Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2528

Search results for: antibiotic resistance

2528 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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2527 Bacterial Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Coastal Sediments of Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

Authors: Ilknur Tuncer, Nihayet Bizsel

Abstract:

The scarcity of research in bacterial diversity and antimicrobial resistance in coastal environments as in Turkish coasts leads to difficulties in developing efficient monitoring and management programs. In the present study, biogeochemical analysis of sediments and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of bacteria in Izmir Bay, eastern Aegean Sea under high anthropogenic pressure were aimed in summer period when anthropogenic input was maximum and at intertidal zone where the first terrigenious contact occurred for aquatic environment. Geochemical content of the intertidal zone of Izmir Bay was firstly illustrated such that total and organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high and the grain size distribution varied as sand and gravel. Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance were also firstly given for Izmir Bay. Antimicrobially assayed isolates underlined the multiple resistance in the inner, middle and outer bays with overall 19% high MAR (multiple antibiotic resistance) index. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that 67 % of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and the rest included the families Alteromonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Exiguobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Planococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae.

Keywords: bacterial phylogeny, multiple antibiotic resistance, 16S rRNA genes, Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

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2526 Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance in Cultivable Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Different Ecological Niches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Martins A. Adefisoye, Mpaka Lindelwa, Fadare Folake, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Evolution and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance from one ecosystem to another has been responsible for wide-scale epidemic and endemic spreads of multi-drug resistance pathogens. This study assessed the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae in different environmental samples, including river water, hospital effluents, abattoir wastewater, animal rectal swabs and faecal droppings, soil, and vegetables, using standard microbiological procedure. The identity of the isolates were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry (MALDI-TOF) while the isolates were profiled for resistance against a panel of 16 antibiotics using disc diffusion (DD) test, and the occurrence of resistance genes (ARG) was determined by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Enterobacteriaceae counts in the samples range as follows: river water 4.0 × 101 – 2.0 × 104 cfu/100 ml, hospital effluents 1.5 × 103 – 3.0 × 107 cfu/100 ml, municipal wastewater 2.3 × 103 – 9.2 × 104 cfu/100 ml, faecal droppings 3.0 × 105 – 9.5 × 106 cfu/g, animal rectal swabs 3.0 × 102 – 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml, soil 0 – 1.2 × 105 cfu/g and vegetables 0 – 2.2 × 107 cfu/g. Of the 700 randomly selected presumptive isolates subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis, 129 (18.4%), 68 (9.7%), 67 (9.5%), 41 (5.9%) were E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp. respectively while the remaining isolates belong to other genera not targeted in the study. The DD test shows resistance ranging between 91.6% (175/191) for cefuroxime and (15.2%, 29/191) for imipenem The predominant multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes (MARP), (GM-AUG-AP-CTX-CXM-CIP-NOR-NI-C-NA-TS-T-DXT) occurred in 9 Klebsiella isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MARI) the isolates (range 0.17–1.0) generally showed >95% had MARI above the 0.2 thresholds, suggesting that most of the isolates originate from high-risk environments with high antibiotic use and high selective pressure for the emergence of resistance. The associated ARG in the isolates include: bla TEM 61.9 (65), bla SHV 1.9 (2), bla OXA 8.6 (9), CTX-M-2 8.6 (9), CTX-M-9 6.7 (7), sul 2 26.7 (28), tet A 16.2 (17), tet M 17.1 (18), aadA 59.1 (62), strA 34.3 (36), aac(3)A 19.1 (20), (aa2)A 7.6 (8), and aph(3)-1A 10.5 (11). The results underscore the need for preventative measures to curb the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae to protect public health.

Keywords: enterobacteriaceae, antibiotic-resistance, MALDI-TOF, resistance genes, MARP, MARI, public health

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2525 A Comparison of Antibiotic Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Infections

Authors: Zainab Dashti, Leila Vali

Abstract:

