models. The reaction rate for the pre-ignition model is based on the chemical kinetics, while that for the post-ignition model is based on the mass transfer rate of oxygen. The calculated droplet temperature is shown to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The temperature field in and around the droplet is obtained as well as the droplet shape variation, and the present numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the combustion analysis.

Keywords: analysis, combustion, droplet, sodium

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
127 Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in Horizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow

Authors: Joshua Kim Schimpf, Kyun Doo Kim, Jaseok Heo

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In this study, the droplet behavior of under horizontal stratified flow regime for air and water flow in horizontal pipe experiments from a 0.24 m, 0.095 m, and 0.0486 m size diameter pipe are examined. The effects of gravity, pipe diameter, and turbulent diffusion on droplet deposition are considered. Models for droplet entrainment and deposition are proposed that considers developing length. Validation for experimental data dedicated from the REGARD, CEA and Williams, University of Illinois, experiment were performed using SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants).

Keywords: droplet, entrainment, deposition, horizontal

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
126 The Droplet Generation and Flow in the T-Shape Microchannel with the Side Wall Fluctuation

Authors: Yan Pang, Xiang Wang, Zhaomiao Liu

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Droplet microfluidics, in which nanoliter to picoliter droplets acted as individual compartments, are common to a diverse array of applications such as analytical chemistry, tissue engineering, microbiology and drug discovery. The droplet generation in a simplified two dimension T-shape microchannel with the main channel width of 50 μm and the side channel width of 25 μm, is simulated to investigate effects of the forced fluctuation of the side wall on the droplet generation and flow. The periodic fluctuations are applied on a length of the side wall in the main channel of the T-junction with the deformation shape of the double-clamped beam acted by the uniform force, which varies with the flow time and fluctuation periods, forms and positions. The fluctuations under most of the conditions expand the distribution range of the droplet size but have a little effect on the average size, while the shape of the fixed side wall changes the average droplet size chiefly. Droplet sizes show a periodic pattern along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the side wall near the T-junction. The droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation of the side wall under the same flow rate and geometry conditions. When the fluctuation period is similar with the droplet emerging period, the droplet size shows a nice stability as the no fluctuation case.

Keywords: droplet generation, droplet size, flow flied, forced fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
125 Comparing the Motion of Solar System with Water Droplet Motion to Predict the Future of Solar System

Authors: Areena Bhatti

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The geometric arrangement of planet and moon is the result of a self-organizing system. In our solar system, the planets and moons are constantly orbiting around the sun. The aim of this theory is to compare the motion of a solar system with the motion of water droplet when poured into a water body. The basic methodology is to compare both motions to know how they are related to each other. The difference between both systems will be that one is extremely fast, and the other is extremely slow. The role of this theory is that by looking at the fast system we can conclude how slow the system will get to an end. Just like ripples are formed around water droplet that move away from the droplet and water droplet forming those ripples become small in size will tell us how solar system will behave in the same way. So it is concluded that large and small systems can work under the same process but with different motions of time, and motion of the solar system is the slowest form of water droplet motion.

Keywords: motion, water, sun, time

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
124 An Experimental Study to Control Single Droplet by Actuating Waveform with Preliminary and Suppressing Vibration

Authors: Oke Oktavianty, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi

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For advancing the experiment system standard of Inkjet printer that is being developed, the actual natural period, fire limitation number in droplet weight measurement and observation distance in droplet velocity measurement was investigated. In another side, the study to control the droplet volume in inkjet printer with negative actuating waveform method is still limited. Therefore, the effect of negative waveform with preliminary and suppressing vibration addition on the droplet formation process, droplet shape, volume and velocity were evaluated. The different voltage and print-head temperature were exerted to obtain the optimum preliminary and suppressing vibration. The mechanism of different phenomenon from each waveform was also discussed.

Keywords: inkjet printer, DoD, waveform, preliminary and suppressing vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
123 Observation of the Flow Behavior for a Rising Droplet in a Mini-Slot

Authors: H. Soltani, J. Hadfield, M. Redmond, D. S. Nobes

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The passage of oil droplets through a vertical mini-slot were investigated in this study. Oil-in-water emulsion can undergo coalescence of finer oil droplets forming droplets of a size that need to be considered individually. This occurs in a number of industrial processes and has important consequences at a scale where both body and surfaces forces are relevant. In the study, two droplet diameters of smaller than the slot width and a relatively larger diameter where the oil droplet can interact directly with the slot wall were generated. To monitor fluid motion, a particle shadow velocimetry (PSV) imaging technique was used to study fluid flow motion inside and around a single oil droplet rising in a net co-flow. The droplet was a transparent canola oil and the surrounding working fluid was glycerol, adjusted to allow a matching of refractive index between the two fluids. Particles seeded in both fluids were observed with the PSV system allowing the capture of the velocity field both within the droplet and in the surrounds. The effect of droplet size on the droplet internal circulation was observed. Part of the study was related the potential generation of flow structures, such as von Karman vortex shedding already observed in rising droplets in infinite reservoirs and their interaction with the mini-channel. Results show that two counter-rotating vortices exist inside the droplets as they pass through slot. The vorticity map analysis shows that the droplet of relatively larger size has a stronger internal circulation.

