Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: nanofluids

59 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics Investigation in Spray Cooling Systems Using Nanofluids

Authors: Lee Derk Huan, Nur Irmawati


This paper aims to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of nanofluids used in spray cooling systems. The effect of spray height, type of nanofluids and concentration of nanofluids are numerically investigated. Five different nanofluids such as AgH2O, Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and TiO2 with volume fraction range of 0.5% to 2.5% are used. The results revealed that the heat transfer performance decreases as spray height increases. It is found that TiO2 has the highest transfer coefficient among other nanofluids. In dilute spray conditions, low concentration of nanofluids is observed to be more effective in heat removal in a spray cooling system.

Keywords: numerical investigation, spray cooling, heat transfer, nanofluids

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58 Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?

Authors: Z. Haddad, C. Abid, O. Rahli, O. Margeat, W. Dachraoui, A. Mataoui


The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one-step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55 g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.

Keywords: NiPd nanoparticles, nanofluids, volumetric mass density, stability

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57 Heat Transfer Studies on CNT Nanofluids in a Turbulent Flow Heat Exchanger

Authors: W. Rashmi, M. Khalid, O. Seiksan, R. Saidur, A. F. Ismail


Nanofluids have received much more attention since its discovery. They are believed to be promising coolants in heat transfer applications due to their enhanced thermal conductivity and heat transfer characteristics. In this study, the enhancement in heat transfer of CNT-nanofluids under turbulent flow conditions is investigated experimentally. Carbon nanotube (CNTs) concentration was varied between 0.051-0.085 wt%. The nanofluid suspension was stabilized by gum arabic (GA) through a process of homogenisation and sonication. The flow rates of cold fluid (water) is varied from 1.7-3 L/min and flow rates of the hot fluid is varied between 2-3.5 L/min. Thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of the nanofluids were also measured as a function of temperature and CNT concentration. The experimental results are validated with theoretical correlations for turbulent flow available in the literature. Results showed an enhancement in heat transfer range between 9-67% as a function of temperature and CNT concentration.

Keywords: nanofluids, carbon nanotubes (CNT), heat transfer enhancement, heat transfer

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56 Influence of Surfactant on Supercooling Degree of Aqueous Titania Nanofluids in Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Hoda Aslani, Mohammad Moghiman, Mohammad Aslani


Considering the demand to reduce global warming potential and importance of solidification in various applications, there is an increasing interest in energy storage systems to find the efficient phase change materials. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental study and comparison on the potential of titania nanofluids with and without surfactant for cooling energy storage systems. A designed cooling generation device based on compression refrigeration cycle is used to explore nanofluids solidification characteristics. In this work, titania nanoparticles of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 wt.% are dispersed in deionized water as base fluid. Measurement of phase change parameters of nanofluids illustrates that the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant to titania nanofluids advances the onset nucleation time and leads to lower solidification time. Also, the experimental results show that only adding 0.02 wt.% titania nanoparticles, especially in the case of nanofluids with a surfactant, can evidently reduce the supercooling degree by nearly 70%. Hence, it is concluded that there is a great energy saving potential in the energy storage systems using titania nanofluid with PVP.

Keywords: cooling energy storage, nanofluid, PVP, solidification, titania

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55 Experimental Investigation of Nanofluid Heat Transfer in a Plate Type Heat Exchanger

Authors: Eyuphan Manay


In this study, it was aimed to determine the convective heat transfer characteristics of water-based silicon dioxide nanofluids (SiO₂) with particle volume fractions of 0.2 and 0.4% vol. Nanofluids were tested in a plate type heat exchanger with six plates. Plate type heat exchanger was manufactured from stainless steel. Water was driven in the hot flow side, and nanofluids were driven in the cold flow side. The thermal energy of the hot water was taken by nanofluids. Effect of the inlet temperature of the hot water was investigated on heat transfer performance of the nanofluids while the inlet temperature of the nanofluids was fixed. In addition, the effects of the particle volume fraction and the cold flow rate on the performance of the system were tested. Results showed that increasing inlet temperature of the hot flow caused heat transfer to enhance. The suspended solid particles into the carrier fluid also remarkably enhanced heat transfer, and, an increase in the particle volume fraction resulted in an increase in heat transfer.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, SiO₂-water, nanofluid, plate heat exchanger

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54 Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant

Authors: Nizar Bouguerra, Ahmed Khabou, Sébastien Poncet, Saïd Elkoun


The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.