Background: The Middle East, in particular Kuwait, contains one of the highest rates of patients with Diabetes in the world. Generally, infections resistant to antibiotics among the diabetic population has been shown to be on the rise. This is the first study in Kuwait to compare the antibiotic resistance profiles and genotypic differences between the resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Material/Methods: In total, 65 isolates were collected from diabetic patients consisting of 34 E. coli, 15 K. pneumoniae and 16 other Enterobacteriaceae species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.). In our control group, a total of 49 isolates consisting of 37 E. coli, 7 K. pneumoniae and 5 other species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.) were included. Isolates were identified at the species level and antibiotic resistance profiles, including Colistin, were determined using initially the Vitek system followed by double dilution MIC and E-test assays. Multi drug resistance (MDR) was defined as isolates resistant to a minimum of three antibiotics from three different classes. PCR was performed to detect ESBL genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM & blaSHV), flouroquinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS & aac(6’)-lb-cr) and carbapenem resistance genes (blaOXA, blaVIM, blaGIM, blaKPC, blaIMP, & blaNDM) in both groups. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to compare clonal relatedness of both E. coli and K.pneumonaie isolates. Results: Colistin resistance was determined in three isolates with MICs of 32-128 mg/L. A significant difference in resistance to ampicillin (Diabetes 93.8% vs control 72.5%, P value <0.002), augmentin (80% vs 52.5%, p value < 0.003), cefuroxime (69.2% vs 45%, p value < 0.0014), ceftazadime (73.8% vs 42.5%, p value <0.001) and ciprofloxacin (67.6% vs 40%, p value < 0.005) were determined. Also, a significant difference in MDR rates between the two groups (Diabetes 76.9%, control 57.5%, p value <0.036 were found. All antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher prevalence among the diabetic group, except for blaCTX-M, which was higher among the control group. PFGE showed a high rate of diversity between each group of isolates. Conclusions: Our results suggested an alarming rate of antibiotic resistance, in particular Colistin resistance (1.8%) among K. pneumoniea isolated from diabetic patients in Kuwait. MDR among Enterobacteriaceae infections also seems to be a worrying issue among the diabetics of Kuwait. More efforts are required to limit the issue of antibiotic resistance in Kuwait, especially among patients with diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, diabetes, enterobacreriacae, multi antibiotic resistance

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2524 Antibiotic Guideline Adherence

Authors: I. A. Harris, J. M. Naylor

Abstract:

Antibiotic guidelines are published in order to reduce the risk of perioperative infection in orthopaedics. We surveyed 20 orthopaedic hospitals in Australia to determine their protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis around joint replacement surgery. We tested the protocols against Australian guidelines. We found that less than half of all protocols adhered to Australian guidelines. This indicates that current practice may lead to increased infection rates and increased antibiotic resistance.

Keywords: antibiotics, practice guidelines, orthopaedic surgery, joint replacement

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2523 Diversities, Antibiogram and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat from a Research Farm

Authors: Anthony Ayodeji Adegoke, Olayinka Ayobami Aiyegoro, Thor Axel Stenstrom

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A study to investigate the species diversities, antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus species from raw meat and dairy products collected from an abattoir and a farm shop of a research institute in Irene, South Africa over a six-month period was conducted. Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to speciate the bacteria and to detect the presence and otherwise of resistance genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards. A total of twenty-six (26) antibiotics were used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility. S. xylosus was the predominant isolate with 30% total occurrence, followed by S. epidermis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus with 25%, 15%, 15%, and 10% abundance respectively. The isolates were resistant to ceftezidime, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, nortrafuration, ampicillin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin and lincomycin. mecA genes was detected among the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species (MRSS) but no vancomycin resistance genes (van A and van B) were detected in these isolates. The presence of MRSS and multidrug resistant Staphylococcus species in meat affirms the need to avoid consumption of partially cooked meat currently rampant in South Africa, to avoid the spread of difficult to control pathogens in epidemiological proportion.

Keywords: Staphylococcus species, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, food products, methicillin resistance, mecA gene

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2522 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Nanofluid Containing Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Antibiotic on Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Erfan Rahimi, Hadi Bahari Far, Mojgan Shikhpour

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections, especially among women. E. coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections and one of the most common antibiotics to fight this bacterium is ampicillin. As conventional antibiotics led to bacterial antibiotic resistance, modification of the pure drugs can address this issue. The aim of this study was to prepare nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes conjugated with ampicillin to improve drug performance and reduce antibiotic resistance. Methods: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were activated with thionyl chloride by reflux system and nanofluids containing antibiotics were prepared by ultrasonic method. The properties of the prepared nano-drug were investigated by general element analysis, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After the treatment of the desired strain with nanofluid, microbial studies were performed to evaluate the antibacterial effects and molecular studies were carried out to measure the expression of the resistance gene AcrAB. Result: We have shown that the antimicrobial effect of ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs at low concentrations performed better than that of the conventional drug in both resistant and ATCC strains. Also, a decrease in antibiotic resistance of bacteria treated with ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs compared to the pure drug was observed. Also, ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs downregulated the expression of AcrAB in treated bacteria. Conclusion: Because carbon nanotubes are capable of destroying the bacterial wall, which provides antibiotic resistance features in bacteria, their usage in the form of nanofluids can make lower dosages (about three times less) than that of the pure drug more effective. Additionally, the expression of the bacterial resistance gene AcrAB decreased, thereby reducing antibiotic resistance and improving drug performance against bacteria.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, antibiotic resistance, carbon nanotube, nanofluid

