Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: RFLP

59 Identification of Mx Gene Polymorphism in Indragiri Hulu duck by PCR-RFLP

Authors: Restu Misrianti

Abstract:

The amino acid variation of Asn (allele A) at position 631 in Mx gene was specific to positive antiviral to avian viral desease. This research was aimed at identifying polymorphism of Mx gene in duck using molecular technique. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to select the genotype of AA, AG and GG. There were thirteen duck from Indragiri Hulu regency (Riau Province) used in this experiment. DNA amplification results showed that the Mx gene in duck is found in a 73 bp fragment. Mx gene in duck did not show any polymorphism. The frequency of the resistant allele (AA) was 0%, while the frequency of the susceptible allele (GG) was 100%.

Keywords: duck, Mx gene, PCR, RFLP

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58 Detection of Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene in Holstein Cattle

Authors: Emine Şahin, Murat Soner Balcıoğlu

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The aim of this study was to determine the growth hormone (bGH) gene polymorphism in the Holstein cattle growing around Antalya in Turkey. In order to determine the bGH-AluI polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed. A 891 bp fragment of bGH was amplified and two types of alleles C and D for bGH were observed. In this study, the frequencies of C and D alleles were 0.8438 and 0.1562, respectively. The genotype frequencies for CC, CD and DD were 0.787, 0.191 and 0.022, respectively. According to the results of the chi-square test, a significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not determined for the bGH locus in the population.

Keywords: Growth Hormone Gene, Holstein , Polymorphism, RFLP

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57 Efficiency of PCR-RFLP for the Identification of Adulteries in Meat Formulation

Authors: Hela Gargouri, Nizar Moalla, Hassen Hadj Kacem

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Meat adulteration affecting the safety and quality of food is becoming one of the main concerns of public interest across the world. The drastic consequences on the meat industry highlighted the urgent necessity to control the products' quality and to point out the complexity of both supply and processing circuits. Due to the expansion of this problem, the authentic testing of foods, particularly meat and its products, is deemed crucial to avoid unfair market competition and to protect consumers from fraudulent practices of meat adulteration. The adoption of authentication methods by the food quality-control laboratories is becoming a priority issue. However, in some developing countries, the number of food tests is still insignificant, although a variety of processed and traditional meat products are widely consumed. Little attention has been paid to provide an easy, fast, reproducible, and low-cost molecular test, which could be conducted in a basic laboratory. In the current study, the 359 bp fragment of the cytochrome-b gene was mapped by PCR-RFLP using firstly fresh biological supports (DNA and meat) and then turkey salami as an example of commercial processed meat. This technique has been established through several optimizations, namely: the selection of restriction enzymes. The digestion with BsmAI, SspI, and TaaI succeed to identify the seven included animal species when meat is formed by individual species and when the meat is a mixture of different origin. In this study, the PCR-RFLP technique using universal primer succeed to meet our needs by providing an indirect sequencing method identifying by restriction enzymes the specificities characterizing different species on the same amplicon reducing the number of potential tests.

Keywords: adulteration, animal species, authentication, meat, mtDNA, PCR-RFLP

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56 Analysis of Non-Coding Genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae for Molecular Epidemiology Typing

Authors: Martynova Alina, Lyubov Buzoleva

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumonias and meningitids throught all the world. Having high genetic diversity, this microorganism can cause different clinical forms of pneumococcal infections and microbiologically it is really difficult diagnosed by routine methods. Also, epidemiological surveillance requires more developed methods of molecular typing because the recent method of serotyping doesn't allow to distinguish invasive and non-invasive isolates properly. Non-coding genome of bacteria seems to be the interesting source for seeking of highly distinguishable markers to discriminate the subspecies of such a variable bacteria as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Technically, we proposed scheme of discrimination of S.pneumoniae strains with amplification of non-coding region (SP_1932) with the following restriction with 2 types of enzymes of Alu1 and Mn1. Aim: This research aimed to compare different methods of typing and their application for molecular epidemiology purposes. Methods: we analyzed population of 100 strains of S.pneumoniae isolated from different patients by different molecular epidemiology methods such as pulse-field gel electophoresis (PFGE), restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and multilolocus sequence typing (MLST), and all of them were compared with classic typing method as serotyping. The discriminative power was estimated with Simpson Index (SI). Results: We revealed that the most discriminative typing method is RFLP (SI=0,97, there were distinguished 42 genotypes).PFGE was slightly less discriminative (SI=0,95, we identified 35 genotypes). MLST is still the best reference method (SI=1.0). Classic method of serotyping showed quite weak discriminative power (SI=0,93, 24 genotypes). In addition, sensivity of RFLP was 100%, specificity was 97,09%. Conclusion: the most appropriate method for routine epidemiology surveillance is RFLP with non-coding region of Streptococcsu pneumoniae, then PFGE, though in some cases these results should be obligatory confirmed by MLST.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology typing, non-coding genome, Streptococcus pneumoniae, MLST

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55 Association of Xeroderma pigmentosum Group D Gene Polymorphism with Colorectal Cancer Risk in Kashmiri Population

Authors: Syed Sameer Aga, Saniya Nissar

Abstract:

The Xeroderma pigmentosum group D gene (XPD) plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway of the damaged DNA. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of the XPD gene may alter DNA repair capacity of the protein and hence can modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The aim of the study was to determine the genetic association of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. 120 CRC patients and 160 normal controls were assessed for genotype frequencies of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism using PCR-RFLP technique. We observed a significant association (p < 0.05) between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and the risk of developing CRC (p < 0.05). Additionally, Gln/Gln genotype of the XPD gene doubled the risk for the development of CRC [p < 0.05; OR=2.25 95% CI (1.07-4.7)]. Our results suggest that there is a significant association between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and the risk of CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, polymorphism, RFLP, DNA Repair, NER, XPD

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54 Polymorphism of Candidate Genes for Meat Production in Lori Sheep

Authors: Shahram Nanekarania, Majid Goodarzia

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Calpastatin and callipyge have been known as one of the candidate genes in meat quality and quantity. Calpastatin gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep and callipyge gene has been localized in the telomeric region on ovine chromosome 18. The objective of this study was identification of calpastatin and callipyge genes polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Lori sheep kept in Iran. Blood samples were taken from 120 Lori sheep breed and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. Polymorphism was identified using the PCR-RFLP technique. The PCR products were digested with MspI and FaqI restriction enzymes for calpastatin gene and callipyge gene, respectively. In this population, three patterns were observed and AA, AB, BB genotype have been identified with the 0.32, 0.63, 0.05 frequencies for calpastatin gene. The results obtained for the callipyge gene revealed that only the wild-type allele A was observed, indicating that only genotype AA was present in the population under consideration.

Keywords: polymorphism, calpastatin, callipyge, PCR-RFLP, Lori sheep

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53 Association of Non Synonymous SNP in DC-SIGN Receptor Gene with Tuberculosis (Tb)

Authors: Saima Suleman, Kalsoom Sughra, Naeem Mahmood Ashraf

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a communicable chronic illness. This disease is being highly focused by researchers as it is present approximately in one third of world population either in active or latent form. The genetic makeup of a person plays an important part in producing immunity against disease. And one important factor association is single nucleotide polymorphism of relevant gene. In this study, we have studied association between single nucleotide polymorphism of CD-209 gene (encode DC-SIGN receptor) and patients of tuberculosis. Dry lab (in silico) and wet lab (RFLP) analysis have been carried out. GWAS catalogue and GEO database have been searched to find out previous association data. No association study has been found related to CD-209 nsSNPs but role of CD-209 in pulmonary tuberculosis have been addressed in GEO database.Therefore, CD-209 has been selected for this study. Different databases like ENSEMBLE and 1000 Genome Project has been used to retrieve SNP data in form of VCF file which is further submitted to different software to sort SNPs into benign and deleterious. Selected SNPs are further annotated by using 3-D modeling techniques using I-TASSER online software. Furthermore, selected nsSNPs were checked in Gujrat and Faisalabad population through RFLP analysis. In this study population two SNPs are found to be associated with tuberculosis while one nsSNP is not found to be associated with the disease.

Keywords: association, CD209, DC-SIGN, tuberculosis

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52 Impact of CYP3A5 Polymorphism on Tacrolimus to Predict the Optimal Initial Dose Requirements in South Indian Renal Transplant Recipients

Authors: S. Sreeja, Radhakrishnan R. Nair, Noble Gracious, Sreeja S. Nair, M. Radhakrishna Pillai

Abstract:

Background: Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant clinically used for the long term treatment of antirejection of transplanted organs in liver and kidney transplant recipients though dose optimization is poorly managed. However, So far no study has been carried out on the South Indian kidney transplant patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential influence of a functional polymorphism in CYP3A5*3 gene on tacrolimus physiological availability/dose ratio in South Indian renal transplant patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty five renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus were enrolled in this study. Their body weight, drug dosage, and therapeutic concentration of Tacrolimus were observed. All patients were on standard immunosuppressive regime of Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate mofetil along with steroids on a starting dose of Tac 0.1 mg/kg/day. CYP3A5 genotyping was performed by PCR followed with RFLP. Conformation of RFLP analysis and variation in the nucleotide sequence of CYP3A5*3 gene were determined by direct sequencing using a validated automated generic analyzer. Results: A significant association was found between tacrolimus per dose/kg/d and CYP3A5 gene (A6986G) polymorphism in the study population. The CYP3A5 *1/*1, *1/*3 and *3/*3 genotypes were detected in 5 (20 %), 5 (20 %) and 15 (60 %) of the 25 graft recipients, respectively. CYP3A5*3 genotypes were found to be a good predictor of tacrolimus Concentration/Dose ratio in kidney transplant recipients. Significantly higher L/D was observed among non-expressors 9.483 ng/mL(4.5- 14.1) as compared with the expressors 5.154 ng/mL (4.42-6.5 ) of CYP3A5. Acute rejection episodes were significantly higher for CYP3A5*1 homozygotes compared to patients with CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP3A5*3/*3 genotypes (40 % versus 20 % and 13 %, respectively ). The dose normalized TAC concentration (ng/ml/mg/kg) was significantly lower in patients having CYP3A5*1/*3 polymorphism. Conclusion: This is the first study to extensively determine the effect of CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in South Indian renal transplant recipients and also shows that majority of our patients carry mutant allele A6986G in CYP3A5*3 gene. Identification of CYP3A5 polymorphism prior to transplantation could contribute to evaluate the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus for each patient.