Keywords: nanofluid, thermal conductivity, pH, transient hot wire, surfactant, Al2O3, stability, dispersion, preparation

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53 Stability and Rheological Study of Carbon Nanotube Water Based Nanofluid

Authors: S. Rashidi, L. C. Abdullah, R. Walvekar, K. Mohammad, F-R. Ahmadun, M. Y. Faizah


In this research, stability and rheology behavior of Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanofluids by using Xanthan Gum as a dispersant were measured. This paper addresses the effects of Xanthan Gum (XG) concentration and nanoparticle loading on stability and viscosity of nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids is measured by Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS (Malvern Instruments, ZEN 3600). The zeta potential of the stable samples was analyzed. The rheological behavior of carbon nanotube CNT nanofluids was analyzed using rheometer (Model AR G2, TA Instrument). Both stability and viscosity of the nanofluids increased with increasing CNT and XG concentration. The experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of nanofluid samples is stable. The results demonstrated that the zeta potential was affected by the CNT concentration and is augmented in parallel with increasing CNT concentration. The rheology results showed that the viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid was increased. The escalated viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid is owing to the higher van der Waals interaction between the CNT nanoparticles. On the other hand, the viscosity of the CNT/XG nanofluid decreases with increasing temperature. In summary, this research provides useful insight into the behavior of CNT nanofluids.

Keywords: nanofluid, carbon nanotube, stability, rheology

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52 Effect of Particles Size and Volume Fraction Concentration on the Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Al2O3 Nanofluids Measured Using Transient Hot–Wire Laser Beam Deflection Technique

Authors: W. Mahmood Mat Yunus, Faris Mohammed Ali, Zainal Abidin Talib


In this study we present new data for the thermal conductivity enhancement in four nanofluids containing 11, 25, 50, 63 nm diameter aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles in distilled water. The nanofluids were prepared using single step method (i.e. by dispersing nanoparticle directly in base fluid) which was gathered in ultrasonic device for approximately 7 hours. The transient hot-wire laser beam displacement technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the prepared nanofluids. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the numerical data simulated for aluminum oxide in distilled water. The results show that the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of nanofluids increases in non-linear behavior as the particle size increases. While, the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Al2O3 nanofluids was observed increasing linearly with concentration as the volume fraction concentration increases. We believe that the interfacial layer between solid/fluid is the main factor for the enhancement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Al2O3 nanofluids in the present work.

Keywords: transient hot wire-laser beam technique, Al2O3 nanofluid, particle size, volume fraction concentration

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51 Thermal Performance Analysis of Nanofluids in a Concetric Heat Exchanger Equipped with Turbulators

Authors: Feyza Eda Akyurek, Bayram Sahin, Kadir Gelis, Eyuphan Manay, Murat Ceylan


Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid flowing through a concentric tube heat exchanger with and without coiled wire turbulators were studied experimentally. The experiments were conducted in the Reynolds number ranging from 4000 to 20000, particle volume concentrations of 0.8 vol.% and 1.6 vol.%. Two turbulators with the pitches of 25 mm and 39 mm were used. The results of nanofluids indicated that average Nusselt number increased much more with increasing Reynolds number compared to that of pure water. Thermal conductivity enhancement by the nanofluids resulted in heat transfer enhancement. Once the pressure drop of the alumina/water nanofluid was analyzed, it was nearly equal to that of pure water at the same Reynolds number range. It was concluded that nanofluids with the volume fractions of 0.8 and 1.6 did not have a significant effect on pressure drop change. However, the use of wire coils in heat exchanger enhanced heat transfer as well as the pressure drop.

Keywords: turbulators, heat exchanger, nanofluids, heat transfer enhancement

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50 Theoretical Investigation of Thermal Properties of Nanofluids with Application to Solar Collector

Authors: Reema Jain


Nanofluids are emergent fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids that show significant enhancement of their properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. Solar collectors are commonly used in areas such as industries, heating, and cooling for domestic purpose, thermal power plants, solar cooker, automobiles, etc. Performance and efficiency of solar collectors depend upon various factors like collector & receiver material, solar radiation intensity, nature of working fluid, etc. The properties of working fluid which flow through the collectors greatly affects its performance. In this research work, a theoretical effort has been made to enhance the efficiency and improve the performance of solar collector by using Nano fluids instead of conventional fluid like water as working fluid.