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2521 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Staphlyococci Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens

Authors: Recep Kesli, Merih Simsek, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated at Medical Microbiology Laboratory of ANS Application and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. Methods: S. aureus strains isolated between October 2012 and September 2016, from various clinical specimens were evaluated retrospectively. S. aureus strains were identified by both the conventional methods and automated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France), and Meticillin resistance was verified using oxacillin disk with disk-diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, and intermediate susceptible strains were considered as resistant. Results: Seven hundred S.aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in this study. These strains were mostly isolated from blood culture, tissue, wounds and bronchial aspiration. All of 306 (43,7%) were oxacillin resistant. While all the S.aureus strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid, 38 (9.6 %), 77 (19.5 %), 116 (29.4 %), 152 (38.6 %) and 28 (7.1 %) were found to be resistant aganist to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, retrospectively. Conclusions: Comparing to the Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, increased resistance rates of, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were observed among the MRSA strains. In this study, the most effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the least effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be tetracycline.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, VITEK 2

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2520 Bacteriological Screening and Antibiotic – Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of the Bacteria Isolated from Some Amphibian and Reptile Species of the Biga Stream in Turkey

Authors: Nurcihan Hacioglu, Cigdem Gul, Murat Tosunoglu

Abstract:

In this article, the antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of the bacteria isolated from total 34 studied animals (Pelophylax ridibundus = 12, Mauremys rivulata = 14, Natrix natrix = 8) captured around the Biga Stream, are described. There was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from these area’s amphibians and reptiles. In this study, a total of 200 bacteria were successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptiles as well as from the water sample. According to Jaccard’s similarity index, the degree of similarity in the bacterial flora was quite high among the amphibian and reptile species under examination, whereas it was different from the bacterial diversity in the water sample. The most frequent isolates were A. hydrophila (31.5%), B. pseudomallei (8.5%), and C. freundii (7%). The total numbers of bacteria obtained were as follows: 45 in P. ridibundus, 45 in N. natrix 30 in M. rivulata, and 80 in the water sample. The result showed that cefmetazole was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study and that approximately 93.33% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistances (MAR) index indicated that P. ridibundus (0.95) > N. natrix (0.89) > M. rivulata (0.39). Furthermore, all the tested heavy metals (Pb+2, Cu+2, Cr+3, and Mn+2) inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates at different rates. Therefore, it indicated that the water source of the animals was contaminated with both antibiotic residues and heavy metals.

Keywords: bacteriological quality, amphibian, reptile, antibiotic, heavy metal resistance

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2519 A Program of Data Analysis on the Possible State of the Antibiotic Resistance in Bangladesh Environment in 2019

Authors: S. D. Kadir

Abstract:

Background: Antibiotics have always been at the centrum of the revolution of modern microbiology. Micro-organisms and its pathogenicity, resistant organisms, inappropriate or over usage of various types of antibiotic agents are fuelled multidrug-resistant pathogenic organisms. Our present time review report mainly focuses on the therapeutic condition of antibiotic resistance and the possible roots behind the development of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh in 2019. Methodology: The systemic review has progressed through a series of research analyses on various manuscripts published on Google Scholar, PubMed, Research Gate, and collected relevant information from established popular healthcare and diagnostic center and its subdivisions all over Bangladesh. Our research analysis on the possible assurance of antibiotic resistance been ensured by the selective medical reports and on random assay on the extent of individual antibiotic in 2019. Results: 5 research articles, 50 medical report summary, and around 5 patients have been interviewed while going through the estimation process. We have prioritized research articles where the research analysis been performed by the appropriate use of the Kirby-Bauer method. Kirby-Bauer technique is preferred as it provides greater efficiency, ensures lower performance expenditure, and supplies greater convenience and simplification in the application. In most of the reviews, clinical and laboratory standards institute guidelines were strictly followed. Most of our reports indicate significant resistance shown by the Beta-lactam drugs. Specifically by the derivatives of Penicillin's, Cephalosporin's (rare use of the first generation Cephalosporin and overuse of the second and third generation of Cephalosporin and misuse of the fourth generation of Cephalosporin), which are responsible for almost 67 percent of the bacterial resistance. Moreover, approximately 20 percent of the resistance was due to the fact of drug pumping from the bacterial cell by tetracycline and sulphonamides and their derivatives. Conclusion: 90 percent of the approximate antibiotic resistance is due to the usage of relative and true broad-spectrum antibiotics. The environment has been created by the following circumstances where; the excessive usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics had led to a condition where the disruption of native bacteria and a series of anti-microbial resistance causing a disturbance of the surrounding environments in medium, leading to a state of super-infection.

