Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1114

Search results for: film condensation

1114 Heat Transfer Characteristics of Film Condensation

Authors: M. Mosaad, J. H. Almutairi, A. S. Almutairi

Abstract:

In this paper, saturated-vapour film condensation on a vertical wall with the backside cooled by forced convection is analyzed as a conjugate problem. In the analysis, the temperature and heat flux at the wall sides are assumed unknown and determined from the solution. The model is presented in a dimensionless form to take a broad view of the solution. The dimensionless variables controlling this coupled heat transfer process are discovered from the analysis. These variables explain the relative impact of the interactive heat transfer mechanisms of forced convection and film condensation. The study shows that the conjugate treatment of film condensation process yields results different from that predicted by a non-conjugate Nusselt-type solution, wherein the effect of the cooling fluid is neglected.

Keywords: film condensation, forced convection, coupled heat transfer, analytical modelling

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1113 Numeric Modeling of Condensation of Water Vapor from Humid Air in a Room

Authors: Nguyen Van Que, Nguyen Huy The

Abstract:

This paper presents combined natural and forced convection of humid air flow. The film condensation of water vapour on a cold floor was investigated using ANSYS Fluent software. User-defined Functions(UDFs) were developed and added to address the issue of film condensation at the surface of the floor. Those UDFs were validated by analytical results on a flat plate. The film condensation model based on mass transfer was used to solve phase change. On the floor, condensation rate was obtained by mass fraction change near the floor. The study investigated effects of inlet velocity, inlet relative humidity and cold floor temperature on the condensation rate. The simulations were done in both 2D and 3D models to show the difference and need for 3D modeling of condensation.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, convection, condensation, relative humidity, user-defined functions

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1112 Numerical and Analytical Approach for Film Condensation on Different Forms of Surfaces

Authors: A. Kazemi Jouybari, A. Mirabdolah Lavasani

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This paper seeks to the solution of condensation around of a flat plate, circular and elliptical tube in way of numerical and analytical methods. Also, it calculates the entropy production rates. The first, problem was solved by using mesh dynamic and rational assumptions, next it was compared with the numerical solution that the result had acceptable errors. An additional supporting relation was applied based on a characteristic of condensation phenomenon for condensing elements. As it has been shown here, due to higher rates of heat transfer for elliptical tubes, they have more entropy production rates, in comparison to circular ones. Findings showed that two methods were efficient. Furthermore, analytical methods can be used to optimize the problem and reduce the entropy production rate.

Keywords: condensation, numerical solution, analytical solution, entropy rate

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1111 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Reflux Condensation from Gas-Vapour Mixtures in Vertical Parallel Plate Channels

Authors: Foad Hassaninejadafarahani, Scott Ormiston

Abstract:

Reflux condensation occurs in a vertical channels and tubes when there is an upward core flow of vapor (or gas-vapor mixture) and a downward flow of the liquid film. The understanding of this condensation configuration is crucial in the design of reflux condensers, distillation columns, and in loss-of-coolant safety analyses in nuclear power plant steam generators. The unique feature of this flow is the upward flow of the vapor-gas mixture (or pure vapor) that retards the liquid flow via shear at the liquid-mixture interface. The present model solves the full, elliptic governing equations in both the film and the gas-vapor core flow. The computational mesh is non-orthogonal and adapts dynamically the phase interface, thus produces sharp and accurate interface. Shear forces and heat and mass transfer at the interface are accounted for fundamentally. This modeling is a big step ahead of current capabilities by removing the limitations of previous reflux condensation models which inherently cannot account for the detailed local balances of shear, mass, and heat transfer at the interface. Discretisation has been done based on a finite volume method and a co-located variable storage scheme. An in-house computer code was developed to implement the numerical solution scheme. Detailed results are presented for laminar reflux condensation from steam-air mixtures flowing in vertical parallel plate channels. The results include velocity and pressure profiles, as well as axial variations of film thickness, Nusselt number and interface gas mass fraction.

