Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 349

Search results for: trajectory

349 A Review on Robot Trajectory Optimization and Process Validation through off-Line Programming in Virtual Environment Using Robcad

Authors: Ashwini Umale

Abstract:

Trajectory planning and optimization is a fundamental problem in articulated robotics. It is often viewed as a two phase problem of initial feasible path planning around obstacles and subsequent optimization of a trajectory satisfying dynamical constraints. An optimized trajectory of multi-axis robot is important and directly influences the Performance of the executing task. Optimal is defined to be the minimum time to transition from the current speed to the set speed. In optimization of trajectory through virtual environment explores the most suitable way to represent robot motion from virtual environment to real environment. This paper aims to review the research of trajectory optimization in virtual environment using simulation software Robcad. Improvements are to be expected in trajectory optimization to generate smooth and collision free trajectories with minimization of overall robot cycle time.

Keywords: trajectory optimization, forward kinematics and reverse kinematics, dynamic constraints, robcad simulation software

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348 Motion Planning of SCARA Robots for Trajectory Tracking

Authors: Giovanni Incerti

Abstract:

The paper presents a method for a simple and immediate motion planning of a SCARA robot, whose end-effector has to move along a given trajectory; the calculation procedure requires the user to define in analytical form or by points the trajectory to be followed and to assign the curvilinear abscissa as function of the time. On the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the robot, a specifically developed program determines the motion laws of the actuators that enable the robot to generate the required movement; this software can be used in all industrial applications for which a SCARA robot has to be frequently reprogrammed, in order to generate various types of trajectories with different motion times.

Keywords: motion planning, SCARA robot, trajectory tracking, analytical form

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
347 Object Trajectory Extraction by Using Mean of Motion Vectors Form Compressed Video Bitstream

Authors: Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yi-Chun Chang

Abstract:

Video object tracking is one of the popular research topics in computer graphics area. The trajectory can be applied in security, traffic control, even the sports training. The trajectory for sports training can be utilized to analyze the athlete’s performance without traditional sensors. There are many relevant works which utilize mean shift algorithm with background subtraction. This kind of the schemes should select a kernel function which may affect the accuracy and performance. In this paper, we consider the motion information in the pre-coded bitstream. The proposed algorithm extracts the trajectory by composing the motion vectors from the pre-coded bitstream. We gather the motion vectors from the overlap area of the object and calculate mean of the overlapped motion vectors. We implement and simulate our proposed algorithm in H.264 video codec. The performance is better than relevant works and keeps the accuracy of the object trajectory. The experimental results show that the proposed trajectory extraction can extract trajectory form the pre-coded bitstream in high accuracy and achieve higher performance other relevant works.

Keywords: H.264, video bitstream, video object tracking, sports training

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
346 Iterative Dynamic Programming for 4D Flight Trajectory Optimization

Authors: Kawser Ahmed, K. Bousson, Milca F. Coelho

Abstract:

4D flight trajectory optimization is one of the key ingredients to improve flight efficiency and to enhance the air traffic capacity in the current air traffic management (ATM). The present paper explores the iterative dynamic programming (IDP) as a potential numerical optimization method for 4D flight trajectory optimization. IDP is an iterative version of the Dynamic programming (DP) method. Due to the numerical framework, DP is very suitable to deal with nonlinear discrete dynamic systems. The 4D waypoint representation of the flight trajectory is similar to the discretization by a grid system; thus DP is a natural method to deal with the 4D flight trajectory optimization. However, the computational time and space complexity demanded by the DP is enormous due to the immense number of grid points required to find the optimum, which prevents the use of the DP in many practical high dimension problems. On the other hand, the IDP has shown potentials to deal successfully with high dimension optimal control problems even with a few numbers of grid points at each stage, which reduces the computational effort over the traditional DP approach. Although the IDP has been applied successfully in chemical engineering problems, IDP is yet to be validated in 4D flight trajectory optimization problems. In this paper, the IDP has been successfully used to generate minimum length 4D optimal trajectory avoiding any obstacle in its path, such as a no-fly zone or residential areas when flying in low altitude to reduce noise pollution.