Keywords: kidney transplant patients, CYP3A5 genotype, tacrolimus, RFLP

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51 Detection of MspI Polymorphism and SNP of GH Gene in Some Camel Breeds Reared in Egypt

Authors: Sekena H. Abd El-Aziem, Heba A. M. Abd El-Kader, Sally S. Alam, Othman E. Othman

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Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone synthesized and secreted by the somatotroph cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in a circadian and pulsatile manner, the pattern of which plays an important role in postnatal longitudinal growth and development, tissue growth, lactation, reproduction as well as protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to detect the genetic polymorphism of GH gene in five camel breeds reared in Egypt; Sudany, Somali, Mowaled, Maghrabi and Falahy, using PCR-RFLP technique. Also this work aimed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism between different genotypes detected in these camel breeds. The amplified fragment of camel GH at 613-bp was digested with the restriction enzyme MspI and the result revealed the presence of three different genotypes; CC, CT and TT in tested breeds and significant differences were recorded in the genotype frequencies between these camel breeds. The result showed that the Maghrabi breed that is classified as a dual purpose camels had higher frequency for allele C (0.75) than those in the other tested four breeds. The sequence analysis declared the presence of a SNP (C→T) at position 264 in the amplified fragment which is responsible for the destruction of the restriction site C^CGG and consequently the appearance of two different alleles C and T. The nucleotide sequences of camel GH alleles T and C were submitted to nucleotide sequences database NCBI/Bankit/GenBank and have accession numbers: KP143517 and KP143518, respectively. It is concluded that only one SNP C→T was detected in GH gene among the five tested camel breeds reared in Egypt and this nucleotide substitution can be used as a marker for the genetic biodiversity between camel breeds reared in Egypt. Also, due to the possible association between allele C and higher growth rate, we can used it in MAS for camels and enter the camels possess this allele in breeding program as a way for enhancement of growth trait in camel breeds reared in Egypt.

Keywords: camel breeds in Egypt, GH, PCR-RFLP, SNPs

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50 Studies on Knockdown Resistance Mutations in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in India

Authors: Neera Kapoor

Abstract:

Background: Knockdown Resistance (KDR) is one of the mechanisms of insecticide resistance in insects caused by the reduced target site sensitivity i.e. voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) rendering it less sensitive to the toxic effects of DDT and pyrethroids. In this study, we evaluated insecticide susceptibility and its underlying KDR mechanism in eight Ae. aegypti and five Ae. albopictus field populations. Methodology: Field population was collected from four different geographical regions of India covering 18 districts of ten states. For genotyping of twelve KDR alleles in Ae. aegypti field populations, three PCR based assays were used; with DNA sequencing; ASPCR; PCR-RFLP. Genomic DNA was isolated, and three partial domains (II, III, and IV) of VGSC were amplified and sequenced. Results: Molecular screening for common KDR mutations, revealed the presence of five mutations viz. S989P, V1016G, T1520I, F1534C/L. Two novel mutations were observed, first at T1520 (ACC) residue where a C > T substitution at the second position of codon results in amino acid change to Isoleucine (ATC). Second mutation was an alternative point mutation at F1534 (TTC) residue where a substitution of T > C at the first position of codon results in an amino acid change to Leucine (CTC). ASPCRs were not accurate, so three PCR-RFLP assays were developed for genotyping of five KDR alleles in Ae. aegypti; viz. T1520I, F1534C/L. Representative samples of all genotypes (n=200) were sequenced to validate the newly developed PCR based assays for Ae. aegypti. Genotyping results showed that 989P is linked to 1016G and novel mutation 1520I was always found with 1534C allele. Conclusion: Present study confirmed the presence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance among Ae. aegypti populations in India and for the first time reported KDR mutations in this species from India including two novel mutations. Results of present study lead us to infer that, at least five KDR mutations (S989P, V1016G, T1530I, F1534C, and F1534L) can be seen as a potential marker for DDT/pyrethroid resistance.

Keywords: F1534C, F1534L, S989P, T1530I, V1016G

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49 Phenotypic Characterization of Desi Naked Neck Chicken and Its Association with Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Gene Polymorphism in Pakistan

Authors: Akbar Nawaz Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Muhammad Naeem Riaz