Keywords: rising droplet, rectangular orifice, particle shadow velocimetry, match refractive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
122 Dynamical Characteristics of Interaction between Water Droplet and Aerosol Particle in Dedusting Technology

Authors: Ding Jue, Li Jiahua, Lei Zhidi, Weng Peifen, Li Xiaowei

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With the rapid development of national modern industry, people begin to pay attention to environmental pollution and harm caused by industrial dust. Based on above, a numerical study on the dedusting technology of industrial environment was conducted. The dynamic models of multicomponent particles collision and coagulation, breakage and deposition are developed, and the interaction of water droplet and aerosol particle in 2-Dimension flow field was researched by Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Multi-Monte Carlo method. The effects of the droplet scale, movement speed of droplet and the flow field structure on scavenging efficiency were analyzed. The results show that under the certain condition, 30μm of droplet has the best scavenging efficiency. At the initial speed 1m/s of droplets, droplets and aerosol particles have more time to interact, so it has a better scavenging efficiency for the particle.

Keywords: water droplet, aerosol particle, collision and coagulation, multi-monte carlo method

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
121 Theoretical Prediction on the Lifetime of Sessile Evaporating Droplet in Blade Cooling

Authors: Yang Shen, Yongpan Cheng, Jinliang Xu

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The effective blade cooling is of great significance for improving the performance of turbine. The mist cooling emerges as the promising way compared with the transitional single-phase cooling. In the mist cooling, the injected droplet will evaporate rapidly, and cool down the blade surface due to the absorbed latent heat, hence the lifetime for evaporating droplet becomes critical for design of cooling passages for the blade. So far there have been extensive studies on the droplet evaporation, but usually the isothermal model is applied for most of the studies. Actually the surface cooling effect can affect the droplet evaporation greatly, it can prolong the droplet evaporation lifetime significantly. In our study, a new theoretical model for sessile droplet evaporation with surface cooling effect is built up in toroidal coordinate. Three evaporation modes are analyzed during the evaporation lifetime, include “Constant Contact Radius”(CCR) mode、“Constant Contact Angle”(CCA) mode and “stick-slip”(SS) mode. The dimensionless number E0 is introduced to indicate the strength of the evaporative cooling, it is defined based on the thermal properties of the liquid and the atmosphere. Our model can predict accurately the lifetime of evaporation by validating with available experimental data. Then the temporal variation of droplet volume, contact angle and contact radius are presented under CCR, CCA and SS mode, the following conclusions are obtained. 1) The larger the dimensionless number E0, the longer the lifetime of three evaporation cases is; 2) The droplet volume over time still follows “2/3 power law” in the CCA mode, as in the isothermal model without the cooling effect; 3) In the “SS” mode, the large transition contact angle can reduce the evaporation time in CCR mode, and increase the time in CCA mode, the overall lifetime will be increased; 4) The correction factor for predicting instantaneous volume of the droplet is derived to predict the droplet life time accurately. These findings may be of great significance to explore the dynamics and heat transfer of sessile droplet evaporation.

Keywords: blade cooling, droplet evaporation, lifetime, theoretical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
120 An Experimental Investigation on the Droplet Behavior Impacting a Hot Surface above the Leidenfrost Temperature

Authors: Khaleel Sami Hamdan, Dong-Eok Kim, Sang-Ki Moon

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An appropriate model to predict the size of the droplets resulting from the break-up with the structures will help in a better understanding and modeling of the two-phase flow calculations in the simulation of a reactor core loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A droplet behavior impacting on a hot surface above the Leidenfrost temperature was investigated. Droplets of known size and velocity were impacted to an inclined plate of hot temperature, and the behavior of the droplets was observed by a high-speed camera. It was found that for droplets of Weber number higher than a certain value, the higher the Weber number of the droplet the smaller the secondary droplets. The COBRA-TF model over-predicted the measured secondary droplet sizes obtained by the present experiment. A simple model for the secondary droplet size was proposed using the mass conservation equation. The maximum spreading diameter of the droplets was also compared to previous correlations and a fairly good agreement was found. A better prediction of the heat transfer in the case of LOCA can be obtained with the presented model.