Keywords: 4D waypoint navigation, iterative dynamic programming, obstacle avoidance, trajectory optimization

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345 Tracking Trajectory of a Cable-Driven Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Hachmia Faqihi, Maarouf Saad, Khalid Benjelloun, Mohammed Benbrahim, M. Nabil Kabbaj

Abstract:

This paper investigates and presents a cable-driven robot to lower limb rehabilitation use in sagittal plane. The presented rehabilitation robot is used for a trajectory tracking in joint space. The paper covers kinematic and dynamic analysis, which reveals the tensionability of the used cables as being the actuating source to provide a rehabilitation exercises of the human leg. The desired trajectory is generated to be used in the control system design in joint space. The obtained simulation results is showed to be efficient in this kind of application.

Keywords: cable-driven multi-body system, computed-torque controller, lower limb rehabilitation, tracking trajectory

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344 Real-Time Path Planning for Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Improved Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree and Iterative Trajectory Optimization

Authors: A. Ramalho, L. Romeiro, R. Ventura, A. Suleman

Abstract:

A real-time path planning framework for Unmanned Air Vehicles, and in particular multi-rotors is proposed. The framework is designed to provide feasible trajectories from the current UAV position to a goal state, taking into account constraints such as obstacle avoidance, problem kinematics, and vehicle limitations such as maximum speed and maximum acceleration. The framework computes feasible paths online, allowing to avoid new, unknown, dynamic obstacles without fully re-computing the trajectory. These features are achieved using an iterative process in which the robot computes and optimizes the trajectory while performing the mission objectives. A first trajectory is computed using a modified Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm, that provides trajectories that respect a maximum curvature constraint. The trajectory optimization is accomplished using the Interior Point Optimizer (IPOPT) as a solver. The framework has proven to be able to compute a trajectory and optimize to a locally optimal with computational efficiency making it feasible for real-time operations.

Keywords: interior point optimization, multi-rotors, online path planning, rapidly exploring random trees, trajectory optimization

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343 Static vs. Stream Mining Trajectories Similarity Measures

Authors: Musaab Riyadh, Norwati Mustapha, Dina Riyadh

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Trajectory similarity can be defined as the cost of transforming one trajectory into another based on certain similarity method. It is the core of numerous mining tasks such as clustering, classification, and indexing. Various approaches have been suggested to measure similarity based on the geometric and dynamic properties of trajectory, the overlapping between trajectory segments, and the confined area between entire trajectories. In this article, an evaluation of these approaches has been done based on computational cost, usage memory, accuracy, and the amount of data which is needed in advance to determine its suitability to stream mining applications. The evaluation results show that the stream mining applications support similarity methods which have low computational cost and memory, single scan on data, and free of mathematical complexity due to the high-speed generation of data.

Keywords: global distance measure, local distance measure, semantic trajectory, spatial dimension, stream data mining

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342 Investigation of Riders' Path on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Lemonakis Panagiotis, Eliou Nikos, Karakasidis Theodoros, Botzoris George

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It is well known that trajectory along with speed are two of the most important contributing factors in road accidents. Trajectory is meant as the "line“, usually different from the center-line that a driver traverses through horizontal curves which depends on the characteristics of the road environment (especially the curvature), the vehicle and the driver himself. Drivers and especially riders, tend to broaden their paths in order to succeed greater path radiuses and hence, reduce the applied centrifugal force enhancing safety. The objective of the present research is to investigate riders’ path on horizontal curves. Within the context of the research, field measurements were conducted on a rural two lane highway, with the participation of eight riders and the use of an instrumented motorcycle. The research has shown that the trajectory of the riders is correlated to the radius and the length of the horizontal curve as well.

Keywords: trajectory, path, riders, horizontal curves

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341 Trajectory Tracking of a 2-Link Mobile Manipulator Using Sliding Mode Control Method

Authors: Abolfazl Mohammadijoo

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In this paper, we are investigating the sliding mode control approach for trajectory tracking of a two-link-manipulator with a wheeled mobile robot in its base. The main challenge of this work is the dynamic interaction between mobile base and manipulator, which makes trajectory tracking more difficult than n-link manipulators with a fixed base. Another challenging part of this work is to avoid from chattering phenomenon of sliding mode control that makes lots of damages for actuators in real industrial cases. The results show the effectiveness of the sliding mode control approach for the desired trajectory.