Keywords: Reflux, Condensation, CFD-Two Phase, Nusselt number

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1110 Dynamic Thin Film Morphology near the Contact Line of a Condensing Droplet: Nanoscale Resolution

Authors: Abbasali Abouei Mehrizi, Hao Wang

Abstract:

The thin film region is so important in heat transfer process due to its low thermal resistance. On the other hand, the dynamic contact angle is crucial boundary condition in numerical simulations. While different modeling contains different assumption of the microscopic contact angle, none of them has experimental evidence for their assumption, and the contact line movement mechanism still remains vague. The experimental investigation in complete wetting is more popular than partial wetting, especially in nanoscale resolution when there is sharp variation in thin film profile in partial wetting. In the present study, an experimental investigation of water film morphology near the triple phase contact line during the condensation is performed. The state-of-the-art tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) was used to get the high-resolution film profile goes down to 2 nm from the contact line. The droplet was put in saturated chamber. The pristine silicon wafer was used as a smooth substrate. The substrate was heated by PI film heater. So the chamber would be over saturated by droplet evaporation. By turning off the heater, water vapor gradually started condensing on the droplet and the droplet advanced. The advancing speed was less than 20 nm/s. The dominant results indicate that in contrast to nonvolatile liquid, the film profile goes down straightly to the surface till 2 nm from the substrate. However, small bending has been observed below 20 nm, occasionally. So, it can be claimed that for the low condensation rate the microscopic contact angle equals to the optically detectable macroscopic contact angle. This result can be used to simplify the heat transfer modeling in partial wetting. The experimental result of the equality of microscopic and macroscopic contact angle can be used as a solid evidence for using this boundary condition in numerical simulation.

Keywords: advancing, condensation, microscopic contact angle, partial wetting

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1109 An Improved Heat Transfer Prediction Model for Film Condensation inside a Tube with Interphacial Shear Effect

Authors: V. G. Rifert, V. V. Gorin, V. V. Sereda, V. V. Treputnev

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The analysis of heat transfer design methods in condensing inside plain tubes under existing influence of shear stress is presented in this paper. The existing discrepancy in more than 30-50% between rating heat transfer coefficients and experimental data has been noted. The analysis of existing theoretical and semi-empirical methods of heat transfer prediction is given. The influence of a precise definition concerning boundaries of phase flow (it is especially important in condensing inside horizontal tubes), shear stress (friction coefficient) and heat flux on design of heat transfer is shown. The substantiation of boundary conditions of the values of parameters, influencing accuracy of rated relationships, is given. More correct relationships for heat transfer prediction, which showed good convergence with experiments made by different authors, are substantiated in this work.

Keywords: film condensation, heat transfer, plain tube, shear stress

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1108 Condensation of Moist Air in Heat Exchanger Using CFD

Authors: Jan Barak, Karel Frana, Joerg Stiller

Abstract:

This work presents results of moist air condensation in heat exchanger. It describes theoretical knowledge and definition of moist air. Model with geometry of square canal was created for better understanding and post processing of condensation phenomena. Different approaches were examined on this model to find suitable software and model. Obtained knowledge was applied to geometry of real heat exchanger and results from experiment were compared with numerical results. One of the goals is to solve this issue without creating any user defined function in the applied code. It also contains summary of knowledge and outlook for future work.