Keywords: nanofluids, nanoparticles, heat transfer, solar collector

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49 Combined Surface Tension and Natural Convection of Nanofluids in a Square Open Cavity

Authors: Habibis Saleh, Ishak Hashim


Combined surface tension and natural convection heat transfer in an open cavity is studied numerically in this article. The cavity is filled with water-{Cu} nanofluids. The left wall is kept at low temperature, the right wall at high temperature and the bottom and top walls are adiabatic. The top free surface is assumed to be flat and non--deformable. Finite difference method is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. It is found that the insignificant effect of adding the nanoparticles were obtained about $Ma_{bf}=250$.

Keywords: natural convection, marangoni convection, nanofluids, square open cavity

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48 Effects of Heat Source Position on Heat Transfer in an Inclined Square Enclosure Filled with Nanofluids

Authors: Khamis Al Kalbani


The effects of a uniform heat source position on the heat transfer flow inside an inclined square enclosure filled with different types of nanofluids having various shapes of the nanoparticles are investigated numerically following one component thermal equilibrium model. The effects of the Brownian diffusion of the nanoparticles, magnetic field intensity and orientation are taken into consideration in nanofluid modeling. The heat source is placed in the middle of a wall of the enclosure while the opposite wall of it is kept at different temperature. The other walls of the enclosure are kept insulated. The results indicate that the heat source position significantly controls the heat transfer rates of the nanofluids. The distributions of the average heat transfer rates varying the position of the heat source with respect to the geometry inclination angle are calculated for the first time. The outcomes of the present research may be helpful for designing solar thermal collectors, radiators, building insulators and advanced cooling of a nuclear system.

Keywords: heat source, inclined, square enclosure, nanofluids

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47 Flow Dynamics of Nanofluids in a Horizontal Cylindrical Annulus Using Nonhomogeneous Dynamic Model

Authors: M. J. Uddin, M. M. Rahman


Transient natural convective flow dynamics of nanofluids in a horizontal homocentric annulus using nonhomogeneous dynamic model has been experimented numerically. The simulation is carried out for four different shapes of the inner wall, which is either cylindrical, elliptical, square or triangular. The outer surface of the annulus is maintained at constant low temperature while the inner wall is maintained at a uniform temperature; higher than the outer one. The enclosure is permeated by a uniform magnetic field having variable orientation. The Brownian motion and thermophoretic deposition phenomena of the nanoparticles are taken into account in model construction. The governing nonlinear momentum, energy, and concentration equations are solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. To find the best performer, the local Nusselt number is demonstrated for different shapes of the inner wall. The heat transfer enhancement for different nanofluids for four different shapes of the inner wall is exhibited.

Keywords: nanofluids, annulus, nonhomogeneous dynamic model, heat transfer

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46 Thermophysical Properties of Water-Based Carboxylated Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Nanofluids

Authors: Ahmad Amiri, Hamed Khajeh Arzani, Md. Salim Newaz Kazi, Bee Teng Chew


Obviously, the behavior of thermophysical properties of covalently functionalized MWNT-based water nanofluids cannot be predicted from the predicted models. We present a study of the specific heat capacity, effective thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of coolants containing functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT-COOH) with carboxyl groups at different temperatures. After synthesizing of MWNT-COOH-based water, measurements on the prepared coolants were made at various concentrations by different experimental methods. While thermal conductivity of nanofluids illustrated a significant increase, the specific heat capacity of the samples showed a downward behavior with increasing temperature. The viscosity was investigated in different shear rates and temperatures. Interestingly, the specific heat capacity of all prepared nanofluids was decreased with increasing concentration. Also, the density of the MWNT-COOH-based water nanofluids increased and decreased smoothly with increasing MWNT-COOH concentration and temperature, respectively.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, coolant, heat capacity, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity

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45 Analysis of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Performance by Use of Porous Baffles and Nanofluids

Authors: N. Targui, H. Kahalerras


The present work is a numerical simulation of nanofluids flow in a double pipe heat exchanger provided with porous baffles. The hot nanofluid flows in the inner cylinder, whereas the cold nanofluid circulates in the annular gap. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is adopted to describe the flow in the porous regions, and the governing equations with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the finite volume method. The results reveal that the addition of metallic nanoparticles enhances the rate of heat transfer in comparison to conventional fluids but this augmentation is accompanied by an increase in pressure drop. The highest heat exchanger performances are obtained when nanoparticles are added only to the cold fluid.