Keywords: mobile manipulator, sliding mode control, dynamic interaction, mobile robotics

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340 Hand Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dynamic Hand Gestures Used in Indian Sign Language

Authors: Daleesha M. Viswanathan, Sumam Mary Idicula

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Dynamic hand gestures are an intrinsic component in sign language communication. Extracting spatial temporal features of the hand gesture trajectory plays an important role in a dynamic gesture recognition system. Finding a discrete feature descriptor for the motion trajectory based on the orientation feature is the main concern of this paper. Kalman filter algorithm and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models are incorporated with this recognition system for hand trajectory tracking and for spatial temporal classification, respectively.

Keywords: orientation features, discrete feature vector, HMM., Indian sign language

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339 Numerical Predictions of Trajectory Stability of a High-Speed Water-Entry and Water-Exit Projectile

Authors: Lin Lu, Qiang Li, Tao Cai, Pengjun Zhang

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In this study, a detailed analysis of trajectory stability and flow characteristics of a high-speed projectile during the water-entry and water-exit process has been investigated numerically. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri (Z-G-B) cavitation model and the SST k-ω turbulence model based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method are employed. The numerical methodology is validated by comparing the experimental photograph of cavitation shape and the experimental underwater velocity with the numerical simulation results. Based on the numerical methodology, the influences of rotational speed, water-entry and water-exit angle of the projectile on the trajectory stability and flow characteristics have been carried out in detail. The variation features of projectile trajectory and total resistance have been conducted, respectively. In addition, the cavitation characteristics of water-entry and water-exit have been presented and analyzed. Results show that it may not be applicable for the water-entry and water-exit to achieve the projectile stability through the rotation of projectile. Furthermore, there ought to be a critical water-entry angle for the water-entry stability of practical projectile. The impact of water-exit angle on the trajectory stability and cavity phenomenon is not as remarkable as that of the water-entry angle.

Keywords: cavitation characteristics, high-speed projectile, numerical predictions, trajectory stability, water-entry, water-exit

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338 Visual Analytics of Higher Order Information for Trajectory Datasets

Authors: Ye Wang, Ickjai Lee

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Due to the widespread of mobile sensing, there is a strong need to handle trails of moving objects, trajectories. This paper proposes three visual analytic approaches for higher order information of trajectory data sets based on the higher order Voronoi diagram data structure. Proposed approaches reveal geometrical information, topological, and directional information. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of proposed three approaches.

Keywords: visual analytics, higher order information, trajectory datasets, spatio-temporal data

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337 Analysis the Trajectory of the Spacecraft during the Transition to the Planet's Orbit Using Aerobraking in the Atmosphere of the Planet

Authors: Zaw Min Tun

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The paper focuses on the spacecraft’s trajectory transition from interplanetary hyperbolic orbit to the planet’s orbit using the aerobraking in the atmosphere of the planet. A considerable mass of fuel is consumed during the spacecraft transition from the planet’s gravitation assist trajectory into the planet’s satellite orbit. To reduce the fuel consumption in this transition need to slow down the spacecraft’s velocity in the planet’s atmosphere and reduce its orbital transition time. The paper is devoted to the use of the planet’s atmosphere for slowing down the spacecraft during its transition into the satellite orbit with uncertain atmospheric parameters. To reduce the orbital transition time of the spacecraft is controlled by the change of attack angles’ values at the aerodynamic deceleration path and adjusting the minimum flight altitude of the spacecraft at the pericenter of the planet’s upper atmosphere.

Keywords: aerobraking, atmosphere of the planet, orbital transition time, Spacecraft’s trajectory

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336 Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking

Authors: Osman Acar

Abstract:

Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.

