Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17880

Search results for: microarray data

17880 Imputation Technique for Feature Selection in Microarray Data Set

Authors: Younies Saeed Hassan Mahmoud, Mai Mabrouk, Elsayed Sallam


Analysing DNA microarray data sets is a great challenge, which faces the bioinformaticians due to the complication of using statistical and machine learning techniques. The challenge will be doubled if the microarray data sets contain missing data, which happens regularly because these techniques cannot deal with missing data. One of the most important data analysis process on the microarray data set is feature selection. This process finds the most important genes that affect certain disease. In this paper, we introduce a technique for imputing the missing data in microarray data sets while performing feature selection.

Keywords: DNA microarray, feature selection, missing data, bioinformatics

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17879 EnumTree: An Enumerative Biclustering Algorithm for DNA Microarray Data

Authors: Haifa Ben Saber, Mourad Elloumi


In a number of domains, like in DNA microarray data analysis, we need to cluster simultaneously rows (genes) and columns (conditions) of a data matrix to identify groups of constant rows with a group of columns. This kind of clustering is called biclustering. Biclustering algorithms are extensively used in DNA microarray data analysis. More effective biclustering algorithms are highly desirable and needed. We introduce a new algorithm called, Enumerative tree (EnumTree) for biclustering of binary microarray data. is an algorithm adopting the approach of enumerating biclusters. This algorithm extracts all biclusters consistent good quality. The main idea of ​​EnumLat is the construction of a new tree structure to represent adequately different biclusters discovered during the process of enumeration. This algorithm adopts the strategy of all biclusters at a time. The performance of the proposed algorithm is assessed using both synthetic and real DNA micryarray data, our algorithm outperforms other biclustering algorithms for binary microarray data. Biclusters with different numbers of rows. Moreover, we test the biological significance using a gene annotation web tool to show that our proposed method is able to produce biologically relevent biclusters.

Keywords: DNA microarray, biclustering, gene expression data, tree, datamining.

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
17878 Microarray Data Visualization and Preprocessing Using R and Bioconductor

Authors: Ruchi Yadav, Shivani Pandey, Prachi Srivastava


Microarrays provide a rich source of data on the molecular working of cells. Each microarray reports on the abundance of tens of thousands of mRNAs. Virtually every human disease is being studied using microarrays with the hope of finding the molecular mechanisms of disease. Bioinformatics analysis plays an important part of processing the information embedded in large-scale expression profiling studies and for laying the foundation for biological interpretation. A basic, yet challenging task in the analysis of microarray gene expression data is the identification of changes in gene expression that are associated with particular biological conditions. Careful statistical design and analysis are essential to improve the efficiency and reliability of microarray experiments throughout the data acquisition and analysis process. One of the most popular platforms for microarray analysis is Bioconductor, an open source and open development software project based on the R programming language. This paper describes specific procedures for conducting quality assessment, visualization and preprocessing of Affymetrix Gene Chip and also details the different bioconductor packages used to analyze affymetrix microarray data and describe the analysis and outcome of each plots.

Keywords: microarray analysis, R language, affymetrix visualization, bioconductor

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17877 Integration of Microarray Data into a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Study Flux Distribution after Gene Knockout

Authors: Mona Heydari, Ehsan Motamedian, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati


Prediction of perturbations after genetic manipulation (especially gene knockout) is one of the important challenges in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced that integrates microarray data into the metabolic model. The algorithm was used to study the change in the cell phenotype after knockout of Gss gene in Escherichia coli BW25113. Algorithm implementation indicated that gene deletion resulted in more activation of the metabolic network. Growth yield was more and less regulating gene were identified for mutant in comparison with the wild-type strain.

Keywords: metabolic network, gene knockout, flux balance analysis, microarray data, integration

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17876 Evaluation of DNA Microarray System in the Identification of Microorganisms Isolated from Blood

Authors: Merih Şimşek, Recep Keşli, Özgül Çetinkaya, Cengiz Demir, Adem Aslan


Bacteremia is a clinical entity with high morbidity and mortality rates when immediate diagnose, or treatment cannot be achieved. Microorganisms which can cause sepsis or bacteremia are easily isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-five positive blood cultures were included in this study. Microorganisms in 55 blood cultures were isolated by conventional microbiological methods; afterwards, microorganisms were defined in terms of the phenotypic aspects by the Vitek-2 system. The same microorganisms in all blood culture samples were defined in terms of genotypic aspects again by Multiplex-PCR DNA Low-Density Microarray System. At the end of the identification process, the DNA microarray system’s success in identification was evaluated based on the Vitek-2 system. The Vitek-2 system and DNA Microarray system were able to identify the same microorganisms in 53 samples; on the other hand, different microorganisms were identified in the 2 blood cultures by DNA Microarray system. The microorganisms identified by Vitek-2 system were found to be identical to 96.4 % of microorganisms identified by DNA Microarrays system. In addition to bacteria identified by Vitek-2, the presence of a second bacterium has been detected in 5 blood cultures by the DNA Microarray system. It was identified 18 of 55 positive blood culture as E.coli strains with both Vitek 2 and DNA microarray systems. The same identification numbers were found 6 and 8 for Acinetobacter baumanii, 10 and 10 for K.pneumoniae, 5 and 5 for S.aureus, 7 and 11 for Enterococcus spp, 5 and 5 for P.aeruginosa, 2 and 2 for C.albicans respectively. According to these results, DNA Microarray system requires both a technical device and experienced staff support; besides, it requires more expensive kits than Vitek-2. However, this method should be used in conjunction with conventional microbiological methods. Thus, large microbiology laboratories will produce faster, more sensitive and more successful results in the identification of cultured microorganisms.