Keywords: condensation, exchanger, experiment, validation

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1107 Superlyophobic Surfaces for Increased Heat Transfer during Condensation of CO₂

Authors: Ingrid Snustad, Asmund Ervik, Anders Austegard, Amy Brunsvold, Jianying He, Zhiliang Zhang

Abstract:

CO₂ capture, transport and storage (CCS) is essential to mitigate global anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. To make CCS a widely implemented technology in, e.g. the power sector, the reduction of costs is crucial. For a large cost reduction, every part of the CCS chain must contribute. By increasing the heat transfer efficiency during liquefaction of CO₂, which is a necessary step, e.g. ship transportation, the costs associated with the process are reduced. Heat transfer rates during dropwise condensation are up to one order of magnitude higher than during filmwise condensation. Dropwise condensation usually occurs on a non-wetting surface (Superlyophobic surface). The vapour condenses in discrete droplets, and the non-wetting nature of the surface reduces the adhesion forces and results in shedding of condensed droplets. This, again, results in fresh nucleation sites for further droplet condensation, effectively increasing the liquefaction efficiency. In addition, the droplets in themselves have a smaller heat transfer resistance than a liquid film, resulting in increased heat transfer rates from vapour to solid. Surface tension is a crucial parameter for dropwise condensation, due to its impact on the solid-liquid contact angle. A low surface tension usually results in a low contact angle, and again to spreading of the condensed liquid on the surface. CO₂ has very low surface tension compared to water. However, at relevant temperatures and pressures for CO₂ condensation, the surface tension is comparable to organic compounds such as pentane, a dropwise condensation of CO₂ is a completely new field of research. Therefore, knowledge of several important parameters such as contact angle and drop size distribution must be gained in order to understand the nature of the condensation. A new setup has been built to measure these relevant parameters. The main parts of the experimental setup is a pressure chamber in which the condensation occurs, and a high- speed camera. The process of CO₂ condensation is visually monitored, and one can determine the contact angle, contact angle hysteresis and hence, the surface adhesion of the liquid. CO₂ condensation on different surfaces can be analysed, e.g. copper, aluminium and stainless steel. The experimental setup is built for accurate measurements of the temperature difference between the surface and the condensing vapour and accurate pressure measurements in the vapour. The temperature will be measured directly underneath the condensing surface. The next step of the project will be to fabricate nanostructured surfaces for inducing superlyophobicity. Roughness is a key feature to achieve contact angles above 150° (limit for superlyophobicity) and controlled, and periodical roughness on the nanoscale is beneficial. Surfaces that are non- wetting towards organic non-polar liquids are candidates surface structures for dropwise condensation of CO₂.

Keywords: CCS, dropwise condensation, low surface tension liquid, superlyophobic surfaces

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1106 The Effects of Modern Materials on the Moisture Resistance Performance of Architectural Buildings

Authors: Leyli Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hoda Mortazavi Alavi, Amirhossein Habibzadeh

Abstract:

At present, the atmospheric and environmental factors impose massive damages to buildings. Thus, to reduce these damages, researchers pay more attention on qualitative and quantitative characteristic of buildings materials. Condensation is one of the problems in Contemporary Sustecture Design. It could cause serious damages to the frontage, interior and structural elements of buildings. As a result, taking preventative steps to avoid condensation from occurring in buildings will help prevent avoidable and costly problems in the future. Hence, the aim of this paper is to answer the question: “Does the use of advanced materials cause the reduction of condensation formed on the walls?" In response to those flaws, this paper considered similar articles and selected 20 buildings randomly from contemporary architecture of developing countries which have been built in recent decade from 2002 to 2012, to find out the mutual relation between the usage of advanced materials and level of condensation damages. This consideration shows that by using advanced materials, we will have fewer damages.

Keywords: condensation, advanced materials, contemporary sustecture, moisture

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1105 Three Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Wall Condensation inside Inclined Tubes

Authors: Amirhosein Moonesi Shabestary, Eckhard Krepper, Dirk Lucas

Abstract:

The current PhD project comprises CFD-modeling and simulation of condensation and heat transfer inside horizontal pipes. Condensation plays an important role in emergency cooling systems of reactors. The emergency cooling system consists of inclined horizontal pipes which are immersed in a tank of subcooled water. In the case of an accident the water level in the core is decreasing, steam comes in the emergency pipes, and due to the subcooled water around the pipe, this steam will start to condense. These horizontal pipes act as a strong heat sink which is responsible for a quick depressurization of the reactor core when any accident happens. This project is defined in order to model all these processes which happening in the emergency cooling systems. The most focus of the project is on detection of different morphologies such as annular flow, stratified flow, slug flow and plug flow. This project is an ongoing project which has been started 1 year ago in Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR), Fluid Dynamics department. In HZDR most in cooperation with ANSYS different models are developed for modeling multiphase flows. Inhomogeneous MUSIG model considers the bubble size distribution and is used for modeling small-scaled dispersed gas phase. AIAD (Algebraic Interfacial Area Density Model) is developed for detection of the local morphology and corresponding switch between them. The recent model is GENTOP combines both concepts. GENTOP is able to simulate co-existing large-scaled (continuous) and small-scaled (polydispersed) structures. All these models are validated for adiabatic cases without any phase change. Therefore, the start point of the current PhD project is using the available models and trying to integrate phase transition and wall condensing models into them. In order to simplify the idea of condensation inside horizontal tubes, 3 steps have been defined. The first step is the investigation of condensation inside a horizontal tube by considering only direct contact condensation (DCC) and neglect wall condensation. Therefore, the inlet of the pipe is considered to be annular flow. In this step, AIAD model is used in order to detect the interface. The second step is the extension of the model to consider wall condensation as well which is closer to the reality. In this step, the inlet is pure steam, and due to the wall condensation, a liquid film occurs near the wall which leads to annular flow. The last step will be modeling of different morphologies which are occurring inside the tube during the condensation via using GENTOP model. By using GENTOP, the dispersed phase is able to be considered and simulated. Finally, the results of the simulations will be validated by experimental data which will be available also in HZDR.

Keywords: wall condensation, direct contact condensation, AIAD model, morphology detection

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1104 Analysis of Casting Call Process in Thai Film Industry

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the process that most of the Thai film industries commonly use in order to find the right cast to play the role. The result proved that most of the low-budget film productions find the cast by asking from the crew’s friends or friend of friend. Therefore, finding the cast in low-budget film productions normally has only few people shown up for the auditions and sometimes either none of them has acting knowledge or their appearances do not match the character. However, since most of the low-budget film productions do not have much ability to find members of the cast, thus some of them still will be selected. On the other hand, most of the high-budget film productions use modeling companies to find the cast for them. However, most of modeling agencies in Thailand seek and select their cast members from the cast’s appearances or talents rather than the knowledge of acting.

Keywords: casting for film, modeling business, acting, film, performing arts, film business

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1103 Study on the Thermal Mixing of Steam and Coolant in the Hybrid Safety Injection Tank

Authors: Sung Uk Ryu, Byoung Gook Jeon, Sung-Jae Yi, Dong-Jin Euh

Abstract:

In such passive safety injection systems in the nuclear power plant as Core Makeup Tank (CMT) and Hybrid Safety Injection Tank, various thermal-hydraulic phenomena including the direct contact condensation of steam and the thermal stratification of coolant occur. These phenomena are also closely related to the performance of the system. Depending on the condensation rate of the steam injected to the tank, the injection of the coolant and pressure equalizing timings of the tank are decided. The steam injected to the tank from the upper nozzle penetrates the coolant and induces a direct contact condensation. In the present study, the direct contact condensation of steam and the thermal mixing between the steam and coolant were examined by using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Especially, by altering the size of the nozzle from which the steam is injected, the influence of steam injection velocity on the thermal mixing with coolant and condensation shall be comprehended, while also investigating the influence of condensation on the pressure variation inside the tank. Even though the amounts of steam inserted were the same in three different nozzle size conditions, it was found that the velocity of pressure rise becomes lower as the steam injection area decreases. Also, as the steam injection area increases, the thickness of the zone within which the coolant’s temperature decreases. Thereby, the amount of steam condensed by the direct contact condensation also decreases. The results derived from the present study can be utilized for the detailed design of a passive safety injection system, as well as for modeling the direct contact condensation triggered by the steam jet’s penetration into the coolant.