Keywords: sun tracking, theoretical sun trajectory, spherical mechanism, inverse kinematic analysis

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335 Determining Abnomal Behaviors in UAV Robots for Trajectory Control in Teleoperation

Authors: Kiwon Yeom

Abstract:

Change points are abrupt variations in a data sequence. Detection of change points is useful in modeling, analyzing, and predicting time series in application areas such as robotics and teleoperation. In this paper, a change point is defined to be a discontinuity in one of its derivatives. This paper presents a reliable method for detecting discontinuities within a three-dimensional trajectory data. The problem of determining one or more discontinuities is considered in regular and irregular trajectory data from teleoperation. We examine the geometric detection algorithm and illustrate the use of the method on real data examples.

Keywords: change point, discontinuity, teleoperation, abrupt variation

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334 Perturbative Analysis on a Lunar Free Return Trajectory

Authors: Emre Ünal, Hasan Başaran

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In this study, starting with a predetermined Lunar free-return trajectory, an analysis of major near-Earth perturbations is carried out. Referencing to historical Apollo-13 flight, changes in the mission’s resultant perimoon and perigee altitudes with each perturbative effect are evaluated. The perturbations that were considered are Earth oblateness effects, up to the 6th order, atmospheric drag, third body perturbations consisting of solar and planetary effects and solar radiation pressure effects. It is found that for a Moon mission, most of the main perturbative effects spoil the trajectory significantly while some came out to be negligible. It is seen that for apparent future request of constructing low cost, reliable and safe trajectories to the Moon, most of the orbital perturbations are crucial.

Keywords: Apollo-13 trajectory, atmospheric drag, lunar trajectories, oblateness effect, perturbative effects, solar radiation pressure, third body perturbations

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333 Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yu-Sheng Hsu

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On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be used for constructing the 2D vehicle environmental map and available parking type judgment. Finally, the auto-parking controller executes the on-line optimal parking trajectory planning based on this 2D environmental map, and monitors the real-time vehicle parking trajectory tracking control. This low cost auto-parking system was tested on a model car.

Keywords: vehicle auto-parking, parking space detection, parking path tracking control, intelligent fuzzy controller

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332 An Activity Based Trajectory Search Approach

Authors: Mohamed Mahmoud Hasan, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar

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With the gigantic increment in portable applications use and the spread of positioning and location-aware technologies that we are seeing today, new procedures and methodologies for location-based strategies are required. Location recommendation is one of the highly demanded location-aware applications uniquely with the wide accessibility of social network applications that are location-aware including Facebook check-ins, Foursquare, and others. In this paper, we aim to present a new methodology for location recommendation. The proposed approach coordinates customary spatial traits alongside other essential components including shortest distance, and user interests. We also present another idea namely, "activity trajectory" that represents trajectory that fulfills the set of activities that the user is intrigued to do. The approach dispatched acquaints the related distance value to select trajectory(ies) with minimum cost value (distance) and spatial-area to prune unneeded directions. The proposed calculation utilizes the idea of movement direction to prescribe most comparable N-trajectory(ies) that matches the client's required action design with least voyaging separation. To upgrade the execution of the proposed approach, parallel handling is applied through the employment of a MapReduce based approach. Experiments taking into account genuine information sets were built up and tested for assessing the proposed approach. The exhibited tests indicate how the proposed approach beets different strategies giving better precision and run time.

Keywords: location based recommendation, map-reduce, recommendation system, trajectory search

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331 The Trajectory of the Ball in Football Game

Authors: Mahdi Motahari, Mojtaba Farzaneh, Ebrahim Sepidbar

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Tracking of moving and flying targets is one of the most important issues in image processing topic. Estimating of trajectory of desired object in short-term and long-term scale is more important than tracking of moving and flying targets. In this paper, a new way of identifying and estimating of future trajectory of a moving ball in long-term scale is estimated by using synthesis and interaction of image processing algorithms including noise removal and image segmentation, Kalman filter algorithm in order to estimating of trajectory of ball in football game in short-term scale and intelligent adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm based on time series of traverse distance. The proposed system attain more than 96% identify accuracy by using aforesaid methods and relaying on aforesaid algorithms and data base video in format of synthesis and interaction. Although the present method has high precision, it is time consuming. By comparing this method with other methods we realize the accuracy and efficiency of that.