Keywords: antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, Kirby Bauer method, microbiology

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2518 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital for Two Years, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulsah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes serious hospital infections and is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. P. aeruginosa can develop resistance during therapy and also it is very resistant to disinfectant chemicals. It may be found in respiratory support devices in hospitals. In this study, the antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from bronchial aspiration samples was evaluated retrospectively. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 318 P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples obtained from various intensive care units and inpatient patients hospitalized at Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Isolated bacteria identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, Marcy l’etoile France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby-Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates of identified 318 P. aeruginosa strains were found as follows for tested antibiotics; 32 % amikacin, 42% gentamicin, 43% imipenem, 43% meropenem, 50% ciprofloxacin, 57% levofloxacin, 38% cefepime, 63% ceftazidime, and 85% piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Resistance profiles change according to years and provinces for P. aeruginosa, so these findings should be considered empirical treatment choices. In this study, the highest and lowest resistance rates found against piperacillin/tazobactam % 85, and amikacin %32.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotic resistance rates, intensive care unit, Pseudomonas spp.

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2517 Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems Treating Domestic and Hospital Effluents

Authors: Thobela Conco, Sheena Kumari, Chika Nnadozie, Mahmoud Nasr, Thor A. Stenström, Mushal Ali, Arshad Ismail, Faizal Bux

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The discharge of antibiotics and its residues into the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP’s) create a conducive environment for the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This presents a risk of potential dissemination of antibiotic resistant pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes into the environment. It is, therefore, necessary to study the level of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG’s) among bacterial pathogens that proliferate in biological wastewater treatment systems. In the current study, metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic sequences of samples collected from the influents, secondary effluents and post chlorinated effluents of three wastewater treatment plants treating domestic and hospital effluents in Durban, South Africa, were analyzed for profiling of ARG’s among bacterial pathogens. Results show that a variety of ARG’s, mostly, aminoglycoside, β-lactamases, tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes were harbored by diverse bacterial genera found at different stages of treatment. A significant variation in diversity of pathogen and ARGs between the treatment plant was observed; however, treated final effluent samples from all three plants showed a significant reduction in bacterial pathogens and detected ARG’s. Both pre- and post-chlorinated samples showed the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGE’s), indicating the inefficiency of chlorination to remove of ARG’s integrated with MGE’s. In conclusion, the study showed the wastewater treatment plant efficiently caused the reduction and removal of certain ARG’s, even though the initial focus was the removal of biological nutrients.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants

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2516 Seasonal Effect of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria into the Environment from Treated Sewage Effluents

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, S. K. Al-Musharafi, I. Y. Mahmoud

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Recycled treated sewage effluents (TSE) is used for agriculture, Public park irrigation and industrial purposes. TSE was found to play a major role in the distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. Fecal coliform and enterococci counts were significantly higher during summer compared to winter seasons. Oman has low annual rainfall with annual average temperature varied between 15-45oC. The main source of potable water is from seawater desalination. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antibiotics (Amikacin, Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, Tetracycline, Tobramycin, and Trimethoprim) was tested. Both fecal coliforms and enterococci were multiple resistant to 2-10 antibiotics. However, temperature variation during summer and winter did not affect resistance of the isolates to antibiotics. The significance of this investigation may be indicator to the environmental TSE pollution.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteria, environment, sewage treated effluent

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2515 Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas, Saba Riaz