Keywords: break-up, droplet, impact, inclined hot plate, Leidenfrost temperature, LOCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
119 Droplet Impact on a High Frequency Vibrating Surface

Authors: Maryam Ebrahimiazar, Parsia Mohammadshahi, Amirreza Amighi, Nasser Ashgriz

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Ultrasonic atomization is used to generate micron size aerosols. In this work, the aerosol formation by the atomization of a parent droplet dripping from a capillary needle onto the surface of a Teflon coated piezoelectric vibrating at 2.5 MHz is studied, and different steps of atomization are categorized. After the droplet impacts on the piezoelectric, surface acoustic streaming deforms the droplet into a fountain shape. This fountain soon collapses and forms a liquid layer. The breakup of the liquid layer results in the generation of both large ( 100 microns) and small drops (few microns). Next, the residual drops from the liquid layer start to be atomized to generate few micron size droplets. The high velocity and explosive aerosol formation in this step are better explained in terms of cavitation theory. However, the combination of both capillary waves and cavitation theory seem to be responsible for few-micron droplet generation. The current study focuses on both qualitative and quantitative aspects of fountain formation for both ethyl-alcohol and water. Even though the general steps of atomization are the same for both liquids, the quantitative results indicate that some noticeable differences lie between them.

Keywords: droplet breakup, ultrasonic atomization, acoustic streaming, droplet oscillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
118 Experimental and Numerical Studies of Droplet Formation

Authors: Khaled Al-Badani, James Ren, Lisa Li, David Allanson

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Droplet formation is an important process in many engineering systems and manufacturing procedures, which includes welding, biotechnologies, 3D printing, biochemical, biomedical fields and many more. The volume and the characteristics of droplet formation are generally depended on various material properties, microfluidics and fluid mechanics considerations. Hence, a detailed investigation of this process, with the aid of numerical computational tools, are essential for future design optimization and process controls of many engineering systems. This will also improve the understanding of changes in the properties and the structures of materials, during the formation of the droplet, which is important for new material developments to achieve different functions, pending the requirements of the application. For example, the shape of the formed droplet is critical for the function of some final products, such as the welding nugget during Capacitor Discharge Welding process, or PLA 3D printing, etc. Although, most academic journals on droplet formation, focused on issued with material transfer rate, surface tension and residual stresses, the general emphasis on the characteristics of droplet shape has been overlooked. The proposed work for this project will examine theoretical methodologies, experimental techniques, and numerical modelling, using ANSYS FLUENT, to critically analyse and highlight optimization methods regarding the formation of pendant droplet. The project will also compare results from published data with experimental and numerical work, concerning the effects of key material parameters on the droplet shape. These effects include changes in heating/cooling rates, solidification/melting progression and separation/break-up times. From these tests, a set of objectives is prepared, with an intention of improving quality, stability and productivity in modelling metal welding and 3D printing.

Keywords: computer modelling, droplet formation, material distortion, materials forming, welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
117 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Vapour

Authors: P. Selyshchev

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The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: irradiation, steam, plasma, cluster formation, liquid droplets, evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
116 Water Droplet Impact on Vibrating Rigid Superhydrophobic Surfaces

Authors: Jingcheng Ma, Patricia B. Weisensee, Young H. Shin, Yujin Chang, Junjiao Tian, William P. King, Nenad Miljkovic

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Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in both nature and industry. The transfer of mass, momentum and energy can be influenced by the time of contact between droplet and surface. In order to reduce the contact time, we study the influence of substrate motion prior to impact on the dynamics of droplet recoil. Using optical high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics of macroscopic water droplets (~ 2mm) on rigid nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces vibrating at 60 – 300 Hz and amplitudes of 0 – 3 mm. In addition, we studied the influence of the phase of the substrate at the moment of impact on total contact time. We demonstrate that substrate vibration can alter droplet dynamics, and decrease total contact time by as much as 50% compared to impact on stationary rigid superhydrophobic surfaces. Impact analysis revealed that the vibration frequency mainly affected the maximum contact time, while the amplitude of vibration had little direct effect on the contact time. Through mathematical modeling, we show that the oscillation amplitude influences the possibility density function of droplet impact at a given phase, and thus indirectly influences the average contact time. We also observed more vigorous droplet splashing and breakup during impact at larger amplitudes. Through semi-empirical mathematical modeling, we describe the relationship between contact time and vibration frequency, phase, and amplitude of the substrate. We also show that the maximum acceleration during the impact process is better suited as a threshold parameter for the onset of splashing than a Weber-number criterion. This study not only provides new insights into droplet impact physics on vibrating surfaces, but develops guidelines for the rational design of surfaces to achieve controllable droplet wetting in applications utilizing vibration.

Keywords: contact time, impact dynamics, oscillation, pear-shape droplet

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
115 Modeling and Simulating Drop Interactions in Spray Structure of High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Muzaffar Ali

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Fuel direct injection represents one of the key aspects in the development of the diesel engines, the idea of controlling the auto-ignition and the consequent combustion of a liquid spray injected in a reacting atmosphere during a time scale of few milliseconds has been a challenging task for the engine community and pushed forward to a massive research in this field. The quality of the air-fuel mixture defines the combustion efficiency, and therefore the engine efficiency. A droplet interaction in dense as well as thin portion of the spray receives equal importance as other parameters in spray structure. Usually, these are modeled along with breakup process and analyzed alike. In this paper, droplet interaction is modeled and simulated for high torque low speed scenario. Droplet interactions may further be subdivided into droplet collision and coalescence, spray wall impingement, droplets drag, etc. Droplet collisions may occur in almost all spray applications, but especially in diesel like conditions such as high pressure sprays as utilized in combustion engines. These collisions have a strong influence on the mean droplet size and its spatial distribution and can, therefore, affect sub-processes of spray combustion such as mass, momentum and energy transfer between gas and droplets. Similarly, for high-pressure injection systems spray wall impingement is an inherent sub-process of mixture formation. However, its influence on combustion is in-explicit.