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The study was conducted to investigate the phenotypic features, morphometry and production potentialities of indigenous naked neck chicken (NN) of Pakistan under intensive management condition. A total of 35 NN chicks were randomly selected, and the experiment was performed at Poultry and wildlife research section NARC Islamabad for a period of 22 weeks. The predominant plumage color was black and golden while skin color was observed white. The average shank length, leg length, thigh length, keel length, chest breadth, head width, wing space, wing length, body length, body girth, body height and pubic bone width in adult males and females were 69.19 ± 3.34mm, 117.93 ± 4.42mm, 117.93 ± 4.42mm, 90.87 ± 6.53mm, 95.03 ± 4.56mm, 49.77 ± 2.53mm, 30.63 ± 1.50cm, 27.24 ± 2.71cm, 18.88 ± 0.65cm, 17.77 ± 1.01cm, 25.96 ± 0.56cm, 47.81 ± 1.41cm and 35.69 ± 4.09mm respectively. The average age and live body weight of NN chicken at sexual maturity were recorded as 165.85 days and 1269.38 g. While hen-day egg production of NN was recorded as 45%. The present study was aimed to investigate the existence of polymorphism at IGF-I gene in indigenous naked neck chicken through PCR based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Based on restriction analysis using Hinf I restriction enzyme, three genotypes were detected designated as AA, AC, and CC. Restriction analysis of PCR amplified product showed the presence of DNA fragments of 622, 378, 244 and 191, (genotypes). The PCR-RFLP analysis is easy, cost effective method which permits the easy characterization of IGF-I gene. This showed the investigated IGF-I genes can serve as good molecular markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) concerning growth related traits in chicken.

Keywords: Desi chicken, naked neck, morphology, morphometry, production potential, egg traits, egg geometry, IGF-I, growth, PCR- RFLP, chicken

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48 Actinomycetes from Protected Forest Ecosystems of Assam, India: Diversity and Antagonistic Activity

Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Ranjita Das, Mohan C. Kalita, Debajit Thakur

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Background: Actinomycetes are the richest source of novel bioactive secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, enzymes and other therapeutically useful metabolites with diverse biological activities. The present study aims at the antimicrobial potential and genetic diversity of culturable Actinomycetes isolated from protected forest ecosystems of Assam which includes Kaziranga National Park (26°30˝-26°45˝N and 93°08˝-93°36˝E), Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary (26º12˝-26º16˝N and 91º58˝-92º05˝E) and Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (26˚40˝-26˚45˝N and 94˚20˝-94˚25˝E) which are located in the North-eastern part of India. Northeast India is a part of the Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot and most of the protected forests of this region are still unexplored for the isolation of effective antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes. Thus, there is tremendous possibility that these virgin forests could be a potential storehouse of novel microorganisms, particularly Actinomycetes, exhibiting diverse biological properties. Methodology: Soil samples were collected from different ecological niches of the protected forest ecosystems of Assam and Actinomycetes were isolated by serial dilution spread plate technique using five selective isolation media. Preliminary screening of Actinomycetes for an antimicrobial activity was done by spot inoculation method and the secondary screening by disc diffusion method against several test pathogens, including multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The strains were further screened for the presence of antibiotic synthetic genes such as type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) genes. Genetic diversity of the Actinomycetes producing antimicrobial metabolites was analyzed through 16S rDNA-RFLP using Hinf1 restriction endonuclease. Results: Based on the phenotypic characterization, a total of 172 morphologically distinct Actinomycetes were isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity by spot inoculation method on agar medium. Among the strains tested, 102 (59.3%) strains showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria, 98 (56.97%) against Gram-negative bacteria, 92 (53.48%) against Candida albicans MTCC 227 and 130 (75.58%) strains showed activity against at least one of the test pathogens. Twelve Actinomycetes exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity in the secondary screening. The taxonomic identification of these twelve strains by 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that Streptomyces was found to be the predominant genus. The PKS-I, PKS-II and NRPS genes detection indicated diverse bioactive products of these twelve Actinomycetes. Genetic diversity by 16S rDNA-RFLP indicated that Streptomyces was the dominant genus amongst the antimicrobial metabolite producing Actinomycetes. Conclusion: These findings imply that Actinomycetes from the protected forest ecosystems of Assam, India, are a potential source of bioactive secondary metabolites. These areas are as yet poorly studied and represent diverse and largely unscreened ecosystem for the isolation of potent Actinomycetes producing antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Detailed characterization of the bioactive Actinomycetes as well as purification and structure elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the potent Actinomycetes is the subject of ongoing investigation. Thus, to exploit Actinomycetes from such unexplored forest ecosystems is a way to develop bioactive products.

Keywords: Actinomycetes, antimicrobial activity, forest ecosystems, RFLP

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47 Molecular Epidemiology of Egyptian Biomphalaria Snail: The Identification of Species, Diagnostic of the Parasite in Snails and Host Parasite Relationship

Authors: Hanaa M. Abu El Einin, Ahmed T. Sharaf El- Din

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Biomphalaria snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis. Two species of Biomphalaria were reported from Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Biomphalaria glabrata, and later on a hybrid of B. alexandrina and B. glabrata was reported in streams at Nile Delta. All were known to be excellent hosts of S. mansoni. Host-parasite relationship can be viewed in terms of snail susceptibility and parasite infectivity. The objective of this study will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe the correct identification of snail species that participating in transmission of schistosomiasis, rapid diagnose of infection in addition to susceptibility and resistance type. Snails were identified using of molecular methods involving Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Polymerase Chain Reaction, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) and Species - specific- PCR. Molecular approaches to diagnose parasite in snails from Egypt: Nested PCR assay and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Also RAPD PCR for study susceptible and resistance phenotype. The results showed that RAPD- PCR, PCR-RFLP and species-specific-PCR techniques were confirmed that: no evidence for the presence of B. glabrata in Egypt, All Biomphalaria snails collected identified as B. alexandrina snail i-e B alexandrinia is a common and no evidence for hybridization with B. glabrata. The adopted specific nested PCR assay revealed much higher sensitivity which enables the detection of S. mansoni infected snails down to 3 days post infection. Nested PCR method for detection of infected snails using S. mansoni fructose -1,6- bisphosphate aldolase (SMALDO) primer, these primers are specific only for S. mansoni and not cross reactive with other schistosomes or molluscan aldolases Nested PCR for such gene is sensitive enough to detect one cercariae. Genetic variations between B. alexandrina strains that are susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma infec¬tion using a RAPD-PCR showed that 39.8% of the examined snails collected from the field were resistant, while 60.2% of these snails showed high infection rates. In conclusion the genetics of the intermediate host plays a more important role in the epidemiological control of schistosomiasis.