Keywords: microarray, Vitek-2, blood culture, bacteremia

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17875 Microarray Gene Expression Data Dimensionality Reduction Using PCA

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot


Different experimental technologies such as microarray sequencing have been proposed to generate high-resolution genetic data, in order to understand the complex dynamic interactions between complex diseases and the biological system components of genes and gene products. However, the generated samples have a very large dimension reaching thousands. Therefore, hindering all attempts to design a classifier system that can identify diseases based on such data. Additionally, the high overlap in the class distributions makes the task more difficult. The data we experiment with is generated for the identification of autism. It includes 142 samples, which is small compared to the large dimension of the data. The classifier systems trained on this data yield very low classification rates that are almost equivalent to a guess. We aim at reducing the data dimension and improve it for classification. Here, we experiment with applying a multistage PCA on the genetic data to reduce its dimensionality. Results show a significant improvement in the classification rates which increases the possibility of building an automated system for autism detection.

Keywords: PCA, gene expression, dimensionality reduction, classification, autism

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17874 An Analysis on Clustering Based Gene Selection and Classification for Gene Expression Data

Authors: K. Sathishkumar, V. Thiagarasu


Due to recent advances in DNA microarray technology, it is now feasible to obtain gene expression profiles of tissue samples at relatively low costs. Many scientists around the world use the advantage of this gene profiling to characterize complex biological circumstances and diseases. Microarray techniques that are used in genome-wide gene expression and genome mutation analysis help scientists and physicians in understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms, in diagnoses and prognoses, and choosing treatment plans. DNA microarray technology has now made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes during important biological processes and across collections of related samples. Elucidating the patterns hidden in gene expression data offers a tremendous opportunity for an enhanced understanding of functional genomics. However, the large number of genes and the complexity of biological networks greatly increase the challenges of comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data, which often consists of millions of measurements. A first step toward addressing this challenge is the use of clustering techniques, which is essential in the data mining process to reveal natural structures and identify interesting patterns in the underlying data. This work presents an analysis of several clustering algorithms proposed to deals with the gene expression data effectively. The existing clustering algorithms like Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-means algorithm and evolutionary algorithm etc. are analyzed thoroughly to identify the advantages and limitations. The performance evaluation of the existing algorithms is carried out to determine the best approach. In order to improve the classification performance of the best approach in terms of Accuracy, Convergence Behavior and processing time, a hybrid clustering based optimization approach has been proposed.

Keywords: microarray technology, gene expression data, clustering, gene Selection

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17873 A Review of Effective Gene Selection Methods for Cancer Classification Using Microarray Gene Expression Profile

Authors: Hala Alshamlan, Ghada Badr, Yousef Alohali


Cancer is one of the dreadful diseases, which causes considerable death rate in humans. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling has been emerged as an efficient technique for cancer classification, as well as for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment purposes. In recent years, a DNA microarray technique has gained more attraction in both scientific and in industrial fields. It is important to determine the informative genes that cause cancer to improve early cancer diagnosis and to give effective chemotherapy treatment. In order to gain deep insight into the cancer classification problem, it is necessary to take a closer look at the proposed gene selection methods. We believe that they should be an integral preprocessing step for cancer classification. Furthermore, finding an accurate gene selection method is a very significant issue in a cancer classification area because it reduces the dimensionality of microarray dataset and selects informative genes. In this paper, we classify and review the state-of-art gene selection methods. We proceed by evaluating the performance of each gene selection approach based on their classification accuracy and number of informative genes. In our evaluation, we will use four benchmark microarray datasets for the cancer diagnosis (leukemia, colon, lung, and prostate). In addition, we compare the performance of gene selection method to investigate the effective gene selection method that has the ability to identify a small set of marker genes, and ensure high cancer classification accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to compare gene selection approaches for cancer classification using microarray gene expression profile.

Keywords: gene selection, feature selection, cancer classification, microarray, gene expression profile

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17872 In silico Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion and Squamous Cell Carcinomas Stages of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh


Cervical cancer is one of the women related cancers which starts from the pre-cancerous cells and a fraction of women with pre-cancers of the cervix will develop cervical cancer. Cervical pre-cancers if treated in pre-invasive stage can prevent almost all true cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The present study investigates the genes and pathways that are involved in the progression of cervical cancer and are responsible in transition from pre-invasive stage to other advanced invasive stages. The study used GDS3292 microarray data to identify the stage specific genes in cervical cancer and further to generate the network of the significant genes. The microarray data GDS3292 consists of the expression profiling of 10 normal cervices, 7 HSILs and 21 SCCs samples. The study identifies 70 upregulated and 37 downregulated genes in HSIL stage while 95 upregulated and 60 downregulated genes in SCC stages. Biological process including cell communication, signal transduction are highly enriched in both HSIL and SCC stages of cervical cancer. Further, the ppi interaction of genes involved in HSIL and SCC stages helps in identifying the interacting partners. This work may lead to the identification of potential diagnostic biomarker which can be utilized for early stage detection.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HSIL, microarray, SCC