Keywords: double pipe heat exchanger, nanofluids, nanoparticles, porous baffles

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44 Effect of Surfactant on Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Glycol/Silver Nanofluid

Authors: E. C. Muhammed Irshad


Nanofluids are a new class of solid-liquid colloidal mixture consisting of nanometer sized (< 100nm) solid particles suspended in heat transfer fluids such as water, ethylene/propylene glycol etc. Nanofluids offer excellent scope of enhancing thermal conductivity of common heat transfer fluids and it leads to enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study, silver nanoparticles are dispersed in ethylene glycol water mixture. Low volume concentrations (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15%) of silver nanofluids were synthesized. The thermal conductivity of these nanofluids was determined with thermal property analyzer (KD2 pro apparatus) and heat transfer coefficient was found experimentally. Initially, the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids were calculated with various correlations at different concentrations and were compared. Thermal conductivity of silver nanofluid at 0.02% and 0.1% concentration of silver nanoparticle increased to 23.3% and 27.7% for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and to 33.6% and 36.7% for Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP), respectively. The nanofluid maintains the stability for two days and it starts to settle down due to high density of silver. But it shows good improvement in the thermal conductivity for low volume concentration and it also shows better improvement with Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant than Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS).

Keywords: k-thermal conductivity, sodium dodecyl sulfate, vinyl pyrrolidone, mechatronics engineering

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43 Effect of Vegetable Oil Based Nanofluids on Machining Performance: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao Gurram, R. Padmini, P. Vamsi Krishna


As a part of extensive research for ecologically safe and operator friendly cutting fluids, this paper presents the experimental investigations on the performance of eco-friendly vegetable oil based nanofluids in turning operation. In order to assess the quality of nano cutting fluids used during machining, cutting temperatures, cutting forces and surface roughness under constant cutting conditions are measured. The influence of two types of nanofluids prepared from nano boric acid and CNT particles mixed separately with coconut oil, on machining performance during turning operation is examined. Comparative analysis of the results obtained is done under dry and lubricant environments. Results obtained using cutting fluids prepared from vegetable oil based nanofluids are encouraging and more pronouncing by the application of CCCNT at machining zone. The extent of improvement in reduction of cutting temperatures, main cutting force, tool wear and surface roughness is tracked to be 13%, 37.5%, 44% and 40% respectively by the application of CCCNT compared to dry machining.

Keywords: nanoparticles, vegetable oil, machining, MQL, surface roughness

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42 Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Ahmad Amiri, Hamid K. Arzani, Salim Newaz Kazi, Ahmad Badarudin


The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, turbulent flow, forced convection flow, graphene nanoplatelet

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41 Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids

Authors: Eyüphan Manay, Bayram Sahin, Emre Mandev, Ibrahim Ates, Tuba Yetim


In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.

Keywords: magnetic nanofluids, thermal conductivity, viscosity, nife2o4-water, cofe2o4-water

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40 Peristaltic Transport of a Jeffrey Fluid with Double-Diffusive Convection in Nanofluids in the Presence of Inclined Magnetic Field

Authors: Safia Akram


In this article, the effects of peristaltic transport with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids through an asymmetric channel with different waveforms is presented. Mathematical modelling for two-dimensional and two directional flows of a Jeffrey fluid model along with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids are given. Exact solutions are obtained for nanoparticle fraction field, concentration field, temperature field, stream functions, pressure gradient and pressure rise in terms of axial and transverse coordinates under the restrictions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. With the help of computational and graphical results the effects of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, Dufour, Soret, and Grashof numbers (thermal, concentration, nanoparticles) on peristaltic flow patterns with double-diffusive convection are discussed.