Keywords: biomphalaria, molecular differentiation, parasite detection, schistosomiasis

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46 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Desouky Abd El Haleem, Sahar Zaki

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This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp.

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45 MHC Class II DRB1 Gene Polymorphism in Lori Sheep Breed

Authors: Shahram Nanekarani, Majid Goodarzi, Majid Khosravi

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The present study aimed at analyzing of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar II) DRB1 gene second exon in Lori Sheep breed. The MHC plays a central role in the control of disease resistance and immunological response. Genomic DNA from blood samples of 124 sheep was extracted and a 296 bp MHC exon 2 fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using Hin1I restriction enzyme. The PCRRFLP patterns showed three genotypes, AA, AB and BB with frequency of 0.282, 0.573 and 0.145, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for this locus in this population. The results of the present study indicate that exon 2 of the Ovar-DRB1 gene is highly polymorphic in Lori sheep and could be considered as an important marker assisted selection, for improvement of immunity in sheep.

Keywords: MHC-DRB1 gene, polymorphism, PCR-RFLP, lori sheep

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44 The Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Xbai Gg Genotype and Severe Preeclampsia

Authors: Saeedeh Salimi, Farzaneh Farajian- Mashhadi, Ehsan Tabatabaei, Mahnaz Shahrakipoor, Minoo Yaghmaei, Mojgan Mokhtari

Abstract:

Purpose: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays an essential role in the adaptation of increased uterine blood flow during gestation. Therefore ERα gene could be a possible candidate for preeclampsia(PE) susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the association of the ERα gene polymorphisms and PE in an Iranian population. Methods: One hundred ninety-two pregnant women with PE and 186 normotensive women were genotyped for ERα gene (PvuII and XbaI) polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Results: The frequency of alleles and genotypes of ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were not different between PE and normotensive control women. However, higher frequency of GG genotype was observed in women with severe PE compared to mild PE (OR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3]; P = 0.02) and in severe PE compared to normotensive women [OR= 1.8(1.1-3), P=0.02] after adjusting for age, ethnicity and primiparity. Conclusions: The GG genotype of ERα XbaI polymorphism could be a genetic risk factor for PE predisposition.

Keywords: estrogen receptor-α, polymorphism, gene, preeclampsia

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43 Polymorphisms of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Susceptibility to Endometriosis

Authors: Z. Chekini, P. Afsharian, F. Ramezanali, A. A. Akhlaghi, R. Aflatoonian

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that involves in pathophysiological events of endometriosis. We aimed to evaluate the association between mRNA expression levels and polymorphisms of MIF in endometriosis. Seventy endometriosis patients and 70 volunteer fertile women were recruited. RFLP was applied to determine -173G/C polymorphism. ORF polymorphisms and -794(CATT)5-8 were detected by sequencing. Q-PCR was used for expression study of 14 ectopic tissues of patients. Homozygote of CATT5 was observed only in controls. The CATT5/G haplotype related to controls (p=0.094, OR=0.61). Expression level of MIF with -794(CATT)6,7/-173GC was significantly more than the other haplotypes (p=0.00). We identified four SNPs including: +254rs2096525 (p=0.843), +626rs33958703 (p=0.029), +656rs2070766 (p=0.703) and +509rs182012324 (p=1.00). In conclusion, increased repeat of CATT and presence of C allele in promoter of MIF were significantly associated with mRNA level in patients. It seems that +509rs182012324 and +626rs33958703 SNPs were significantly correlated with susceptibility to endometriosis.

Keywords: endometriosis, haplotype, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, polymorphism

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42 Polymorphism in Myostatin Gene and Its Association with Growth Traits in Kurdi Sheep of Northern Khorasan

Authors: Masoud Alipanah, Sekineh Akbari, Gholamreza Dashab

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Myostatin genes or factor 8 affecting on growth and making differentiation works (GDF8) as a moderator in the development of skeletal muscle inhibitor. If mutations occurs in the coding region of myostatin, alter its inhibitory role and the muscle growth is increased. In this study, blood samples were collected randomly from 60 Kurdish sheep in northern Khorasan and DNA extraction was performed using a modified salt. A fragment 337 bp from exon 3 myostatin gene and-specific primers by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were amplified. In order to detect different forms of an allele at this locus HaeΙΙΙ restriction enzymes and PCR-RFLP analysis were used. Band patterns clarification was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of genotypes mm, Mm, and MM, were respectively detected, 0, 0.15 and 0.85. The allele frequency for alleles m and M, were respectively, 0.07 and 0.93. The statistical analyses indicated that m allele was significantly associated with body weight. The results of this study suggest that the Myostatin gene possibly is a candidate gene that affects growth traits in Kurdish sheep.