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17871 Efficient Tuning Parameter Selection by Cross-Validated Score in High Dimensional Models

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung


As DNA microarray data contain relatively small sample size compared to the number of genes, high dimensional models are often employed. In high dimensional models, the selection of tuning parameter (or, penalty parameter) is often one of the crucial parts of the modeling. Cross-validation is one of the most common methods for the tuning parameter selection, which selects a parameter value with the smallest cross-validated score. However, selecting a single value as an "optimal" value for the parameter can be very unstable due to the sampling variation since the sample sizes of microarray data are often small. Our approach is to choose multiple candidates of tuning parameter first, then average the candidates with different weights depending on their performance. The additional step of estimating the weights and averaging the candidates rarely increase the computational cost, while it can considerably improve the traditional cross-validation. We show that the selected value from the suggested methods often lead to stable parameter selection as well as improved detection of significant genetic variables compared to the tradition cross-validation via real data and simulated data sets.

Keywords: cross validation, parameter averaging, parameter selection, regularization parameter search

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17870 A Significant Clinical Role for the Capitalbio™ DNA Microarray in the Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients with Tuberculous Spondylitis Simultaneous with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in High Prevalence Settings in China

Authors: Wenjie Wu, Peng Cheng, Zehua Zhang, Fei Luo, Feng Wu, Min Zhong, Jianzhong Xu


Background: There has been limited research into the therapeutic efficacy of rapid diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis. We attempted to discover whether the utilization of a DNA microarray assay to detect multidrug-resistant spinal tuberculosis complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis can improve clinical outcomes. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from February 2006 to September 2015. One hundred and forty-three consecutive culture–confirmed, clinically and imaging diagnosed MDR-TB patients with spinal tuberculosis complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled into the study. The initial time to treatment for MDR-TB, the method of infection control, radiological indicators of spinal tubercular infectious foci, culture conversion, and adverse drug reactions were compared with the standard culture methods. Results: Of the total of 143 MDR-TB patients, 68 (47.6%) were diagnosed by conventional culture methods and 75 (52.4%) following the implementation of detection using the DNA microarray. Patients in the microarray group began rational use of the second-line drugs schedule more speedily than sufferers in the culture group (17.3 vs. 74.1 days). Among patients were admitted to a general tuberculosis ward, those from the microarray group spent less time in the ward than those from the culture group (7.8 vs. 49.2 days). In those patients with six months follow-up (n=134), patients in the microarray group had a higher rate of sputum negativity conversion at six months (89% vs. 73%). In the microarray group, the rate of drug adverse reactions was significantly lower (22.2% vs. 67.7%). At the same time, they had a more obvious reduction of the area with spinal tuberculous lesions in radiological examinations (77% vs. 108%). Conclusions: The application of the CapitalBio™ DNA Microarray assay caused noteworthy clinical advances including an earlier time to begin MDR-TB treatment, increased sputum culture conversion, improved infection control measures and better radiographical results

Keywords: tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant, tuberculous spondylitis, DNA microarray, clinical outcomes

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17869 Fluoride-Induced Stress and Its Association with Bone Developmental Pathway in Osteosarcoma Cells

Authors: Deepa Gandhi, Pravin K. Naoghare, Amit Bafana, Krishnamurthi Kannan, Saravanadevi Sivanesana


Oxidative stress is known to depreciate normal functioning of osteoblast cells. Present study reports oxidative/inflammatory signatures in fluoride exposed human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and its possible association with the genes involved in bone developmental pathway. Microarray analysis was performed to understand the possible molecular mechanisms of stress-mediated bone lose in HOS cells. Cells were chronically exposed with sub-lethal concentration of fluoride. Global gene expression is profiling revealed 34 up regulated and 2598 down-regulated genes, which were associated with several biological processes including bone development, osteoblast differentiation, stress response, inflammatory response, apoptosis, regulation of cell proliferation. Microarray data were further validated through qRT-PCR and western blot analyses using key representative genes. Based on these findings, it can be proposed that chronic exposure of fluoride may impair bone development via oxidative and inflammatory stress. The present finding also provides important biological clues, which will be helpful for the development of therapeutic targets against diseases related bone.

Keywords: bone, HOS cells, microarray, stress

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17868 Finding Bicluster on Gene Expression Data of Lymphoma Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: Alhadi Bustaman, Soeganda Formalidin, Titin Siswantining


DNA microarray technology is used to analyze thousand gene expression data simultaneously and a very important task for drug development and test, function annotation, and cancer diagnosis. Various clustering methods have been used for analyzing gene expression data. However, when analyzing very large and heterogeneous collections of gene expression data, conventional clustering methods often cannot produce a satisfactory solution. Biclustering algorithm has been used as an alternative approach to identifying structures from gene expression data. In this paper, we introduce a transform technique based on singular value decomposition to identify normalized matrix of gene expression data followed by Mixed-Clustering algorithm and the Lift algorithm, inspired in the node-deletion and node-addition phases proposed by Cheng and Church based on Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC). Experimental study on standard datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm in gene expression data.

Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), biclustering, gene expression data, lymphoma, singular value decomposition (SVD)

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17867 Assessing Significance of Correlation with Binomial Distribution

Authors: Vijay Kumar Singh, Pooja Kushwaha, Prabhat Ranjan, Krishna Kumar Ojha, Jitendra Kumar


Present day high-throughput genomic technologies, NGS/microarrays, are producing large volume of data that require improved analysis methods to make sense of the data. The correlation between genes and samples has been regularly used to gain insight into many biological phenomena including, but not limited to, co-expression/co-regulation, gene regulatory networks, clustering and pattern identification. However, presence of outliers and violation of assumptions underlying Pearson correlation is frequent and may distort the actual correlation between the genes and lead to spurious conclusions. Here, we report a method to measure the strength of association between genes. The method assumes that the expression values of a gene are Bernoulli random variables whose outcome depends on the sample being probed. The method considers the two genes as uncorrelated if the number of sample with same outcome for both the genes (Ns) is equal to certainly expected number (Es). The extent of correlation depends on how far Ns can deviate from the Es. The method does not assume normality for the parent population, fairly unaffected by the presence of outliers, can be applied to qualitative data and it uses the binomial distribution to assess the significance of association. At this stage, we would not claim about the superiority of the method over other existing correlation methods, but our method could be another way of calculating correlation in addition to existing methods. The method uses binomial distribution, which has not been used until yet, to assess the significance of association between two variables. We are evaluating the performance of our method on NGS/microarray data, which is noisy and pierce by the outliers, to see if our method can differentiate between spurious and actual correlation. While working with the method, it has not escaped our notice that the method could also be generalized to measure the association of more than two variables which has been proven difficult with the existing methods.

Keywords: binomial distribution, correlation, microarray, outliers, transcriptome

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17866 DOG1 Expression Is in Common Human Tumors: A Tissue Microarray Study on More than 15,000 Tissue Samples

Authors: Kristina Jansen, Maximilian Lennartz, Patrick Lebok, Guido Sauter, Ronald Simon, David Dum, Stefan Steurer


DOG1 (Discovered on GIST1) is a voltage-gated calcium-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is highly expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal and in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) derived from Cajal cells. To systematically determine in what tumor entities and normal tissue types DOG1 may be further expressed, a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 15,965 samples from 121 different tumor types and subtypes as well as 608 samples of 76 different normal tissue types were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. DOG1 immunostaining was found in 67 tumor types, including GIST (95.7%), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (33.6%), adenocarcinoma of the Papilla Vateri (20%), squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (15.8%) and the oral cavity (15.3%), mucinous ovarian cancer (15.3%), esophageal adenocarcinoma (12.5%), endometrioid endometrial cancer (12.1%), neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon (11.1%) and diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma (11%). Low level-DOG1 immunostaining was seen in 17 additional tumor entities. DOG1 expression was unrelated to histopathological parameters of tumor aggressiveness and/or patient prognosis in cancers of the breast (n=1,002), urinary bladder (975), ovary (469), endometrium (173), stomach (233), and thyroid gland (512). High DOG1 expression was linked to estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer (p<0.0001) and the absence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas (p=0.0008). In conclusion, our data identify several tumor entities that can show DOG1 expression levels at similar levels as in GIST. Although DOG1 is tightly linked to a diagnosis of GIST in spindle cell tumors, the differential diagnosis is much broader in DOG1 positive epithelioid neoplasms.

Keywords: biomarker, DOG1, immunohistochemistry, tissue microarray

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17865 Identification of microRNAs in Early and Late Onset of Parkinson’s Disease Patient

Authors: Ahmad Rasyadan Arshad, A. Rahman A. Jamal, N. Mohamed Ibrahim, Nor Azian Abdul Murad


Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex and asymptomatic disease where patients are usually diagnosed at late stage where about 70% of the dopaminergic neurons are lost. Therefore, identification of molecular biomarkers is crucial for early diagnosis of PD. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short nucleotide non-coding small RNA which regulates the gene expression in post-translational process. The involvement of these miRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases includes maintenance of neuronal development, necrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Thus, miRNA could be a potential biomarkers for diagnosis of PD. Objective: This study aim to identify the miRNA involved in Late Onset PD (LOPD) and Early Onset PD (EOPD) compared to the controls. Methods: This is a case-control study involved PD patients in the Chancellor Tunku Muhriz Hospital at the UKM Medical Centre. miRNA samples were extracted using miRNeasy serum/plasma kit from Qiagen. The quality of miRNA extracted was determined using Agilent RNA 6000 Nano kit in the Bioanalyzer. miRNA expression was performed using GeneChip miRNA 4.0 chip from Affymetrix. Microarray was performed in EOPD (n= 7), LOPD (n=9) and healthy control (n=11). Expression Console and Transcriptomic Analyses Console were used to analyze the microarray data. Result: miR-129-5p was significantly downregulated in EOPD compared to LOPD with -4.2 fold change (p = <0.050. miR-301a-3p was upregulated in EOPD compared to healthy control (fold = 10.3, p = <0.05). In LOPD versus healthy control, miR-486-3p (fold = 15.28, p = <0.05), miR-29c-3p (fold = 12.21, p = <0.05) and miR-301a-3p (fold = 10.01, p =< 0.05) were upregulated. Conclusion: Several miRNA have been identified to be differentially expressed in EOPD compared to LOPD and PD versus control. These miRNAs could serve as the potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of PD. However, these miRNAs need to be validated in a larger sample size.