Keywords: nanofluid particles, peristaltic flow, Jeffrey fluid, magnetic field, asymmetric channel, different waveforms

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39 Investigation of Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Circular Microchannels

Authors: Bayram Sahin, Hourieh Bayramian, Emre Mandev, Murat Ceylan


In industrial applications, the demand for the enhancement of heat transfer is a common engineering problem. The use of additives to heat transfer fluid is a technique applied to enhance the heat transfer performance of base fluids. In this study, the thermal performance of nanofluids consisting of SiO2 particles and deionized water in circular microchannels was investigated experimentally. SiO2 nanoparticles with diameter of 15 nm were added to water to prepare nanofluids with 0.2% and 0.4% volume fractions. Heat transfer characteristics were calculated by using temperature, flow and pressure measurements. The thermal conductivity and viscosity values required for the calculations are measured separately. It is observed that the Nusselt number increases at the all volume fraction of particles, by increasing the Reynolds number and the volumetric ratios of the particles. The highest heat transfer enhancement is obtained at Re = 2160 and 0.4 % vol. by 14% under the condition of a constant pumping power.

Keywords: nanofluid, microchannel, heat transfer, SiO2-water nanofluid

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38 Numerical Simulation of Convective Flow of Nanofluids with an Oriented Magnetic Field in a Half Circular-Annulus

Authors: M. J. Uddin, M. M. Rahman


The unsteady convective heat transfer flow of nanofluids in a half circular-annulus shape enclosure using nonhomogeneous dynamic model has been investigated numerically. The round upper wall of the enclosure is maintained at constant low temperature whereas the bottom wall is heated by three different thermal conditions. The enclosure is permeated by a uniform magnetic field having variable orientation. The Brownian motion and thermophoretic phenomena of the nanoparticles are taken into account in model construction. The governing nonlinear momentum, energy, and concentration equations are solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. To discover the best performer, the average Nusselt number is demonstrated for different types of nanofluids. The heat transfer rate for different flow parameters, positions of the annulus, thicknesses of the half circular-annulus and thermal conditions is also exhibited.

Keywords: nanofluid, convection, semicircular-annulus, nonhomogeneous dynamic model, finite element method

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37 Investigation of Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Utilizing of Nanofluids

Authors: S. Etaig, R. Hasan, N. Perera


This paper analyses the heat transfer performance and fluid flow using different nanofluids in a square enclosure. The energy equation and Navier-Stokes equation are solved numerically using finite volume scheme. The effect of volume fraction concentration on the enhancement of heat transfer has been studied icorporating the Brownian motion; the influence of effective thermal conductivity on the enhancement was also investigated for a range of volume fraction concentration. The velocity profile for different Rayleigh number. Water-Cu, water AL2O3 and water-TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, natural convection, nanofluid and thermal conductivity

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36 Entropy Generation Analysis of Cylindrical Heat Pipe Using Nanofluid

Authors: Morteza Ghanbarpour, Rahmatollah Khodabandeh


In this study, second law of thermodynamic is employed to evaluate heat pipe thermal performance. In fact, nanofluids potential to decrease the entropy generation of cylindrical heat pipes are studied and the results are compared with experimental data. Some cylindrical copper heat pipes of 200 mm length and 6.35 mm outer diameter were fabricated and tested with distilled water and water based Al2O3 nanofluids with volume concentrations of 1-5% as working fluids. Nanofluids are nanotechnology-based colloidal suspensions fabricated by suspending nanoparticles in a base liquid. These fluids have shown potential to enhance heat transfer properties of the base liquids used in heat transfer application. When the working fluid undergoes between different states in heat pipe cycle the entropy is generated. Different sources of irreversibility in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle are investigated and nanofluid effect on each of these sources is studied. Both experimental and theoretical studies reveal that nanofluid is a good choice to minimize the entropy generation in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle which results in higher thermal performance and efficiency of the system.

Keywords: heat pipe, nanofluid, thermodynamics, entropy generation, thermal resistance

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35 Study on Residual Stress Measurement of Inconel-718 under Different Lubricating Conditions

Authors: M. Sandeep Kumar, Vasu Velagapudi, A. Venugopal


When machining is carried out on a workpiece, residual stresses are induced in the workpiece due to nonuniform thermal and mechanical loads. These stresses play a vital role in the surface integrity of the final product or the output. Inconel 718 is commonly used in critical structural components of aircraft engines due to its properties at high temperatures. Therefore it is important to keep down the stresses induced due to machining. This can be achieved through proper lubricating conditions. In this work, experiments were carried out to check the influence of the developed nanofluid as cutting fluids on residual stresses developed during the course of machining. The results of MQL/Nanofluids were compared with MQL/Vegetable oil and dry machining lubricating condition. Results indicate the reduction in residual stress with the use of MQL/Nanofluid.