Keywords: passive safety injection systems, steam penetration, direct contact condensation, particle image velocimetry

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1102 Simulation of Wet Scrubbers for Flue Gas Desulfurization

Authors: Anders Schou Simonsen, Kim Sorensen, Thomas Condra

Abstract:

Wet scrubbers are used for flue gas desulfurization by injecting water directly into the flue gas stream from a set of sprayers. The water droplets will flow freely inside the scrubber, and flow down along the scrubber walls as a thin wall film while reacting with the gas phase to remove SO₂. This complex multiphase phenomenon can be divided into three main contributions: the continuous gas phase, the liquid droplet phase, and the liquid wall film phase. This study proposes a complete model, where all three main contributions are taken into account and resolved using OpenFOAM for the continuous gas phase, and MATLAB for the liquid droplet and wall film phases. The 3D continuous gas phase is composed of five species: CO₂, H₂O, O₂, SO₂, and N₂, which are resolved along with momentum, energy, and turbulence. Source terms are present for four species, energy and momentum, which are affecting the steady-state solution. The liquid droplet phase experiences breakup, collisions, dynamics, internal chemistry, evaporation and condensation, species mass transfer, energy transfer and wall film interactions. Numerous sub-models have been implemented and coupled to realise the above-mentioned phenomena. The liquid wall film experiences impingement, acceleration, atomization, separation, internal chemistry, evaporation and condensation, species mass transfer, and energy transfer, which have all been resolved using numerous sub-models as well. The continuous gas phase has been coupled with the liquid phases using source terms by an approach, where the two software packages are couples using a link-structure. The complete CFD model has been verified using 16 experimental tests from an existing scrubber installation, where a gradient-based pattern search optimization algorithm has been used to tune numerous model parameters to match the experimental results. The CFD model needed to be fast for evaluation in order to apply this optimization routine, where approximately 1000 simulations were needed. The results show that the complex multiphase phenomena governing wet scrubbers can be resolved in a single model. The optimization routine was able to tune the model to accurately predict the performance of an existing installation. Furthermore, the study shows that a coupling between OpenFOAM and MATLAB is realizable, where the data and source term exchange increases the computational requirements by approximately 5%. This allows for exploiting the benefits of both software programs.

Keywords: desulfurization, discrete phase, scrubber, wall film

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1101 Temperature Coefficients of the Refractive Index for Ge Film

Authors: Lingmao Xu, Hui Zhou

Abstract:

Ge film is widely used in infrared optical systems. Because of the special requirements of space application, it is usually used in low temperature. The refractive index of Ge film is always changed with the temperature which has a great effect on the manufacture of high precision infrared optical film. Specimens of Ge single film were deposited at ZnSe substrates by EB-PVD method. During temperature range 80K ~ 300K, the transmittance of Ge single film within 2 ~ 15 μm were measured every 20K by PerkinElmer FTIR cryogenic testing system. By the full spectrum inversion method fitting, the relationship between refractive index and wavelength within 2 ~ 12μm at different temperatures was received. It can be seen the relationship consistent with the formula Cauchy, which can be fitted. Then the relationship between refractive index of the Ge film and temperature/wavelength was obtained by fitting method based on formula Cauchy. Finally, the designed value obtained by the formula and the measured spectrum were compared to verify the accuracy of the formula.