Keywords: early onset PD, late onset PD, microRNA (miRNA), microarray

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17864 Dys-Regulation of Immune and Inflammatory Response in in vitro Fertilization Implantation Failure Patients under Ovarian Stimulation

Authors: Amruta D. S. Pathare, Indira Hinduja, Kusum Zaveri


Implantation failure (IF) even after the good-quality embryo transfer (ET) in the physiologically normal endometrium is the main obstacle in in vitro fertilization (IVF). Various microarray studies have been performed worldwide to elucidate the genes requisite for endometrial receptivity. These studies have included the population based on different phases of menstrual cycle during natural cycle and stimulated cycle in normal fertile women. Additionally, the literature is also available in recurrent implantation failure patients versus oocyte donors in natural cycle. However, for the first time, we aim to study the genomics of endometrial receptivity in IF patients under controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) during which ET is generally practised in IVF. Endometrial gene expression profiling in IF patients (n=10) and oocyte donors (n=8) were compared during window of implantation under COS by whole genome microarray (using Illumina platform). Enrichment analysis of microarray data was performed to determine dys-regulated biological functions and pathways using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, v6.8 (DAVID). The enrichment mapping was performed with the help of Cytoscape software. Microarray results were validated by real-time PCR. Localization of genes related to immune response (Progestagen-Associated Endometrial Protein (PAEP), Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), Interleukin-6 Signal Transducer (IL6ST) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The study revealed 418 genes downregulated and 519 genes upregulated in IF patients compared to healthy fertile controls. The gene ontology, pathway analysis and enrichment mapping revealed significant downregulation in activation and regulation of immune and inflammation response in IF patients under COS. The lower expression of Progestagen Associated Endometrial Protein (PAEP), Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) and Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer (IL6ST) in cases compared to controls by real time and immunohistochemistry suggests the functional importance of these genes. The study was proved useful to uncover the probable reason of implantation failure being imbalance of immune and inflammatory regulation in our group of subjects. Based on the present study findings, a panel of significant dysregulated genes related to immune and inflammatory pathways needs to be further substantiated in larger cohort in natural as well as stimulated cycle. Upon which these genes could be screened in IF patients during window of implantation (WOI) before going for embryo transfer or any other immunological treatment. This would help to estimate the regulation of specific immune response during WOI in a patient. The appropriate treatment of either activation of immune response or suppression of immune response can be then attempted in IF patients to enhance the receptivity of endometrium.

Keywords: endometrial receptivity, immune and inflammatory response, gene expression microarray, window of implantation

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17863 Predicting Dose Level and Length of Time for Radiation Exposure Using Gene Expression

Authors: Chao Sima, Shanaz Ghandhi, Sally A. Amundson, Michael L. Bittner, David J. Brenner


In a large-scale radiologic emergency, potentially affected population need to be triaged efficiently using various biomarkers where personal dosimeters are not likely worn by the individuals. It has long been established that radiation injury can be estimated effectively using panels of genetic biomarkers. Furthermore, the rate of radiation, in addition to dose of radiation, plays a major role in determining biological responses. Therefore, a better and more accurate triage involves estimating both the dose level of the exposure and the length of time of that exposure. To that end, a large in vivo study was carried out on mice with internal emitter caesium-137 (¹³⁷Cs). Four different injection doses of ¹³⁷Cs were used: 157.5 μCi, 191 μCi, 214.5μCi, and 259 μCi. Cohorts of 6~7 mice from the control arm and each of the dose levels were sacrificed, and blood was collected 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after injection for microarray RNA gene expression analysis. Using a generalized linear model with penalized maximum likelihood, a panel of 244 genes was established and both the doses of injection and the number of days after injection were accurately predicted for all 155 subjects using this panel. This has proven that microarray gene expression can be used effectively in radiation biodosimetry in predicting both the dose levels and the length of exposure time, which provides a more holistic view on radiation exposure and helps improving radiation damage assessment and treatment.