Keywords: GDF8 gene, Kurdi Sheep of Northern Khorasan, polymorphism, weight traits

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41 Identification and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Spp. in Pre-Wean Dairy Calves in Mashhad, Northeastern of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Asadpour, Gholamreza Razmi, Gholamreza Mohammadi, Abolghasem Naghibi

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Cryptosporidium Spp., protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, have a wide spectrum of hosts including humans, domestic animals and wild mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. In this study, a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the Small-Subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium Spp. in 300 fecal specimens from 1 to 30 days pre-wean calves in 10 farms in Mashhad, Iran. Eighty five (28.3%) and forty five (15%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium by microscopic and PCR examination respectively. Restriction digestion of the PCR products by VSPI and Ssp1 restriction enzymes and analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of C. parvum, bovine genotype in all isolates. Our findings suggest that cattle can be a source of Cryptosporidial infections for humans and animals in Mashhad area. This is the first published description of Cryptosporidium sub genotyping in Mashhad.

Keywords: cryptosporidium, genotype, dairy calves, 18S rRNA, Mashhad

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40 Associations between Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene on Milk Production, Fat and Protein Content in Friesian Holstein Cattle

Authors: Tety Hartatik, Dian Kurniawati, Adiarto

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The aim of the research was to determine the associations between polymorphism of the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene (Leu/Val, L/V) and milk production of Friesian Holstein Cattle. A total of 62 cows which consist of two Friesian Holstein groups (cattle from New Zealand are 19 heads and cattle from Australia are 43 heads). We perform the PCR and RFLP method for analyzing the genotype of the target gene GH 211 bp in the part of intron 4 and exon 5 of GH gene. The frequencies of genotypes LL were higher than genotype LV. The number of genotype LL in New Zealand and Australia groups are 84% and 79%, respectively. The number of genotype LV in New Zealand and Australia groups are 16% and 21%, respectively. The association between Leu/Val polymorphism on milk production, fat and protein content in both groups does not show the significant effect. However base on the groups (cows from New Zealand compare with those from Australia) show the significant effect on fat and protein content.

Keywords: Friesian Holstein, fat content, growth hormone gene, milk production, PCR-RLFP, protein content

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39 Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene (HindIII rs320) Polymorphisms with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Secondary to Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Meryem Abi-Ayad, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Daniela Foti, Mohamed Benyoucef, Antonio Brunetti

Abstract:

Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme for lipid metabolism; its genetic polymorphism can be a candidate for modulating lipids parameters in metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to determine whether lipoproteins lipase polymorphisMetS (LPL-HindIII) could be associated with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (secondary to metabolism syndrome). The polymorphism Hind III (rs320) was assessed by PCR-RFLP in 51 MetS patients and 17 healthy controls from the hospital in Tlemcen. The logistic regression analyses showed no significant association with Hind III genotype and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1,5g/l or TG lower treatment) (P=0,455), metabolic syndrome (P=0,455), hypertension (P=0,802) and type 2 diabetes (P=0,144). In terms of plasma biomarkers, although not statistically significant, there was a difference in TG levels (P > 0,05), which was lowest among carriers of the homogenous mutant allele (H-). In this study, there was no association between the rare allele (H-) and disease protection, and between the frequent allele (H+) and disease prevalence (hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Keywords: moderate secondary hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, lipids, polymorphism lipoprotein lipase, HindIII(rs320)

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38 Genetic Association of SIX6 Gene with Pathogenesis of Glaucoma

Authors: Riffat Iqbal, Sidra Ihsan, Andleeb Batool, Maryam Mukhtar

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Glaucoma is a gathering of optic neuropathies described by dynamic degeneration of retinal ganglionic cells. It is clinically and innately heterogenous illness containing a couple of particular forms each with various causes and severities. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most generally perceived kind of glaucoma. This study investigated the genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs10483727 and rs33912345) at the SIX1/SIX6 locus with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Pakistani population. The SIX6 gene plays an important role in ocular development and has been associated with morphology of the optic nerve. A total of 100 patients clinically diagnosed with glaucoma and 100 control individuals of age over 40 were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted by organic extraction method. The SNP genotyping was done by (i) PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing method. Significant genetic associations were observed for rs10483727 (risk allele T) and rs33912345 (risk allele C) with POAG. Hence, it was concluded that Six6 gene is genetically associated with pathogenesis of Glaucoma in Pakistan.