Keywords: droplet collision, coalescence, low speed, diesel fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
114 Dynamic Process of Single Water Droplet Impacting on a Hot Heptane Surface

Authors: Mingjun Xu, Shouxiang Lu

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Understanding the interaction mechanism between the water droplet and pool fire has an important significance in engineering application of water sprinkle/spray/mist fire suppression. The micro impact process is unclear when the droplet impacts on the burning liquid surface at present. To deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of pool fire suppression with water spray/mist, dynamic processes of single water droplet impinging onto a hot heptane surface are visualized with the aid of a high-speed digital camera at 2000 fps. Each test is repeated 20 times. The water droplet diameter is around 1.98 mm, and the impact Weber number ranges from 30 to 695. The heptane is heated by a hot plate to mimic the burning condition, and the temperature varies from 30 to 90°C. The results show that three typical phenomena, including penetration, crater-jet and surface bubble, are observed, and the pool temperature has a significant influence on the critical condition for the appearance of each phenomenon. A global picture of different phenomena is built according to impact Weber number and pool temperature. In addition, the pool temperature and Weber number have important influences on the characteristic parameters including maximum crater depth, crown height and liquid column height. For a fixed Weber number, the liquid column height increases with pool temperature.

Keywords: droplet impact, fire suppression, hot surface, water spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
113 A Semi-Implicit Phase Field Model for Droplet Evolution

Authors: M. H. Kazemi, D. Salac

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A semi-implicit phase field method for droplet evolution is proposed. Using the phase field Cahn-Hilliard equation, we are able to track the interface in multiphase flow. The idea of a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is reviewed and employed to solve two nonlinear equations, including the Navier-Stokes and the Cahn-Hilliard equations. The use of a semi-implicit method allows us to have larger time steps compared to explicit schemes. The governing equations are coupled and then solved by a GMRES solver (generalized minimal residual method) using modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. To show the validity of the method, we apply the method to the simulation of a rising droplet, a leaky dielectric drop and the coalescence of drops. The numerical solutions to the phase field model match well with existing solutions over a defined range of variables.

Keywords: coalescence, leaky dielectric, numerical method, phase field, rising droplet, semi-implicit method

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
112 Solid Angle Approach to Quantify the Shape of Daughter Cavity in Drying Nano Colloidal Sessile Droplets

Authors: Rishabh Hans, Saksham Sharma

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Drying of a sessile droplet imbibed with colloidal solution is a complex process in many aspects. Till now, most of the work revolves around; conditions for buckling onset, post-buckling effects, nature of change of droplet shape etc. In this work, we are determining the shape of daughter cavity (DC) formed during post-buckling onset, a less explored stage, and its relationship with experimental parameters. We have introduced solid angle as a special parameter that can quantify the shape of DC at any instant. It facilitates us to compare the shape while experimenting across different substrate types, droplet sizes and particle concentration. Furthermore, the angular location of ‘weak spot’ on the periphery of droplet, which marks the initiation of cavity growth, varies in different conditions. To solve this problem, we have evaluated the deflection angle of weak spots w.r.t. the vertical axis going through the middle of droplet. Subsequently, the solid angle subtended by DC is analyzed about that inclined axis. Finally, results of analysis allude that increasing colloidal concentration has inverse effect on the growth rate of cavity’s shape. Moreover, the cap radius of DC is observed lower for high PLR which makes the capillary pressure higher and thus tougher to expedite cavity formation relatively. This analysis can be helpful in further studies to relate the shape, deflection angle, growth rate of daughter cavity to the type of droplet crust formed in the end. Examining DC stage shall add another layer to nano-colloidal research which aims to influence many industrial applications like patterning, coatings, drug delivery, food processing etc.