Keywords: caesium-137, gene expression microarray, multivariate responses prediction, radiation biodosimetry

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17862 Biomolecules Based Microarray for Screening Human Endothelial Cells Behavior

Authors: Adel Dalilottojari, Bahman Delalat, Frances J. Harding, Michaelia P. Cockshell, Claudine S. Bonder, Nicolas H. Voelcker


Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) based therapies continue to be of interest to treat ischemic events based on their proven role to promote blood vessel formation and thus tissue re-vascularisation. Current strategies for the production of clinical-grade EPCs requires the in vitro isolation of EPCs from peripheral blood followed by cell expansion to provide sufficient quantities EPCs for cell therapy. This study aims to examine the use of different biomolecules to significantly improve the current strategy of EPC capture and expansion on collagen type I (Col I). In this study, four different biomolecules were immobilised on a surface and then investigated for their capacity to support EPC capture and proliferation. First, a cell microarray platform was fabricated by coating a glass surface with epoxy functional allyl glycidyl ether plasma polymer (AGEpp) to mediate biomolecule binding. The four candidate biomolecules tested were Col I, collagen type II (Col II), collagen type IV (Col IV) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), which were arrayed on the epoxy-functionalised surface using a non-contact printer. The surrounding area between the printed biomolecules was passivated with polyethylene glycol-bisamine (A-PEG) to prevent non-specific cell attachment. EPCs were seeded onto the microarray platform and cell numbers quantified after 1 h (to determine capture) and 72 h (to determine proliferation). All of the extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules printed demonstrated an ability to capture EPCs within 1 h of cell seeding with Col II exhibiting the highest level of attachment when compared to the other biomolecules. Interestingly, Col IV exhibited the highest increase in EPC expansion after 72 h when compared to Col I, Col II and VEGF-A. These results provide information for significant improvement in the capture and expansion of human EPC for further application.

Keywords: biomolecules, cell microarray platform, cell therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, high throughput screening

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17861 An Improved K-Means Algorithm for Gene Expression Data Clustering

Authors: Billel Kenidra, Mohamed Benmohammed


Data mining technique used in the field of clustering is a subject of active research and assists in biological pattern recognition and extraction of new knowledge from raw data. Clustering means the act of partitioning an unlabeled dataset into groups of similar objects. Each group, called a cluster, consists of objects that are similar between themselves and dissimilar to objects of other groups. Several clustering methods are based on partitional clustering. This category attempts to directly decompose the dataset into a set of disjoint clusters leading to an integer number of clusters that optimizes a given criterion function. The criterion function may emphasize a local or a global structure of the data, and its optimization is an iterative relocation procedure. The K-Means algorithm is one of the most widely used partitional clustering techniques. Since K-Means is extremely sensitive to the initial choice of centers and a poor choice of centers may lead to a local optimum that is quite inferior to the global optimum, we propose a strategy to initiate K-Means centers. The improved K-Means algorithm is compared with the original K-Means, and the results prove how the efficiency has been significantly improved.

Keywords: microarray data mining, biological pattern recognition, partitional clustering, k-means algorithm, centroid initialization

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17860 An Integrated Visualization Tool for Heat Map and Gene Ontology Graph

Authors: Somyung Oh, Jeonghyeon Ha, Kyungwon Lee, Sejong Oh


Microarray is a general scheme to find differentially expressed genes for target concept. The output is expressed by heat map, and biologists analyze related terms of gene ontology to find some characteristics of differentially expressed genes. In this paper, we propose integrated visualization tool for heat map and gene ontology graph. Previous two methods are used by static manner and separated way. Proposed visualization tool integrates them and users can interactively manage it. Users may easily find and confirm related terms of gene ontology for given differentially expressed genes. Proposed tool also visualize connections between genes on heat map and gene ontology graph. We expect biologists to find new meaningful topics by proposed tool.

Keywords: heat map, gene ontology, microarray, differentially expressed gene

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17859 Non-Signaling Chemokine Receptor CCRL1 and Its Active Counterpart CCR7 in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yiding Qu, Svetlana V. Komarova


Chemokines acting through their cognate chemokine receptors guide the directional migration of the cell along the chemokine gradient. Several chemokine receptors were recently identified as non-signaling (decoy), based on their ability to bind the chemokine but produce no measurable signal in the cell. The function of these decoy receptors is not well understood. We examined the expression of a decoy receptor CCRL1 and a signaling receptor that binds to the same ligands, CCR7, in prostate cancer using publically available microarray data ( The expression of both CCRL1 and CCR7 increased in an approximately half of prostate carcinoma samples and the majority of metastatic cancer samples compared to normal prostate. Moreover, the expression of CCRL1 positively correlated with the expression of CCR7. These data suggest that CCR7 and CCRL1 can be used as clinical markers for the early detection of transformation from carcinoma to metastatic cancer. In addition, these data support our hypothesis that the non-signaling chemokine receptors actively stimulate cell migration.

Keywords: bioinformatics, cell migration, decoy receptor, meta-analysis, prostate cancer

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17858 Predication Model for Leukemia Diseases Based on Data Mining Classification Algorithms with Best Accuracy

Authors: Fahd Sabry Esmail, M. Badr Senousy, Mohamed Ragaie


In recent years, there has been an explosion in the rate of using technology that help discovering the diseases. For example, DNA microarrays allow us for the first time to obtain a "global" view of the cell. It has great potential to provide accurate medical diagnosis, to help in finding the right treatment and cure for many diseases. Various classification algorithms can be applied on such micro-array datasets to devise methods that can predict the occurrence of Leukemia disease. In this study, we compared the classification accuracy and response time among eleven decision tree methods and six rule classifier methods using five performance criteria. The experiment results show that the performance of Random Tree is producing better result. Also it takes lowest time to build model in tree classifier. The classification rules algorithms such as nearest- neighbor-like algorithm (NNge) is the best algorithm due to the high accuracy and it takes lowest time to build model in classification.