Keywords: genotyping, Pakistani population, primary open-angle glaucoma, SIX6 gene

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37 Prevalence Determination of Hepatitis D Virus Genotypes among HBsAg Positive Patients in Kerman Province of Iran

Authors: Khabat Barkhordari, Ali Mohammad Arabzadeh

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Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg in Kerman province of Iran. This cross-sectional study a total of 400 patients with HBV infection attending the clinic center of Besat from 2012 to 2014 were included. We carried out ELISA to detect anti-HDV antibodies. Those testing positive were analyzed further for HDV-RNA and for genotyping using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and RT-nested PCR- sequencing. Among 400 patients in this study, 67 cases (16.75 %) were containing anti-HDV antibody which we found HDV RNA in just 7 (1.75%) serum samples. Analysis of these 7 positive HDV showed that all of them have genotype I. According to current study the HDV prevalence in Kerman is higher than the reported prevalence of 6.6% for Iran as a whole and clade 1 (genotype 1) is the predominant clade of HDV in Kerman.

Keywords: genotyping, hepatitis delta virus, molecular epidemiology, Kerman, Iran

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36 Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Cardiovascular Heart Disease Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Amani Ashari, Julia Omar, Arif Hashim, Shahrul Hamid

Abstract:

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism has influence on serum lipids which relates to cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of APOE alleles among Malaysian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and their association with serum lipid profiles. A total of 115 patients were recruited in which 78 patients had Type 2 DM without CAD and 37 patients had Type 2 DM with CAD. The APOE polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The APOE ɛ3 allele was the most common one in both groups. There was no significant association between the APOE genotypes and the CAD status in Type 2 DM using Pearson χ2 test. Further analysis indicated there were no significant differences in all lipid parameters between E2, E3 and E4 subgroups in both groups. The study showed that the E4 allele carriers of Type 2 DM with CAD patients had higher LDL-C level and lower HDL-C level compared to the other allele carriers. However, analyses showed these levels were not statistically different. The study also showed that the Type 2 DM with CAD group with E2 allele had higher triglyceride (TG). In conclusion, further study with larger sample size is needed to confirm role of E4 as a marker of CAD among Type 2 DM patients in Malaysian population.

Keywords: Apolipoprotein E, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, lipids

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35 Prevalence of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Variant in Tunisian Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Authors: Rim Frikha, Maha Ben Jema, Moez Elloumi, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); a common blood cancer characterized by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an essential folate metabolic enzyme in the processes of DNA synthesis and methylation. A common functional variant of the MTHFR gene, the A1298C, which induces disturbances in folate metabolism, may affect susceptibility to ALL. Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of MTHFR polymorphism A1298 > C in Tunisian children with ALL. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 Tunisian ALL children were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole venous blood collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Genotyping was carried out with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using MboII restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution and allele frequency of MTHFR A1298C was calculated in ALL patients. Results: The A1298C variant of MTHFR was found in 11(19.6%) heterozygous and one homozygous patient (3.5%). Conclusions: This result highlights that A1298C polymorphism of MTHFR is common in Tunisian childhood ALL and suggests that this variant may have a potential role in leukemogenesis. Genotyping of large samples and different ethnicities are required to validate these findings.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, A1298C variant, prevalence

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34 The impact of Breast Cancer Polymorphism on Breast Cancer

Authors: Roudabeh Vakil Monfared, Farhad Mashayekhi

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Breast cancer is the most common malignancy type among women with about 1 million new cases each year. The immune system plays an important role in the breast cancer development. OX40L (also known as TNFSF4), a membrane protein, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor super family binds to its receptor OX40 and this co-stimulation has a crucial role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytokine release. Due to the importance of the T-cells in anti-tumor activities of OX40L we studied the association of rs3850641 (T→C) polymorphism of OX40L gene with breast cancer. The study included 123 women with breast cancer and 126 healthy volunteers with no signs of cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leucocytes. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in patients and control cases with the method of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the analysis was performed by Med Calc. The prevalence of genotype frequencies of TT, CT and CC were 60.9%, 30.08% and 8.9 % in patients with breast cancer and 74.6 %, 18.25 % and 7.14 % in healthy volunteers while the T and C allelic frequency was 76.01% and 23.98 % in patients and 83.73% and 16.26% in healthy controls. Respectively Statistical analysis has shown no significant difference from the comparison of either genotype (P=0.06). According to these results, the rs3850641 SNP has no association with the susceptibility of breast cancer in a population in northern Iran. However, further studies in larger populations including other genetic and environmental factors are required to achieve conclusion.

Keywords: OX40L, gene, polymorphism, breast cancer

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33 On the Absence of BLAD, CVM, DUMPS and BC Autosomal Recessive Mutations in Stud Bulls of the Local Alatau Cattle Breed of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Yessengali Ussenbekov, Valery Terletskiy, Orik Zhanserkenova, Shynar Kasymbekova, Indira Beyshova, Aitkali Imanbayev, Almas Serikov

Abstract:

Currently, there are 46 hereditary diseases afflicting cattle with known molecular genetic diagnostic methods developed for them. Genetic anomalies frequently occur in the Holstein cattle breeds from American and Canadian bloodlines. The data on the incidence of BLAD, CVM, DUMPS and BC autosomal recessive lethal mutations in pedigree animals are discordant, the detrimental allele incidence rates are high for the Holstein cattle breed, whereas the incidence rates of these mutations are low in some breeds or they are completely absent. Data were obtained on the basis of frozen semen of stud bulls. DNA was extracted from the semen with the DNA-Sorb-B extraction kit. The lethal mutation in the genes CD18, SLC35A3, UMP and ASS of Alatau stud bulls (N=124) was detected by polymerase chain reaction and RFLP analysis. It was established that stud bulls of the local Alatau breed were not carriers of the BLAD, CVM, DUMPS, and BC detrimental mutations. However, with a view to preventing the dissemination of hereditary diseases it is recommended to monitor the pedigree stock using molecular genetic methods.