Keywords: tracking, signal processing, moving targets and flying, artificial intelligent systems, estimating of trajectory, Kalman filter

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330 Dissecting Big Trajectory Data to Analyse Road Network Travel Efficiency

Authors: Rania Alshikhe, Vinita Jindal

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Digital innovation has played a crucial role in managing smart transportation. For this, big trajectory data collected from traveling vehicles, such as taxis through installed global positioning system (GPS)-enabled devices can be utilized. It offers an unprecedented opportunity to trace the movements of vehicles in fine spatiotemporal granularity. This paper aims to explore big trajectory data to measure the travel efficiency of road networks using the proposed statistical travel efficiency measure (STEM) across an entire city. Further, it identifies the cause of low travel efficiency by proposed least square approximation network-based causality exploration (LANCE). Finally, the resulting data analysis reveals the causes of low travel efficiency, along with the road segments that need to be optimized to improve the traffic conditions and thus minimize the average travel time from given point A to point B in the road network. Obtained results show that our proposed approach outperforms the baseline algorithms for measuring the travel efficiency of the road network.

Keywords: GPS trajectory, road network, taxi trips, digital map, big data, STEM, LANCE

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329 Study on Robot Trajectory Planning by Robot End-Effector Using Dual Curvature Theory of the Ruled Surface

Authors: Y. S. Oh, P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh

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This paper presents the method of trajectory planning by the robot end-effector which accounts for more accurate and smooth differential geometry of the ruled surface generated by tool line fixed with end-effector based on the methods of curvature theory of ruled surface and the dual curvature theory, and focuses on the underlying relation to unite them for enhancing the efficiency for trajectory planning. Robot motion can be represented as motion properties of the ruled surface generated by trajectory of the Tool Center Point (TCP). The linear and angular properties of the six degree-of-freedom motion of end-effector are computed using the explicit formulas and functions from curvature theory and dual curvature theory. This paper explains the complete dualization of ruled surface and shows that the linear and angular motion applied using the method of dual curvature theory is more accurate and less complex.

Keywords: dual curvature theory, robot end effector, ruled surface, TCP (Tool Center Point)

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328 Automatic Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dual Human Interaction Using Video Sequences

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Pin-Chi Lin, Li-Der Jeng

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Advance in techniques of image and video processing has enabled the development of intelligent video surveillance systems. This study was aimed to automatically detect moving human objects and to analyze events of dual human interaction in a surveillance scene. Our system was developed in four major steps: image preprocessing, human object detection, human object tracking, and motion trajectory analysis. The adaptive background subtraction and image processing techniques were used to detect and track moving human objects. To solve the occlusion problem during the interaction, the Kalman filter was used to retain a complete trajectory for each human object. Finally, the motion trajectory analysis was developed to distinguish between the interaction and non-interaction events based on derivatives of trajectories related to the speed of the moving objects. Using a database of 60 video sequences, our system could achieve the classification accuracy of 80% in interaction events and 95% in non-interaction events, respectively. In summary, we have explored the idea to investigate a system for the automatic classification of events for interaction and non-interaction events using surveillance cameras. Ultimately, this system could be incorporated in an intelligent surveillance system for the detection and/or classification of abnormal or criminal events (e.g., theft, snatch, fighting, etc.).

Keywords: motion detection, motion tracking, trajectory analysis, video surveillance

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327 Design, Control and Autonomous Trajectory Tracking of an Octorotor Rotorcraft

Authors: Seyed Jamal Haddadi, M. Reza Mehranpour, Roya Sadat Mortazavi, Zahra Sadat Mortazavi

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Principal aim of this research is trajectory tracking, attitude and position control scheme in real flight mode by an Octorotor helicopter. For more stability, in this Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), number of motors is increased to eight motors which end of each arm installed two coaxial counter rotating motors. Dynamic model of this Octorotor includes of motion equation for translation and rotation. Utilized controller is proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop. The proposed controller is designed such that to be able to attenuate an effect of external wind disturbance and guarantee stability in this condition. The trajectory is determined by a Global Positioning System (GPS). Also an ARM CortexM4 is used as microprocessor. Electronic board of this UAV designed as able to records all of the sensors data, similar to an aircraft black box in external memory. Finally after auto landing of Octorotor, flight data is shown in MATLAB software and Experimental results of the proposed controller show the effectiveness of our approach on the Autonomous Quadrotor in real conditions.