Keywords: buckling of sessile droplets, daughter cavity, droplet evaporation, nanoporous shell formation, solid angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
111 Deformation of Particle-Laden Droplet in Viscous Liquid under DC Electric Fields

Authors: Khobaib Khobaib, Alexander Mikkelsen, Zbigniew Rozynek

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Electric fields have proven useful for inducing droplet deformation and to structure particles adsorbed at droplet interfaces. In this experimental research, direct current electric fields were applied to deform particle-covered droplets made out of silicone oil and immersed in castor oil. The viscosity of the drop and surrounding fluid were changed by external heating. We designed an experimental system in such a way that electric field-induced electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows were asymmetric and only present on one side of the drop, i.e., the droplet adjoined a washer and adhered to one of the electrodes constituting the sample cell. The study investigated the influence of viscosity on the steady-state deformation magnitude of particle-laden droplets, droplet compression, and relaxation, as well as particle arrangements at drop interfaces. Initially, before the application of an electric field, we changed the viscosity of the fluids by heating the sample cell at different temperatures. The viscosity of the fluids was varied by changing the temperature of the fluids from 25 to 50°C. Under the application of a uniform electric field of strength 290 Vmm⁻¹, electric stress was induced at the drop interface, yielding drop deformation. In our study, we found that by lowering the fluid viscosity, the velocity of the EHD flows was increased, which also increases the deformation of the drop.

Keywords: drop deformation and relaxation, electric field, electrohydrodynamic flow, particle assembly, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
110 Modelling of Aerosols in Absorption Column

Authors: Hammad Majeed, Hanna Knuutila, Magne Hillestad, Hallvard F. Svendsen

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Formation of aerosols can cause serious complications in industrial exhaust gas cleaning processes. Small mist droplets and fog formed can normally not be removed in conventional demisting equipment because their submicron size allows the particles or droplets to follow the gas flow. As a consequence of this, aerosol based emissions in the order of grams per Nm3 have been identified from PCCC plants. The model predicts the droplet size, the droplet internal variable profiles, and the mass transfer fluxes as function of position in the absorber. The Matlab model is based on a subclass method of weighted residuals for boundary value problems named, orthogonal collocation method. This paper presents results describing the basic simulation tool for the characterization of aerosols formed in CO2 absorption columns and describes how various entering droplets grow or shrink through an absorber and how their composition changes with respect to time. Below are given some preliminary simulation results for an aerosol droplet composition and temperature profiles.

Keywords: absorption columns, aerosol formation, amine emissions, internal droplet profiles, monoethanolamine (MEA), post combustion CO2 capture, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
109 Ultrafine Non Water Soluble Drug Particles

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, David Martin, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo

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Ultrafine hydrophobic and non-water-soluble drugs can increase the percentage of absorbed compared to their initial dosage. This paper provides a scalable new method of making ultrafine particles of substantially insoluble water compounds specifically, submicron particles of ethanol soluble and water insoluble pharmaceutical materials by steaming an ethanol droplet to prepare a suspension and then followed by immediate drying. This suspension is formed by adding evaporated water molecules as an anti-solvent to the solute of the samples and in early stage of precipitation continued to dry by evaporating both solvent and anti-solvent. This fine particle formation has produced fast dispersion powder in water. The new method is an extension of the antisolvent vapour precipitation technique which exposes a droplet to an antisolvent vapour with reference to the dissolved materials within the droplet. Ultrafine vitamin D3 and ibuprofen particles in the submicron ranges were produced. This work will form the basis for using spray dryers as high-throughput scalable micro-precipitators.

Keywords: single droplet drying, nano size particles, non-water-soluble drugs, precipitators

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
108 Determination of the Cooling Rate Dependency of High Entropy Alloys Using a High-Temperature Drop-on-Demand Droplet Generator

Authors: Saeedeh Imani Moqadam, Ilya Bobrov, Jérémy Epp, Nils Ellendt, Lutz Mädler

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High entropy alloys (HEAs), having adjustable properties and enhanced stability compared with intermetallic compounds, are solid solution alloys that contain more than five principal elements with almost equal atomic percentage. The concept of producing such alloys pave the way for developing advanced materials with unique properties. However, the synthesis of such alloys may require advanced processes with high cooling rates depending on which alloy elements are used. In this study, the micro spheres of different diameters of HEAs were generated via a drop-on-demand droplet generator and subsequently solidified during free-fall in an argon atmosphere. Such droplet generators can generate individual droplets with high reproducibility regarding droplet diameter, trajectory and cooling while avoiding any interparticle momentum or thermal coupling. Metallography as well as X-ray diffraction investigations for each diameter of the generated metallic droplets where then carried out to obtain information about the microstructural state. To calculate the cooling rate of the droplets, a droplet cooling model was developed and validated using model alloys such as CuSn%6 and AlCu%4.5 for which a correlation of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and cooling rate is well-known. Droplets were generated from these alloys and their SDAS was determined using quantitative metallography. The cooling rate was then determined from the SDAS and used to validate the cooling rates obtained from the droplet cooling model. The application of that model on the HEA then leads to the cooling rate dependency and hence to the identification of process windows for the synthesis of these alloys. These process windows were then compared with cooling rates obtained in processes such as powder production, spray forming, selective laser melting and casting to predict if a synthesis is possible with these processes.