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The extensive use of antibiotics has led to increases emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Pseudomonas is a notorious opportunistic pathogen involoved in nosocomial infections and exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas. A total of thirty clinical strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from different clinical sites of infection. All clinical specimens were collected from Chughtais Lahore Lab. Jail road, during 8-07-2010 to 11-01-2011. Biochemical characterization was done using routine biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Baeur method. The plasmids were isolated from all the strains and digested with restriction enzyme PstI and EcoRI. Transfer of Multi-resistance plasmid was checked via transformation and conjugation to confirm the plasmid mediated resistance to antibiotics. The prevalence of Pseudomonas in clinical specimens was found out to be 14% of all bacterial infections. IPM has shown to be the most effective drug against Pseudomonas followed by CES, PTB and meropenem, wheareas most of the Pseudomonas strains have developed significant resistance against Penicillins and some Cephalasporins. Antibiotic resistance determinants were carried by plasmids, as they conferred resistance to transformed K1 strains. The isolates readily undergo conjugation, transferring the resistant genes to other strains, illustrating the high rates of cross infection and nosocomial infection in the immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: pseudomonas, antibiotics, drug resistance, horizontal gene transfer

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2514 The Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing within Dundee Dental Hospital

Authors: Salma Ainine, Colin Ritchie, Tracey McFee

Abstract:

Background: The societal impact of antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. The increase in the incidence of resistant bacteria can ultimately be fatal. Objective: To analyse the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in Dundee Dental Hospital, ultimately improving the safety and quality of patient care. Methods: Two examiners independently cross-checked approximately fifty consecutive prescriptions, and corresponding patient case notes, for three data collection cycles between August 2014–September 2015. The Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Program (SDCEP) Drug Prescribing for Dentistry guidelines was the standard utilised. The criteria: clinical justification, regime justification, and review arrangements was measured, and compared to the standard. Results: Cycle one revealed 42% of antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Interventions included: multiple staff meetings, an introduction of a checklist attached to the prescription pack, and production of patient leaflets explaining indications for antibiotics. Cycle two and three revealed 44%, and 30% compliance, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the audit have yet to meet target standards set out in prescribing guidelines. However, steps are being taken and change has occurred on a cultural level.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship, dental infection, hygiene standards

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2513 Emergence of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Pigs, Nigeria

Authors: Igbakura I. Luga, Alex A. Adikwu

Abstract:

A comparison of resistance to quinolones was carried out on isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coliO157:H7 from cattle and mecA and nuc genes harbouring Staphylococcus aureus from pigs. The isolates were separately tested in the first and current decades of the 21st century. The objective was to demonstrate the dissemination of resistance to this frontline class of antibiotic by bacteria from food animals and bring to the limelight the spread of antibiotic resistance in Nigeria. A total of 10 isolates of the E. coli O157:H7 and 9 of mecA and nuc genes harbouring S. aureus were obtained following isolation, biochemical testing, and serological identification using the Remel Wellcolex E. coli O157:H7 test. Shiga toxin-production screening in the E. coli O157:H7 using the verotoxin E. coli reverse passive latex agglutination (VTEC-RPLA) test; and molecular identification of the mecA and nuc genes in S. aureus. Detection of the mecA and nuc genes were carried out using the protocol by the Danish Technical University (DTU) using the following primers mecA-1:5'-GGGATCATAGCGTCATTATTC-3', mecA-2: 5'-AACGATTGTGACACGATAGCC-3', nuc-1: 5'-TCAGCAAATGCATCACAAACAG-3', nuc-2: 5'-CGTAAATGCACTTGCTTCAGG-3' for the mecA and nuc genes, respectively. The nuc genes confirm the S. aureus isolates and the mecA genes as being methicillin-resistant and so pathogenic to man. The fluoroquinolones used in the antibiotic resistance testing were norfloxacin (10 µg) and ciprofloxacin (5 µg) in the E. coli O157:H7 isolates and ciprofloxacin (5 µg) in the S. aureus isolates. Susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar. Fluoroquinolone resistance was not detected from isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle. However, 44% (4/9) of the S. aureus were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance of up to 44% in isolates of mecA and nuc genes harbouring S. aureus is a compelling evidence for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance from bacteria in food animals from Nigeria. Ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice for the treatment of Typhoid fever, therefore widespread resistance to it in pathogenic bacteria is of great public health significance. The study concludes that antibiotic resistance in bacteria from food animals is on the increase in Nigeria. The National Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) agency in Nigeria should implement the World Health Organization (WHO) global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. A good starting point can be coordinating the WHO, Office of International Epizootics (OIE), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) tripartite draft antimicrobial resistance monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework in Nigeria.