Keywords: infrared optical film, low temperature, thermal refractive coefficient, Ge film

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1100 Narrating 1968: Felipe Cazals’ Canoa (1976) and Images of Massacre

Authors: Nancy Elizabeth Naranjo Garcia

Abstract:

Canoa (1976) by Felipe Cazals is a film that exposes the consequences of power that the Mexican State exercised over the 1968 student movement. The film, in this particular way, approaches the Tlatelolco Massacre from a point of view that takes into consideration the events that led up to it. Nonetheless, the reference to the political tension in Canoa remains ambiguous. Thus, the cinematographic representation refers to an event that leaves space for reflection, and as a consequence leaves evidence of an image that signals the notion of survival as Georges Didi-Huberman points out. In addition to denouncing the oppressive force by the Mexican State, the images in Canoa also emphasize what did not happen in Tlatelolco and its condensation with the student activists. To observe the images that Canoa offers in a new light, this work proposes further exploration with the following questions; How do the images in Canoa narrate? How are the images inserted in the film? In this fashion, a more profound comprehension of the objective and the essence of the images becomes feasible. As a result, it is possible to analyze the images of Canoa with the real killing at San Miguel Canoa in literature. The film visualizes a testimony of the event that once seemed unimaginable, an image that anticipates and structures the proceeding event. Therefore, this study takes a second look at how Canoa considers not only the killing at San Miguel Canoa and the Tlatlelolco Massacre, but goes further on contextualize an unimaginable image.

Keywords: cinematographic representation, student movement, Tlatelolco Massacre, unimaginable image

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1099 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.

Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energy

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1098 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Due to annealing the average grain size increased by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: electrodeposition, non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRD

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1097 Assessing the Risk of Condensation and Moisture Accumulation in Solid Walls: Comparing Different Internal Wall Insulation Options

Authors: David Glew, Felix Thomas, Matthew Brooke-Peat

Abstract:

Improving the thermal performance of homes is seen as an essential step in achieving climate change, fuel security, fuel poverty targets. One of the most effective thermal retrofits is to insulate solid walls. However, it has been observed that applying insulation to the internal face of solid walls reduces the surface temperature of the inner wall leaf, which may introduce condensation risk and may interrupt seasonal moisture accumulation and dissipation. This research quantifies the extent to which the risk of condensation and moisture accumulation in the wall increases (which can increase the risk of timber rot) following the installation of six different types of internal wall insulation. In so doing, it compares how risk is affected by both the thermal resistance, thickness, and breathability of the insulation. Thermal bridging, surface temperatures, condensation risk, and moisture accumulation are evaluated using hygrothermal simulation software before and after the thermal upgrades. The research finds that installing internal wall insulation will always introduce some risk of condensation and moisture. However, it identifies that risks were present prior to insulation and that breathable materials and insulation with lower resistance have lower risks than alternative insulation options. The implications of this may be that building standards that encourage the enhanced thermal performance of solid walls may be introducing moisture risks into homes.

Keywords: condensation risk, hygrothermal simulation, internal wall insulation, thermal bridging

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1096 Condensation of Vapor in the Presence of Non-Condensable Gas on a Vertical Tube

Authors: Shengjun Zhang, Xu Cheng, Feng Shen

Abstract:

The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is widely used in the advanced nuclear reactor in case of the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the main steam line break accident (MSLB). The internal heat exchanger is one of the most important equipment in the PCCS and its heat transfer characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this investigation, a theoretical model is presented for predicting the heat and mass transfer which accompanies condensation. The conduction through the liquid condensate is considered and the interface temperature is defined by iteration. The parameter in the correlation to describe the suction effect should be further determined through experimental data.

Keywords: non-condensable gas, condensation, heat transfer coefficient, heat and mass transfer analogy

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1095 Nazi Propaganda and the 1930 Berlin Film Premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front”

Authors: Edward C. Smith

Abstract:

Historical narration in literature and film is an act that necessarily develops and deforms history, whether consciously or unconsciously. Such “translation” suffers or thrives depending on its historical context and on the ability of the artist/artists to make choices that enhance or diminish social and political reality. This “translation” and its challenges is examined from within the historical and political context of the 1930 Berlin film premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front,” a film based on Erich Maria Remarque’s 1928 best-selling novel. Both the film and the novel appeared during a period in which the “aestheticization” of reality predominated. This was an era in early 20th-century European society in which life was conceived of as innately artistic and structured like an art form. The emergence of this modern consciousness, one in which memory and history surrendered their former authority, enabled conservative propaganda of the period to denounce all art that did not adhere conceptually to its political tenets, with “All Quiet” becoming yet another of its “victims.”