Keywords: data mining, classification techniques, decision tree, classification rule, leukemia diseases, microarray data

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17857 Application of KL Divergence for Estimation of Each Metabolic Pathway Genes

Authors: Shohei Maruyama, Yasuo Matsuyama, Sachiyo Aburatani


The development of the method to annotate unknown gene functions is an important task in bioinformatics. One of the approaches for the annotation is The identification of the metabolic pathway that genes are involved in. Gene expression data have been utilized for the identification, since gene expression data reflect various intracellular phenomena. However, it has been difficult to estimate the gene function with high accuracy. It is considered that the low accuracy of the estimation is caused by the difficulty of accurately measuring a gene expression. Even though they are measured under the same condition, the gene expressions will vary usually. In this study, we proposed a feature extraction method focusing on the variability of gene expressions to estimate the genes' metabolic pathway accurately. First, we estimated the distribution of each gene expression from replicate data. Next, we calculated the similarity between all gene pairs by KL divergence, which is a method for calculating the similarity between distributions. Finally, we utilized the similarity vectors as feature vectors and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway. To evaluate our developed method, we applied the method to budding yeast and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the seven metabolic pathways. As a result, the accuracy that calculated by our developed method was higher than the one that calculated from the raw gene expression data. Thus, our developed method combined with KL divergence is useful for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway.

Keywords: metabolic pathways, gene expression data, microarray, Kullback–Leibler divergence, KL divergence, support vector machines, SVM, machine learning

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17856 MicroRNA-1246 Expression Associated with Resistance to Oncogenic BRAF Inhibitors in Mutant BRAF Melanoma Cells

Authors: Jae-Hyeon Kim, Michael Lee


Intrinsic and acquired resistance limits the therapeutic benefits of oncogenic BRAF inhibitors in melanoma. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate the expression of target mRNAs by repressing their translation. Thus, we investigated miRNA expression patterns in melanoma cell lines to identify candidate biomarkers for acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor. Here, we used Affymetrix miRNA V3.0 microarray profiling platform to compare miRNA expression levels in three cell lines containing BRAF inhibitor-sensitive A375P BRAF V600E cells, their BRAF inhibitor-resistant counterparts (A375P/Mdr), and SK-MEL-2 BRAF-WT cells with intrinsic resistance to BRAF inhibitor. The miRNAs with at least a two-fold change in expression between BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and –resistant cell lines, were identified as differentially expressed. Averaged intensity measurements identified 138 and 217 miRNAs that were differentially expressed by 2 fold or more between: 1) A375P and A375P/Mdr; 2) A375P and SK-MEL-2, respectively. The hierarchical clustering revealed differences in miRNA expression profiles between BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and –resistant cell lines for miRNAs involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor. In particular, 43 miRNAs were identified whose expression was consistently altered in two BRAF inhibitor-resistant cell lines, regardless of intrinsic and acquired resistance. Twenty five miRNAs were consistently upregulated and 18 downregulated more than 2-fold. Although some discrepancies were detected when miRNA microarray data were compared with qPCR-measured expression levels, qRT-PCR for five miRNAs (miR-3617, miR-92a1, miR-1246, miR-1936-3p, and miR-17-3p) results showed excellent agreement with microarray experiments. To further investigate cellular functions of miRNAs, we examined effects on cell proliferation. Synthetic oligonucleotide miRNA mimics were transfected into three cell lines, and proliferation was quantified using a colorimetric assay. Of the 5 miRNAs tested, only miR-1246 altered cell proliferation of A375P/Mdr cells. The transfection of miR-1246 mimic strongly conferred PLX-4720 resistance to A375P/Mdr cells, implying that miR-1246 upregulation confers acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition. We also found that PLX-4720 caused much greater G2/M arrest in A375P/Mdr cells transfected with miR-1246mimic than that seen in scrambled RNA-transfected cells. Additionally, miR-1246 mimic partially caused a resistance to autophagy induction by PLX-4720. These results indicate that autophagy does play an essential death-promoting role inPLX-4720-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that miRNA expression profiling in melanoma cells can provide valuable information for a network of BRAF inhibitor resistance-associated miRNAs.

Keywords: microRNA, BRAF inhibitor, drug resistance, autophagy

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17855 Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors and Their Histological Mimics

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Ebtisam Aljerayan, Afnan Al-Ghamdi, Atheer Alsharif, Hanan alzahrani


Background: Primary ovarian neoplasms comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors of three main subtypes: surface epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal. The wide morphological variation within and between these groups can result in diagnostic difficulties. Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST) represent one of the most heterogeneous categories of human neoplasms, because they may contain various combinations of different gonadal sex cord and stromal element. Aim: The aim of this work is to highlight the clinicopathological characteristics of SCST and to assess the value of alpha-inhibin and calretinin in the distinction between SCST and their mimics. Material and methods: This study was carried out on 100 cases using full tissue sections; 70 cases were SCST and 30 cases were histological mimics of SCST. The cases were studied using immunohistochemically using alpha-inhibin. In addition, an ovarian tissue microarray containing 170 benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms was also studied immunohistochemically for calretinin expression. The ovarian microarray included 14 SCST, 59 ovarian serous borderline tumors, 17 mucinous borderline tumors, 10 mucinous adenocarcinomas, 32 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 34 clear cell carcinomas, and 4 germ cell tumors. Results: 99% of SCST examined using full tissue sections exhibited positive cytoplasmic staining for inhibin. On the contrary, only 7% of the histological mimics (P value < 0.0001). 86% of SCST in the tissue microarray were positive for calretinin with nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining compared to only 7% of the other tumor types (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions: SCST have characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features and their recognition is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment. Alpha-inhibin and calretinin are of great help in the diagnosis of sex cord-stromal tumors.