Keywords: cooling rate, drop-on-demand, high entropy alloys, microstructure, single droplet generation, X-ray Diffractometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
107 Numerical Study of Homogeneous Nanodroplet Growth

Authors: S. B. Q. Tran

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Drop condensation is the phenomenon that the tiny drops form when the oversaturated vapour present in the environment condenses on a substrate and makes the droplet growth. Recently, this subject has received much attention due to its applications in many fields such as thin film growth, heat transfer, recovery of atmospheric water and polymer templating. In literature, many papers investigated theoretically and experimentally in macro droplet growth with the size of millimeter scale of radius. However few papers about nanodroplet condensation are found in the literature especially theoretical work. In order to understand the droplet growth in nanoscale, we perform the numerical simulation work to study nanodroplet growth. We investigate and discuss the role of the droplet shape and monomer diffusion on drop growth and their effect on growth law. The effect of droplet shape is studied by doing parametric studies of contact angle and disjoining pressure magnitude. Besides, the effect of pinning and de-pinning behaviours is also studied. We investigate the axisymmetric homogeneous growth of 10–100 nm single water nanodroplet on a substrate surface. The main mechanism of droplet growth is attributed to the accumulation of laterally diffusing water monomers, formed by the absorption of water vapour in the environment onto the substrate. Under assumptions of quasi-steady thermodynamic equilibrium, the nanodroplet evolves according to the augmented Young–Laplace equation. Using continuum theory, we model the dynamics of nanodroplet growth including the coupled effects of disjoining pressure, contact angle and monomer diffusion with the assumption of constant flux of water monomers at the far field. The simulation result is validated by comparing with the published experimental result. For the case of nanodroplet growth with constant contact angle, our numerical results show that the initial droplet growth is transient by monomer diffusion. When the flux at the far field is small, at the beginning, the droplet grows by the diffusion of initially available water monomers on the substrate and after that by the flux at the far field. In the steady late growth rate of droplet radius and droplet height follow a power law of 1/3, which is unaffected by the substrate disjoining pressure and contact angle. However, it is found that the droplet grows faster in radial direction than high direction when disjoining pressure and contact angle increase. The simulation also shows the information of computational domain effect in the transient growth period. When the computational domain size is larger, the mass coming in the free substrate domain is higher. So the mass coming in the droplet is also higher. The droplet grows and reaches the steady state faster. For the case of pinning and de-pinning droplet growth, the simulation shows that the disjoining pressure does not affect the droplet radius growth law 1/3 in steady state. However the disjoining pressure modifies the growth rate of the droplet height, which then follows a power law of 1/4. We demonstrate how spatial depletion of monomers could lead to a growth arrest of the nanodroplet, as observed experimentally.

Keywords: augmented young-laplace equation, contact angle, disjoining pressure, nanodroplet growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
106 Investigating the Motion of a Viscous Droplet in Natural Convection Using the Level Set Method

Authors: Isadora Bugarin, Taygoara F. de Oliveira

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Binary fluids and emulsions, in general, are present in a vast range of industrial, medical, and scientific applications, showing complex behaviors responsible for defining the flow dynamics and the system operation. However, the literature describing those highlighted fluids in non-isothermal models is currently still limited. The present work brings a detailed investigation on droplet migration due to natural convection in square enclosure, aiming to clarify the effects of drop viscosity on the flow dynamics by showing how distinct viscosity ratios (droplet/ambient fluid) influence the drop motion and the final movement pattern kept on stationary regimes. The analysis was taken by observing distinct combinations of Rayleigh number, drop initial position, and viscosity ratios. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations were solved considering the Boussinesq approximation in a laminar flow using the finite differences method combined with the Level Set method for binary flow solution. Previous results collected by the authors showed that the Rayleigh number and the drop initial position affect drastically the motion pattern of the droplet. For Ra ≥ 10⁴, two very marked behaviors were observed accordingly with the initial position: the drop can travel either a helical path towards the center or a cyclic circular path resulting in a closed cycle on the stationary regime. The variation of viscosity ratio showed a significant alteration of pattern, exposing a large influence on the droplet path, capable of modifying the flow’s behavior. Analyses on viscosity effects on the flow’s unsteady Nusselt number were also performed. Among the relevant contributions proposed in this work is the potential use of the flow initial conditions as a mechanism to control the droplet migration inside the enclosure.

Keywords: binary fluids, droplet motion, level set method, natural convection, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
105 Modelling of Heating and Evaporation of Biodiesel Fuel Droplets

Authors: Mansour Al Qubeissi, Sergei S. Sazhin, Cyril Crua, Morgan R. Heikal

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This paper presents the application of the Discrete Component Model for heating and evaporation to multi-component biodiesel fuel droplets in direct injection internal combustion engines. This model takes into account the effects of temperature gradient, recirculation and species diffusion inside droplets. A distinctive feature of the model used in the analysis is that it is based on the analytical solutions to the temperature and species diffusion equations inside the droplets. Nineteen types of biodiesel fuels are considered. It is shown that a simplistic model, based on the approximation of biodiesel fuel by a single component or ignoring the diffusion of components of biodiesel fuel, leads to noticeable errors in predicted droplet evaporation time and time evolution of droplet surface temperature and radius.