Keywords: nanofluids, MQL, residual stress, Inconel-718

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34 The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process

Authors: Dogan Ciloglu, Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Harun Cifci


In this study, the experiments were carried out to determine the best coolant for the quenching process among water-based silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%). A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments. After the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it was suddenly plunged into the nanofluid suspensions. All experiments were performed at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure. Using the temperature-time data of the specimen, the cooling curves were obtained. The experimental results showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the quenching among other nanoparticles.

Keywords: quenching, nanofluid, pool boiling, heat transfer

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33 A Comparative Study on the Thermophysical and Lubricity Characteristics of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Oil and Nanoclay/Oil Nanofluids

Authors: H. Singh, H. Bhowmick


Now-a-days, particle based lubricants have been widely used to enhance the lubrication performance. Use of tailor made micro/nanofluids can reduce the friction losses and dissipate heat in a better way. Use of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) has gained interests because of its structure that can endure much better in a system mechanically or thermally in comparison to any other additive in oil. On the other hand, nanoclays have been characterized mechanically and tribologically for the use of clay/polymer composite, and they have been gaining huge interest. Hence it is interesting to be investigated the effect of nanoclays as additive in oil. Thermophysical characteristics of lubricant play a predominant role in defining the friction and wear characteristics of lubricated contacts. However, very limited studies have been carried out to correlate the thermophysical properties of nanolubricants with their lubricity characteristics. Besides, most of the lubricant formulations till dates are found to be optimized for steel/steel contacts. In the present study, Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoclay are used as particle additives in mineral oil to develop nanofluids of various concentrations. The prepared lubricants are tested for their rheological, thermal and lubricity characteristics under aluminium-steel contacts. From the thermophysical investigation, it is observed that nanoclay particles significantly improve the viscosity of lubricant with an insignificant improvement in thermal conductivity. On the other hand, MWCNT particles moderately increase the viscosity but significantly increase the thermal conductivity of the base oil. Frictional responses of the nanofluids are characterized using a Pin-on-Disc tribometer which reveal some interesting facts. The findings from this study will greatly aid in formulating the particle based lubricants for cutting fluid in metal forming industries as well as fully developed nanolubricants for aluminium and Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AMMC) tribocontact for the use in the automotive and their allied industries.

Keywords: MWCNT, Multiwall Carbon Nanotube, nanoclay, nanolubricant, rheology, thermal conductivity

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32 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Nanofluid TiO₂ through a Solar Flat Plate Collector

Authors: A. Maouassi, A. Beghidja, S. Daoud, N. Zeraibi


This paper illustrates a practical application of nanoparticles (TiO₂) as working fluid to stimulate solar flat plate collector efficiency with heat transfer modification properties. A numerical study of nanofluids laminar forced convection, permanent and stationary, is conducted in a solar flat plate collector. The effectiveness of these nanofluids are compared to conventional working fluid (water), wherein the dynamic and thermal properties are evaluated for four volume concentrations of nanoparticles (1%, 3%, 5% and 10%), and this done for Reynolds number from 25 to 800. Results from the application of those nonfluids are obtained versus pressure drop coefficient and Nusselt number are discussed later in this paper. Finally, we concluded that the heat transfer increases with increasing both nanoparticles concentration and Reynolds number.

Keywords: CFD, forced convection, nanofluid, solar flat plate collector efficiency, TiO₂ nanoparticles

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31 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay


The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, fluid dynamics

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30 Enhancement of Solar Energy Storage by Nanofluid-Glass Impurities Mixture

Authors: Farhan Lafta Rashid, Khudhair Abass Dawood, Ahmed Hashim


Recent advancements in nanotechnology have originated the new emerging heat transfer fluids called nanofluids. Nanofluids are prepared by dispersing and stably suspending nanometer sized solid particles in conventional heat transfer fluids. Past researches have shown that a very small amount of suspending nano-particles have the potential to enhance the thermo physical, transport, and radiative properties of the base fluid. At this research adding very small quantities of nano particle (TiO2) to pure water with different weights percent ranged 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 wt.%, we found that the best weight percent is 0.2 that gave more heat absorbed. Then adding glass impurities ranged 10, 20, and 30 wt. Percentage to the nano-fluid in order to enhance the absorbed heat so energy storage. The best glass weights percent is 0.3.

Keywords: energy storage, enhancement absorbed heat, glass impurities, solar energy

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