Keywords: Fluoroquinolone, Nigeria, resistance, Staphylococcus aureus

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2512 The Instablity of TetM Gene Encode Tetracycline Resistance Gene in Lactobacillus casei FNCC 0090

Authors: Sarah Devi Silvian, Hanna Shobrina Iqomatul Haq, Fara Cholidatun Nabila, Agustin Krisna Wardani

Abstract:

Bacteria ability to survive in antibiotic is controlled by the presence of gene that encodes the antibiotic resistance protein. The instability of the antibiotic resistance gene can be observed by exposing the bacteria under the lethal dose of antibiotic. Low concentration of antibiotic can induce mutation, which may take a role in bacterial adaptation through the antibiotic concentration. Lactobacillus casei FNCC 0090 is one of the probiotic bacteria that has an ability to survive in tetracycline by expressing the tetM gene. The aims of this study are to observe the possibilities of mutation happened in L.casei FNCC 0090 by exposing in sub-lethal dose of tetracycline and also observing the instability of the tetM gene by comparing the sequence between the wild type and mutant. L.casei FNCC 0090 has a lethal dose in 60 µg/ml, low concentration is applied to induce the mutation, the range from 10 µg/ml, 15 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml, 45 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml. L.casei FNCC 0090 is exposed to the low concentration from lowest to the highest concentration to induce the adaptation. Plasmid is isolated from the highest concentration culture which is 50 µg/ml by using modified alkali lysis method with the addition of lysozyme. The tetM gene is isolated by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, then PCR amplicon is purified and sequenced. Sequencing is done on both samples, wild type and mutant. Both sequences are compared and the mutations can be traced in the presence of nucleotides changes. The changing of the nucleotides means that the tetM gene is instable.

Keywords: L. casei FNCC 0090, probiotic, tetM, tetracycline

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2511 Surpassing Antibiotic Resistance through Synergistic Effects of Polyethyleneimine-Silver Nanoparticle Complex Coated Mesoporous Silica Trio-Nanoconstructs

Authors: Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Wei-Zhi Lin, Chia-Hung Lee

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become an emergency situation clinically. To improve the efficacy of antibiotics in resistant strains, advancement of nanoparticles is inevitable than ever. Herewith, we demonstrate a design by immobilizing tetracycline (TET) in copper substituted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Cu-MSNs) through a pH-sensitive coordination link, enabling its release in the acidic environment. Subsequently, MSNs are coated with silver nanoparticles stabilized polyethyleneimine (PEI-SNP) to act against drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Silver ions released from SNP are capable of sensitizing the resistant strains and facilitate the generation of free radicals capable of damaging the cell components. In addition, copper ions in the framework are also capable of generating free radicals through Fenton-like reaction. Furthermore, the nanoparticles are well-characterized physically, and various antibacterial efficacious tests against isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strain were highly commendable. However, this formulation has no significant toxic effect on normal mammalian fibroblast cells accounting its high biocompatibility. These MSN trio-hybrids, i.e., SNP, tetracycline, and copper ions result in synergistic effects, and their advancement could bypass resistance and allow synergism for effective treatment of antibiotic clinically.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, copper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Ph-sensitive release, polyethyleneimine, silver, tetracycline

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2510 Phylogenetic Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Sediments of Aegean Sea

Authors: Ilknur Tuncer, Nihayet Bizsel

Abstract:

The studies in bacterial diversity and antimicrobial resistance in coastal areas are important to understand the variability in the community structures and metabolic activities. In the present study, antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria isolated from stations with different depths and influenced by terrestrial and marine fluxes in eastern Aegean Sea were illustrated. 51% of the isolates were found as resistant and 14% showed high MAR index indicating the high-risk sources of contamination in the environment. The resistance and the intermediate levels and high MAR index of the study area were 38–60%, 11–38% and 0–40%, respectively. According to 16S rRNA gene analysis, it was found that the isolates belonged to two phyla Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria with the genera Bacillus, Halomonas, Oceanobacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Vibrio. 47% of Bacillus strains which were dominant among all isolates were resistant. In addition to phylogenetically diverse bacteria, the variability in resistance, intermediate and high MAR index levels of the study area indicated the effect of geographical differences.