Keywords: calretinin, granulosa cell tumor, inhibin, sex cord-stromal tumors

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17854 Protective Effect of Essential Oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa on Anxiety-Related Behaviors and Cytokine Abnormalities Induced by Early Life Stress

Authors: Hae Jeong Park, Joo-Ho Chung


In this study, the effect of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtuse (EOCO) on early life stress using maternal separation (MS) rats was investigated. Anxiety-related behaviors were examined in MS rats using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. The changes of gene expressions by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats were analyzed using a microarray method. Rats in the MS groups were separated from their respective mothers from postnatal day (pnd) 14 to 28. Rats in the EOCO-treated groups were exposed to EOCO for 1 h or 2 h by inhalation from pnd 21 to 28. The EOCO-treated MS rats showed decreased anxiety-related behaviors compared to the MS rats in the EPM test. In the microarray analysis, EOCO downregulated the expressions of cytokine genes such as Ccl2, Il6, Cxcl10, Ccl19, and Il1rl in the hippocampus of MS rats, and it was also confirmed through RT-PCR. In particular, the expressions of Ccl2 and Il6 were predominantly decreased by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Interestingly, their protein expressions were also reduced by EOCO in MS rats. These results indicate that EOCO decreases MS-induced anxiety-related behaviors, and modulate cytokines, particularly Ccl2 and Il6, in the hippocampus of MS rats.

Keywords: anxiety-related behavior, Chamaecyparis obtuse, cytokine gene, early-life stress, maternal separation

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17853 Profiling of Apoptotic Protein Expressions after Trabectedin Treatment in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Line PC-3 by Protein Array Technology

Authors: Harika Atmaca, Emir Bozkurt, Latife Merve Oktay, Selim Uzunoglu, Ruchan Uslu, Burçak Karaca


Microarrays have been developed for highly parallel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) applications. The most common protein arrays are produced by using multiple monoclonal antibodies, since they are robust molecules which can be easily handled and immobilized by standard procedures without loss of activity. Protein expression profiling with protein array technology allows simultaneous analysis of the protein expression pattern of a large number of proteins. Trabectedin, a tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid derived from a Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata, has been shown to have antitumor effects. Here, we used a novel proteomic approach to explore the mechanism of action of trabectedin in prostate cancer cell line PC-3 by apoptosis antibody microarray. XTT cell proliferation kit and Cell Death Detection Elisa Plus Kit (Roche) was used for measuring cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Human Apoptosis Protein Array (R&D Systems) which consists of 35 apoptosis related proteins was used to assess the omic protein expression pattern. Trabectedin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of the death receptor pathway molecules, TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF R1/TNFRSF1A, FADD were significantly increased by 4.0-, 21.0-, 4.20- and 11.5-fold by trabectedin treatment in PC-3 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial pathway related pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Cytochrome c, and Cleaved Caspase-3 expressions were induced by 2.68-, 2.07-, 2.8-, and 4.5-fold and the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were reduced by 3.5- and 5.2-fold in PC-3 cells. Proteomic (antibody microarray) analysis suggests that the mechanism of action of trabectedin may be exerted via the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The antibody microarray platform can be utilised to explore the molecular mechanism of action of novel anticancer agents.

Keywords: trabectedin, prostate cancer, omic protein expression profile, apoptosis

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17852 Processing Big Data: An Approach Using Feature Selection

Authors: Nikat Parveen, M. Ananthi


Big data is one of the emerging technology, which collects the data from various sensors and those data will be used in many fields. Data retrieval is one of the major issue where there is a need to extract the exact data as per the need. In this paper, large amount of data set is processed by using the feature selection. Feature selection helps to choose the data which are actually needed to process and execute the task. The key value is the one which helps to point out exact data available in the storage space. Here the available data is streamed and R-Center is proposed to achieve this task.

Keywords: big data, key value, feature selection, retrieval, performance

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17851 Applications of Big Data in Education

Authors: Faisal Kalota


Big Data and analytics have gained a huge momentum in recent years. Big Data feeds into the field of Learning Analytics (LA) that may allow academic institutions to better understand the learners’ needs and proactively address them. Hence, it is important to have an understanding of Big Data and its applications. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to provide an overview of Big Data, the technologies used in Big Data, and some of the applications of Big Data in education. Additionally, it discusses some of the concerns related to Big Data and current research trends. While Big Data can provide big benefits, it is important that institutions understand their own needs, infrastructure, resources, and limitation before jumping on the Big Data bandwagon.

Keywords: big data, learning analytics, analytics, big data in education, Hadoop

Procedia PDF Downloads 229