Keywords: PCR, autosomal recessive point mutation, BLAD, CVM, DUMPS, BC, stud bulls

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32 Relationship Salt Sensitivity and с825т Polymorphism of gnb3 Gene in Patients with Essential Hypertension

Authors: Aleksandr Nagay, Gulnoz Khamidullayeva

Abstract:

It is known that an unbalanced intake of salt (NaCI), lifestyle and genetic predisposition to pathology is a key component of the risk and the development of essential hypertension (EH). Purpose: To study the relationship between salt-sensitivity and blood pressure (BP) on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, depending on the C825T polymorphism of GNB3 in individuals of Uzbek nationality with EH. Method: studied 148 healthy and 148 patients with EH with I-II degree (WHO/ISH, 2003) with disease duration 6,5±1,3 years. Investigation of the gene GNB3 was produced by PCR-RFLP method. Determination of salt-sensitivity was performed by the method of R. Henkin. Results: For a comparative analysis of BP, the groups with carriage of CТ and TT genotypes were combined. The analysis showed that carriers of CC genotype and low salt-sensitivity were determined by higher levels of SBP compared with carriers of CT and TT genotypes, and low salt-sensitivity of SBP: 166,2±4,3 against 158,2±9,1 mm Hg (p=0,000). A similar analysis on the values of DBP also showed significantly higher values of blood pressure in carriers of CC genotype DBP: 105,8±10,6 vs. 100,5±7,2 mm Hg, respectively (p=0,001). The average values of SBP and DBP in groups with carriers of CC genotype at medium or high salt-sensitivity in comparison with carriers of CT or TT genotype did not differ statistically SBP: 165,0±0,1 vs. 160,0±8,6 mm Hg (p=0,275) and DBP: 100,1±0,1 vs. 101,6±7,6 mm Hg (p=0,687), respectively. Conclusion: It is revealed that in patients with EH CC genotype of the gene GNB3 given salt-sensitivity has a negative effect on blood pressure profile. Since patients with EH with the CC genotype of GNB3 gene with low-salt taste sensitivity is determined by a higher level of blood pressure, both on SBP and DBP.

Keywords: salt sensitivity, essential hypertension EH, blood pressure BP, genetic predisposition

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31 The MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Screening: A Challenge in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed, Afifa Sellami, Nozha Chakroun, Salima Daoud, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Introduction: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) defined as two or more pregnancy losses, is a serious clinical problem. Methylene-tetrahydro-folate-reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, commonly the variant C677T is recognized as an inherited thrombophilia which might affect embryonic development and pregnancy success and cause pregnancy complications as RPL. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and PCR-RFLP was performed for the molecular diagnosis of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism among 70 patients (35 couples) with more than 2 fetal losses. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of MTHFR C677T among Tunisian couples with RPL and to critically analyze the available literature on the importance of MTHFR polymorphism testing in the management of RPL. Result and comments: No C677T mutation was detected in the carriers of RPL. This result would be related to sample size and to different criteria (number of abortion), - The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and pregnancy complications has been reported but with controversial results. - A lack of evidence for MTHFR polymorphism testing previously recommended by ACMG (American College of Medical medicine). Our study highlights the importance of screening of MTHFR polymorphism since the real impact of such thrombotic molecular defect on the pregnancy outcome is evident. - Folic supplementation of these patients during pregnancy can prevent such complications and lead to a successful pregnancy outcome.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, C677T, recurrent pregnancy loss, genetic testing

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30 Lack of Association between IL-10 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Thai Population

Authors: Manaphol Kulpraneet, Anirut Limtrakul, Surangrat Srisurapanon, Piyatida Tangteerawatana

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health care disease world-wide. Control of the global TB epidemic has been impaired by the lack of an effective vaccine, by the emergence of drug resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and by lack of sensitive and rapid diagnostics. Cytokines play a major role in defense against M. tuberculosis infection. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding various cytokines have been associated with tuberculosis susceptibility. Polymorphisms of the regulatory cytokine gene, the interleukin (IL)-10 is associated with the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in different populations. However, IL-10 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to TB in Thai is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the common IL-10 promoter gene polymorphisms are associated with TB in Thai population. Forty eight patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were studied. DNA samples were extracted from leukocytes and used to investigate -1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A (rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872) in IL-10 gene using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. In this study, the genotype and allele frequencies of IL-10-1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A polymorphism did not significantly different between TB patients and healthy controls ((genotype: p=0.38, p=0.92, p=1; allele: p=0.57, p=0.77, p=0.89, respectively). The lack of association between common IL-10 promoter polymorphisms and TB susceptibility in this study may provide clue for better understanding of IL-10-1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A polymorphism and TB susceptibility in Thai population, which might facilitate the rationale design of vaccines. However, further studies in large scales population are required for confirmation.

Keywords: IL-10, cytokines, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), tuberculosis

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