Keywords: heat/mass transfer, biodiesel, multi-component fuel, droplet

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
104 The Dynamics of a Droplet Spreading on a Steel Surface

Authors: Evgeniya Orlova, Dmitriy Feoktistov, Geniy Kuznetsov

Abstract:

Spreading of a droplet over a solid substrate is a key phenomenon observed in the following engineering applications: thin film coating, oil extraction, inkjet printing, and spray cooling of heated surfaces. Droplet cooling systems are known to be more effective than film or rivulet cooling systems. It is caused by the greater evaporation surface area of droplets compared with the film of the same mass and wetting surface. And the greater surface area of droplets is connected with the curvature of the interface. Location of the droplets on the cooling surface influences on the heat transfer conditions. The close distance between the droplets provides intensive heat removal, but there is a possibility of their coalescence in the liquid film. The long distance leads to overheating of the local areas of the cooling surface and the occurrence of thermal stresses. To control the location of droplets is possible by changing the roughness, structure and chemical composition of the surface. Thus, control of spreading can be implemented. The most important characteristic of spreading of droplets on solid surfaces is a dynamic contact angle, which is a function of the contact line speed or capillary number. However, there is currently no universal equation, which would describe the relationship between these parameters. This paper presents the results of the experimental studies of water droplet spreading on metal substrates with different surface roughness. The effect of the droplet growth rate and the surface roughness on spreading characteristics was studied at low capillary numbers. The shadow method using high speed video cameras recording up to 10,000 frames per seconds was implemented. A droplet profile was analyzed by Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analyses techniques. According to change of the dynamic contact angle and the contact line speed three sequential spreading stages were observed: rapid increase in the dynamic contact angle; monotonous decrease in the contact angle and the contact line speed; and form of the equilibrium contact angle at constant contact line. At low droplet growth rate, the dynamic contact angle of the droplet spreading on the surfaces with the maximum roughness is found to increase throughout the spreading time. It is due to the fact that the friction force on such surfaces is significantly greater than the inertia force; and the contact line is pinned on microasperities of a relief. At high droplet growth rate the contact angle decreases during the second stage even on the surfaces with the maximum roughness, as in this case, the liquid does not fill the microcavities, and the droplet moves over the “air cushion”, i.e. the interface is a liquid/gas/solid system. Also at such growth rates pulsation of liquid flow was detected; and the droplet oscillates during the spreading. Thus, obtained results allow to conclude that it is possible to control spreading by using the surface roughness and the growth rate of droplets on surfaces as varied factors. Also, the research findings may be used for analyzing heat transfer in rivulet and drop cooling systems of high energy equipment.

Keywords: contact line speed, droplet growth rate, dynamic contact angle, shadow system, spreading

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103 Coupling of Microfluidic Droplet Systems with ESI-MS Detection for Reaction Optimization

Authors: Julia R. Beulig, Stefan Ohla, Detlev Belder

Abstract:

In contrast to off-line analytical methods, lab-on-a-chip technology delivers direct information about the observed reaction. Therefore, microfluidic devices make an important scientific contribution, e.g. in the field of synthetic chemistry. Herein, the rapid generation of analytical data can be applied for the optimization of chemical reactions. These microfluidic devices enable a fast change of reaction conditions as well as a resource saving method of operation. In the presented work, we focus on the investigation of multiphase regimes, more specifically on a biphasic microfluidic droplet systems. Here, every single droplet is a reaction container with customized conditions. The biggest challenge is the rapid qualitative and quantitative readout of information as most detection techniques for droplet systems are non-specific, time-consuming or too slow. An exception is the electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The combination of a reaction screening platform with a rapid and specific detection method is an important step in droplet-based microfluidics. In this work, we present a novel approach for synthesis optimization on the nanoliter scale with direct ESI-MS detection. The development of a droplet-based microfluidic device, which enables the modification of different parameters while simultaneously monitoring the effect on the reaction within a single run, is shown. By common soft- and photolithographic techniques a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip with different functionalities is developed. As an interface for the MS detection, we use a steel capillary for ESI and improve the spray stability with a Teflon siphon tubing, which is inserted underneath the steel capillary. By optimizing the flow rates, it is possible to screen parameters of various reactions, this is exemplarity shown by a Domino Knoevenagel Hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. Different starting materials, catalyst concentrations and solvent compositions are investigated. Due to the high repetition rate of the droplet production, each set of reaction condition is examined hundreds of times. As a result, of the investigation, we receive possible reagents, the ideal water-methanol ratio of the solvent and the most effective catalyst concentration. The developed system can help to determine important information about the optimal parameters of a reaction within a short time. With this novel tool, we make an important step on the field of combining droplet-based microfluidics with organic reaction screening.