Keywords: octorotor, design, PID controller, autonomous, trajectory tracking

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326 HBTOnto: An Ontology Model for Analyzing Human Behavior Trajectories

Authors: Heba M. Wagih, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar

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Social Network has recently played a significant role in both scientific and social communities. The growing adoption of social network applications has been a relevant source of information nowadays. Due to its popularity, several research trends are emerged to service the huge volume of users including, Location-Based Social Networks (LBSN), Recommendation Systems, Sentiment Analysis Applications, and many others. LBSNs applications are among the highly demanded applications that do not focus only on analyzing the spatiotemporal positions in a given raw trajectory but also on understanding the semantics behind the dynamics of the moving object. LBSNs are possible means of predicting human mobility based on users social ties as well as their spatial preferences. LBSNs rely on the efficient representation of users’ trajectories. Hence, traditional raw trajectory information is no longer convenient. In our research, we focus on studying human behavior trajectory which is the major pillar in location recommendation systems. In this paper, we propose an ontology design patterns with their underlying description logics to efficiently annotate human behavior trajectories.

Keywords: human behavior trajectory, location-based social network, ontology, social network

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325 Performance Evaluation for Weightlifting Lifter by Barbell Trajectory

Authors: Ying-Chen Lin, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the kinematic characteristics and differences of the snatch barbell trajectory of 53 kg class female weight lifters. We take the 2014 Taiwan College Cup players as examples, and tend to make kinematic applications through the proven weightlifting barbell track system. The competition videos are taken by consumer camcorder with a tripod which set up at the side of the lifter. The results will be discussed in three parts, the first part is various lifting phase, the second part is the compare lifting between success and unsuccessful, and the third part is the outstanding player compare with the general. Conclusion through the barbell can be used to observe the trajectories of our players cite the usual process cannot be observed in the presence of malfunction or habits, so that the coach can find the problem more accurately guide the players. Our system can be applied in practice and competition to increase the resilience of the lifter on the field.

Keywords: computer aided sport training, kinematic, trajectory, weightlifting

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324 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

Authors: E. Popov, N. Yorino, Y. Zoka, Y. Sasaki, H. Sugihara

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This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

Keywords: power system, transient stability, critical trajectory method, energy function method

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323 Trajectory Design and Power Allocation for Energy -Efficient UAV Communication Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Yuling Cui, Danhao Deng, Chaowei Wang, Weidong Wang

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In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used in wireless communication, attracting more and more attention from researchers. UAVs can not only serve as a relay for auxiliary communication but also serve as an aerial base station for ground users (GUs). However, limited energy means that they cannot work all the time and cover a limited range of services. In this paper, we investigate 2D UAV trajectory design and power allocation in order to maximize the UAV's service time and downlink throughput. Based on deep reinforcement learning, we propose a depth deterministic strategy gradient algorithm for trajectory design and power distribution (TDPA-DDPG) to solve the energy-efficient and communication service quality problem. The simulation results show that TDPA-DDPG can extend the service time of UAV as much as possible, improve the communication service quality, and realize the maximization of downlink throughput, which is significantly improved compared with existing methods.

Keywords: UAV trajectory design, power allocation, energy efficient, downlink throughput, deep reinforcement learning, DDPG

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322 Trajectory Tracking Controller Based on Normalized Right Coprime Factorization Technique for the Ball and Plate System

Authors: Martins Olatunbosun Babatunde, Muhammed Bashir Muazu, Emmanuel Adewale Adedokun

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This paper presents the development of a double-loop trajectory-tracking controller for the ball and plate system (BPS) using the Normalized Right Coprime Factorization (NRCF) scheme.The Linear Algebraic (LA) method is used to design the inner loop required to stabilize the ball, while H-infinity NRCF method, that involved the lead-lag compensator design approach, is used to develop the outer loop that controls the plate. Simulation results show that the plate was stabilized at 0.2989 seconds and the ball was able to settle after 0.9646 seconds, with a trajectory tracking error of 0.0036. This shows that the controller has good adaptability and robustness.