Keywords: bacterial diversity, multiple antibiotic resistance, 16S rRNA genes, Aegean Sea

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2509 Detection of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout

Authors: M. Raissy, M. Shahrani

Abstract:

The present study was done to evaluate the presence of tetracycline resistance genes in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from cultured rainbow trout, West Iran. The isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion method. Of the 49 strains tested, 19 were resistant to tetracycline (38.7%), 32 to enrofloxacin (65.3%), 21 to erythromycin (42.8%), 20 to chloramphenicol and trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40.8%). The strains were then characterized for their genotypic resistance profiles. The results revealed that all 49 isolates contained at least one of the tetracycline resistance genes. Tet (A) was found in 89.4% of tetracycline resistant isolates and the frequency of other gene were as follow: tet (E) 42.1%, tet (B) 47.3%, tet (D) 15.7%, tet (L) 26.3%, tet (K) 52.6%, tet (G) 36.8%, tet (34) 21%, tet (S) 63.1%, tet (C) 57.8%, tet (M) 73.6%, tet (O) 42.1%. The results revealed high levels of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae strains which is a potential danger for trout culture as well as for public health.

Keywords: Lactococcus garvieae, tetracycline resistance genes, rainbow trout, antimicrobial resistance

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2508 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, multi drug resistance, intensive care unit

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2507 Progress in Replacing Antibiotics in Farm Animal Production

Authors: Debabrata Biswas

Abstract:

The current trend in the development of antibiotic resistance by multiple bacterial pathogens has resulted in a troubling loss of effective antibiotic options for human. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens has necessitated higher dosages and combinations of multiple antibiotics, further exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. Zoonotic bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC), and Listeria are the most common and predominant foodborne enteric infectious agents. It was observed that these pathogens gained/developed their ability to survive in the presence of antibiotics either in farm animal gut or farm environment and researchers believe that therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antibiotic use in farm animal production might play an important role in it. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial components used in farm animal production in genomic interplay in the gut and farm environment, has not been fully characterized. Even the risk of promoting the exchange of mobile genetic elements between microbes specifically pathogens needs to be evaluated in depth, to ensure sustainable farm animal production, safety of our food and to mitigate/limit the enteric infection with multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. Due to the consumer’s demand and considering the current emerging situation, many countries are in process to withdraw antibiotic use in farm animal production. Before withdrawing use of the sub-therapeutic antibiotic or restricting the use of therapeutic antibiotics in farm animal production, it is essential to find alternative natural antimicrobials for promoting the growth of farm animal and/or treating animal diseases. Further, it is also necessary to consider whether that compound(s) has the potential to trigger the acquisition or loss of genetic materials in zoonotic and any other bacterial pathogens. Development of alternative therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antimicrobials for farm animal production and food processing and preservation and their effective implementation for sustainable strategies for farm animal production as well as the possible risk for horizontal gene transfer in major enteric pathogens will be focus in the study.

Keywords: food safety, natural antimicrobial, sustainable farming, antibiotic resistance

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2506 Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistant Enterococci in Treated Wastewater Effluent in Durban, South Africa and Characterization of Vancomycin and High-Level Gentamicin-Resistant Strains

Authors: S. H. Gasa, L. Singh, B. Pillay, A. O. Olaniran

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been implicated as the leading reservoir for antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), including Enterococci spp. and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), worldwide. Enterococci are a group of clinically significant bacteria that have gained much attention as a result of their antibiotic resistance. They play a significant role as the principal cause of nosocomial infections and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes in the environment. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the role of WWTPs in Durban, South Africa as potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant Enterococci (ARE) and their related ARGs. Furthermore, the antibiogram and resistance gene profile of Enterococci species recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban were also investigated. Using membrane filtration technique, Enterococcus selective agar and selected antibiotics, ARE were enumerated in samples (influent, activated sludge, before chlorination and final effluent) collected from two WWTPs, as well as from upstream and downstream of the receiving surface water. Two hundred Enterococcus isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface water were identified by biochemical and PCR-based methods, and their antibiotic resistance profiles determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay, while PCR-based assays were used to detect the presence of resistance and virulence genes. High prevalence of ARE was obtained at both WWTPs, with values reaching a maximum of 40%. The influent and activated sludge samples contained the greatest prevalence of ARE with lower values observed in the before and after chlorination samples. Of the 44 vancomycin and high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates, 11 were identified as E. faecium, 18 as E. faecalis, 4 as E. hirae while 11 are classified as “other” Enterococci species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance for gentamicin (39%) and vancomycin (61%) was recorded in species tested. The most commonly detected virulence gene was the gelE (44%), followed by asa1 (40%), while cylA and esp were detected in only 2% of the isolates. The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia detected in 43%, 45% and 41% of the isolates, respectively. Positive correlation was observed between resistant phenotypes to high levels of aminoglycosides and presence of all aminoglycoside resistance genes. Resistance genes for glycopeptide: vanB (37%) and vanC-1 (25%), and macrolide: ermB (11%) and ermC (54%) were detected in the isolates. These results show the need for more efficient wastewater treatment and disposal in order to prevent the release of virulent and antibiotic resistant Enterococci species and safeguard public health.