Keywords: droplet, mass spectrometry, microfluidics, organic reaction, screening

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102 Atomistic Insight into the System of Trapped Oil Droplet/ Nanofluid System in Nanochannels

Authors: Yuanhao Chang, Senbo Xiao, Zhiliang Zhang, Jianying He

Abstract:

The role of nanoparticles (NPs) in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly emphasized. In this study, the motion of NPs and local stress distribution of tapped oil droplet/nanofluid in nanochannels are studied with coarse-grained modeling and molecular dynamic simulations. The results illustrate three motion patterns for NPs: hydrophilic NPs are more likely to adsorb on the channel and stay near the three-phase contact areas, hydrophobic NPs move inside the oil droplet as clusters and more mixed NPs are trapped at the oil-water interface. NPs in each pattern affect the flow of fluid and the interfacial thickness to various degrees. Based on the calculation of atomistic stress, the characteristic that the higher value of stress occurs at the place where NPs aggregate can be obtained. Different occurrence patterns correspond to specific local stress distribution. Significantly, in the three-phase contact area for hydrophilic NPs, the local stress distribution close to the pattern of structural disjoining pressure is observed, which proves the existence of structural disjoining pressure in molecular dynamics simulation for the first time. Our results guide the design and screen of NPs for EOR and provide a basic understanding of nanofluid applications.

Keywords: local stress distribution, nanoparticles, enhanced oil recovery, molecular dynamics simulation, trapped oil droplet, structural disjoining pressure

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101 Prandtl Number Influence Analysis on Droplet Migration in Natural Convection Flow Using the Level Set Method

Authors: Isadora Bugarin, Taygoara F. de Oliveira

Abstract:

Multiphase flows have currently been placed as a key solution for technological advances in energy and thermal sciences. The comprehension of droplet motion and behavior on non-isothermal flows is, however, rather limited. The present work consists of an investigation of a 2D droplet migration on natural convection inside a square enclosure with differentially heated walls. The investigation in question concerns the effects on drop motion of imposing different combinations of Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers while defining the drop on distinct initial positions. The finite differences method was used to compute the Navier-Stokes and energy equations for a laminar flow, considering the Boussinesq approximation. Also, a high order level set method was applied to simulate the two-phase flow. A previous analysis developed by the authors had shown that for fixed values of Rayleigh and Prandtl, the variation of the droplet initial position at the beginning of the simulation delivered different patterns of motion, in which for Ra≥10⁴ the droplet presents two very specific behaviors: it can travel through a helical path towards the center or define cyclic circular paths resulting in closed paths when reaching the stationary regime. Now, when varying the Prandtl number for different Rayleigh regimes, it was observed that this particular parameter also affects the migration of the droplet, altering the motion patterns as its value is increased. On higher Prandtl values, the drop performs wider paths with larger amplitudes, traveling closer to the walls and taking longer time periods to finally reach the stationary regime. It is important to highlight that drastic drop behavior changes on the stationary regime were not yet observed, but the path traveled from the begging of the simulation until the stationary regime was significantly altered, resulting in distinct turning over frequencies. The flow’s unsteady Nusselt number is also registered for each case studied, enabling a discussion on the overall effects on heat transfer variations.

Keywords: droplet migration, level set method, multiphase flow, natural convection in enclosure, Prandtl number

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100 Characterization and Modelling of Aerosol Droplet in Absorption Columns

Authors: Hammad Majeed, Hanna Knuutila, Magne Hillestad, Hallvard F. Svendsen

Abstract:

Formation of aerosols can cause serious complications in industrial exhaust gas CO2 capture processes. SO3 present in the flue gas can cause aerosol formation in an absorption based capture process. Small mist droplets and fog formed can normally not be removed in conventional demisting equipment because their submicron size allows the particles or droplets to follow the gas flow. As a consequence of this aerosol based emissions in the order of grams per Nm3 have been identified from PCCC plants. In absorption processes aerosols are generated by spontaneous condensation or desublimation processes in supersaturated gas phases. Undesired aerosol development may lead to amine emissions many times larger than what would be encountered in a mist free gas phase in PCCC development. It is thus of crucial importance to understand the formation and build-up of these aerosols in order to mitigate the problem. Rigorous modelling of aerosol dynamics leads to a system of partial differential equations. In order to understand mechanics of a particle entering an absorber an implementation of the model is created in Matlab. The model predicts the droplet size, the droplet internal variable profiles and the mass transfer fluxes as function of position in the absorber. The Matlab model is based on a subclass method of weighted residuals for boundary value problems named, orthogonal collocation method. The model comprises a set of mass transfer equations for transferring components and the essential diffusion reaction equations to describe the droplet internal profiles for all relevant constituents. Also included is heat transfer across the interface and inside the droplet. This paper presents results describing the basic simulation tool for the characterization of aerosols formed in CO2 absorption columns and gives examples as to how various entering droplets grow or shrink through an absorber and how their composition changes with respect to time. Below are given some preliminary simulation results for an aerosol droplet composition and temperature profiles.

Keywords: absorption columns, aerosol formation, amine emissions, internal droplet profiles, monoethanolamine (MEA), post combustion CO2 capture, simulation

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