Keywords: ball and plate system, normalized right coprime factorization, linear algebraic method, compensator, controller, tracking.

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321 Trajectory Generation Procedure for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Amor Jnifene, Cedric Cocaud

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One of the most constraining problems facing the development of autonomous vehicles is the limitations of current technologies. Guidance and navigation controllers need to be faster and more robust. Communication data links need to be more reliable and secure. For an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to be useful, and fully autonomous, one important feature that needs to be an integral part of the navigation system is autonomous trajectory planning. The work discussed in this paper presents a method for on-line trajectory planning for UAV’s. This method takes into account various constraints of different types including specific vectors of approach close to target points, multiple objectives, and other constraints related to speed, altitude, and obstacle avoidance. The trajectory produced by the proposed method ensures a smooth transition between different segments, satisfies the minimum curvature imposed by the dynamics of the UAV, and finds the optimum velocity based on available atmospheric conditions. Given a set of objective points and waypoints a skeleton of the trajectory is constructed first by linking all waypoints with straight segments based on the order in which they are encountered in the path. Secondly, vectors of approach (VoA) are assigned to objective waypoints and their preceding transitional waypoint if any. Thirdly, the straight segments are replaced by 3D curvilinear trajectories taking into account the aircraft dynamics. In summary, this work presents a method for on-line 3D trajectory generation (TG) of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The method takes as inputs a series of waypoints and an optional vector of approach for each of the waypoints. Using a dynamic model based on the performance equations of fixed wing aircrafts, the TG computes a set of 3D parametric curves establishing a course between every pair of waypoints, and assembling these sets of curves to construct a complete trajectory. The algorithm ensures geometric continuity at each connection point between two sets of curves. The geometry of the trajectory is optimized according to the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft such that the result translates into a series of dynamically feasible maneuvers. In summary, this work presents a method for on-line 3D trajectory generation (TG) of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The method takes as inputs a series of waypoints and an optional vector of approach for each of the waypoints. Using a dynamic model based on the performance equations of fixed wing aircraft, the TG computes a set of 3D parametric curves establishing a course between every pair of waypoints, and assembling these sets of curves to construct a complete trajectory. The algorithm ensures geometric continuity at each connection point between two sets of curves. The geometry of the trajectory is optimized according to the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft such that the result translates into a series of dynamically feasible maneuvers.

Keywords: trajectory planning, unmanned autonomous air vehicle, vector of approach, waypoints

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320 Two-Stage Launch Vehicle Trajectory Modeling for Low Earth Orbit Applications

Authors: Assem M. F. Sallam, Ah. El-S. Makled

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This paper presents a study on the trajectory of a two stage launch vehicle. The study includes dynamic responses of motion parameters as well as the variation of angles affecting the orientation of the launch vehicle (LV). LV dynamic characteristics including state vector variation with corresponding altitude and velocity for the different LV stages separation, as well as the angle of attack and flight path angles are also discussed. A flight trajectory study for the drop zone of first stage and the jettisoning of fairing are introduced in the mathematical modeling to study their effect. To increase the accuracy of the LV model, atmospheric model is used taking into consideration geographical location and the values of solar flux related to the date and time of launch, accurate atmospheric model leads to enhancement of the calculation of Mach number, which affects the drag force over the LV. The mathematical model is implemented on MATLAB based software (Simulink). The real available experimental data are compared with results obtained from the theoretical computation model. The comparison shows good agreement, which proves the validity of the developed simulation model; the maximum error noticed was generally less than 10%, which is a result that can lead to future works and enhancement to decrease this level of error.

Keywords: launch vehicle modeling, launch vehicle trajectory, mathematical modeling, Matlab- Simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 199