Keywords: documentary and propaganda film, film and TV audiences, international literature in film studies, popular culture and film

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1094 Synthesis of Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

Abstract:

Crosslinked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomanan and its mixture with kappa carragenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained crosslinked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be crosslinked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The crosslinked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: crosslinking, glucomannan, carrageenan, swelling

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1093 Optimizing Water Consumption of a Washer-Dryer Which Contains Water Condensation Technology under a Constraint of Energy Consumption and Drying Performance

Authors: Aysegul Sarac

Abstract:

Washer-dryers are the machines which can either wash the laundries or can dry them. In other words, we can define a washer-dryer as a washing machine and a dryer in one machine. Washing machines are characterized by the loading capacity, cabinet depth and spin speed. Dryers are characterized by the drying technology. On the other hand, energy efficiency, water consumption, and noise levels are main characteristics that influence customer decisions to buy washers. Water condensation technology is the most common drying technology existing in the washer-dryer market. Water condensation technology uses water to dry the laundry inside the machine. Thus, in this type of the drying technology water consumption is at high levels comparing other technologies. Water condensation technology sprays cold water in the drum to condense the humidity of hot weather in order to dry the laundry inside. Thus, water consumption influences the drying performance. The scope of this study is to optimize water consumption during drying process under a constraint of energy consumption and drying performance. We are using 6-Sigma methodology to find the optimum water consumption by comparing drying performances of different drying algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, 6-Sigma methodology, washer-dryers, water condensation technology

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1092 Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: Pison Suwanpakdee

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: film, political, neorealism, Thailand

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1091 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: condensation, radioactive liquid waste, solidification, STRAD project

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1090 Neo-Realism in Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: S. Pison

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: film, political, neo-realism, social, Thailand

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1089 Effect of Incorporation of Seaweed Extract in Gelatin Based Film on Physic-Chemical and Bioactive Properties of Film

Authors: Shekhar U. Kadam, S. K. Pankaj, Brijesh K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, Colm P. O’Donnell

Abstract:

Brown seaweed L. hyperborea is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of incorporation of L. hyperborea extract to bovine gelatin film on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of film. Films with fraction of 25% by weight of bovine gelatin sample were cast with addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films showed higher levels with addition of seaweed extract. Also film appearance properties such as film thickness, color and light transparency were evaluated. Film appearance was slightly modified whereas microstructure of films showed rough patches at 50% level of extract in the film. Hydrophilicity and glass transition temperature of the films also increased with increased level of seaweed extract. It was found that seaweed extract can be incorporated within gelatin and casein for development of biofunctional films.

Keywords: Laminaria hyperborea, ultrasound, seaweed extract, bovine gelatin film, antioxidant, phenolic compounds

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1088 Using Two-Mode Network to Access the Connections of Film Festivals

Authors: Qiankun Zhong

Abstract:

In a global cultural context, film festival awards become authorities to define the aesthetic value of films. To study which genres and producing countries are valued by different film festivals and how those evaluations interact with each other, this research explored the interactions between the film festivals through their selection of movies and the factors that lead to the tendency of film festivals to nominate the same movies. To do this, the author employed a two-mode network on the movies that won the highest awards at five international film festivals with the highest attendance in the past ten years (the Venice Film Festival, the Cannes Film Festival, the Toronto International Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival) and the film festivals that nominated those movies. The title, genre, producing country and language of 50 movies, and the range (regional, national or international) and organizing country or area of 129 film festivals were collected. These created networks connected by nominating the same films and awarding the same movies. The author then assessed the density and centrality of these networks to answer the question: What are the film festivals that tend to have more shared values with other festivals? Based on the Eigenvector centrality of the two-mode network, Palm Springs, Robert Festival, Toronto, Chicago, and San Sebastian are the festivals that tend to nominate commonly appreciated movies. In contrast, Black Movie Film Festival has the unique value of generally not sharing nominations with other film festivals. A homophily test was applied to access the clustering effects of film and film festivals. The result showed that movie genres (E-I index=0.55) and geographic location (E-I index=0.35) are possible indicators of film festival clustering. A blockmodel was also created to examine the structural roles of the film festivals and their meaning in real-world context. By analyzing the same blocks with film festival attributes, it was identified that film festivals either organized in the same area, with the same history, or with the same attitude on independent films would occupy the same structural roles in the network. Through the interpretation of the blocks, language was identified as an indicator that contributes to the role position of a film festival. Comparing the result of blockmodeling in the different periods, it is seen that international film festivals contrast with the Hollywood industry’s dominant value. The structural role dynamics provide evidence for a multi-value film festival network.

Keywords: film festivals, film studies, media industry studies, network analysis

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1087 Production of Size-Selected Tin Nanoclusters for Device Applications

Authors: Ahmad I. Ayesh

Abstract:

This work reports on the fabrication of tin nanoclusters by sputtering and inert-gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. This technique allows to fine tune the size and yield of nanoclusters by controlling the nanocluster source parameters. The produced nanoclusters are deposited on SiO2/Si substrate with pre-formed electrical electrodes to produce a nanocluster device. Those devices can be potentially used for gas sensor applications.

Keywords: tin, nanoclusters, inert-gas condensation, nanotechnology

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1086 Deposition of Diamond Like Carbon Thin Film by Pulse Laser Deposition for Surgical Instruments

Authors: M. Khalid Alamgir, Javed Ahsan Bhatti, M. Zafarullah Khan

Abstract:

Thin film of amorphous carbon (DLC) was deposited on 316 steel using Nd: YAG laser having energy 300mJ. Pure graphite was used as a target. The vacuum in the deposition chamber was generated in the range of 10-6 mbar by turbo molecular pump. Ratio of sp3 to sp2 content shows amorphous nature of the film. This was confirmed by Raman spectra having two peaks around 1300 cm-1 i.e. D-band to 1700 cm-1 i.e. G-band. If sp3 bonding ratio is high, the films behave like diamond-like whereas, with high sp2, films are graphite-like. The ratio of sp3 and sp2 contents in the film depends upon the deposition method, hydrogen contents and system parameters. The structural study of the film was carried out by XRD. The hardness of the films as measured by Vickers hardness tester and was found to be 28 GPa. The EDX result shows the presence of carbon contents on the surface in high rate and optical microscopy result shows the smoothness of the film on substrate. The film possesses good adhesion and can be used to coat surgical instruments.

Keywords: DLC, thin film, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, EDX

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1085 Faithfulness of Film Adaptations: An Evaluation

Authors: Mel Aljon A. Montesa, Cynthia A. Martinez

Abstract:

As the advent of the trend of lifting books into film flourishes, the study was conducted which concerns the evaluation of the level of faithfulness of film adaptations. This study assessed the level of faithfulness of the book based on the elements of fiction and determined whether the respondents were affected by it. Sixty (60) respondents were included in the study which composed of readers who have read the book before watching the film and viewers who watched the film first before reading the sourced text. The results revealed that most of the respondents evaluated the level of faithfulness of the four out of five elements of fiction including the plot, setting, conflict, and theme as moderately faithful while they found the characters somewhat faithful to the original characters. It was evident in the results that there are significant relationships among the plot and theme and its emotional effects to the respondents, thus, data also showed the significant relationships between the four out of five elements of fictions, excluding setting, and its social or behavioral effects to the respondents. A proposed rubric was made to evaluate film adaptations based on the film elements of fiction.

Keywords: elements of fiction, film adaptations, level of faithfulness, psychological effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 169