Keywords: antibiogram, enterococci, gentamicin, vancomycin, virulence signatures

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2505 Antibiotic Resistance and Susceptibility of Bacteria Strains Isolated from Sheep Milk

Authors: Fatima Bouazza, Rachida Hassikou, Lamiae Amallah, Jihane Ennadir, Khadija Khedid

Abstract:

This study evaluated the in vitro resistance and susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca strains) and Staphylococci strains, isolated from sheep’s milk, against antibiotics and essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium. Antibiotic resistance tests were done using disc diffusion while essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, and yields were calculated relative to plant dry matter. Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze each oil's chemical composition. The AMC, CTX, FOX, NA, CN, CIP, and OFX were very effective against the E. coli strains tested. Half of the strains were resistant to AMC, 60% to TIC, and 80% to TE. The K. oxytoca was resistant against AMC, FOX, and TIC (100%). Antibiotic-resistant testing on Staphylococci strains indicated Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus chromogenes as the most sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal exhibited less resistance to OX, TE, PT, E, and P. The M. pulegium resulted in a higher yield of essential oil of 3.2% oil compared to T. satureioides with only 1.85% yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal had lower OX, TE, PT, E, and P resistance. M. pulegium yielded 3.2% essential oil compared to 1.85% for T. satureioides. The monoterpene oxygenated derivatives, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and phenols are found in essential oil extracts. T. satureioides essential oil had high antibacterial activity even at low concentrations (0.2; 0.55 g/mL). The Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values indicate that the essential oils from the plants analyzed had bactericidal effects on all strains tested and are similar to the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values. The high antibacterial properties of these medicinal plants, against bacteria isolated from sheep’s milk, provide an opportunity to use these medicinal plants in the breeding sector as additives and preservatives in the dairy industry.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, medicinal plants, essential oils, enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, sheep milk

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2504 A Prospective Audit to Look into Antimicrobial Prescribing in the Clinical Setting: In a Teaching Hospital in the UK

Authors: Richa Sinha, Mohammad Irfan Javed, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Good antimicrobial prescribing reduces length of stay in hospital, risk of adverse events, antimicrobial resistance, and unnecessary hospital expenditure. The aim of this prospective audit was to identify any problems with antimicrobial prescribing including documentation of the relevant aspects as well as appropriateness of antibiotics use. The audit was conducted on the surgical wards in a teaching hospital in the UK. Methods: Standards included the indication, duration, choice, and prescription of antibiotic should be in line with current Regional Guidelines and should be clearly documented on the prescription chart. There should be an entry in each patients’ medical record of the diagnosis and indication for each acute antibiotic prescription issued. All prescriptions should clearly document the route, frequency and dose of antibiotic. Data collection was done for 2 weeks in the month of March 2014. A proforma including all the questions above was completed for all the patients. The results were analysed using Excel. Results: 35 patients in total were selected for the audit. 85.7% of patients had indication of antibiotic documented on the prescription chart and 68.5% of patients had indication documented in the notes. The antibiotic used was in line with hospital guidelines in 45.7% of patients, however, in a further 28.5% of patients the reason for the antibiotic prescription was microbiology approved. Therefore, in total 74.2% of patients had been prescribed appropriate antibiotics. The duration of antibiotic was documented in 68.6% of patients and the antibiotic was reviewed in 37.1% of patients. The dose, frequency and route was documented clearly in 100% of patients. Conclusion: Overall, prescribing can be improved on the surgical wards in this hospital. Only 37.1% of patients had clear documentation of a review of antibiotics. It may be that antibiotics have been reviewed but this should be clearly highlighted on the prescription chart or the notes. Failure to review antibiotics can lead to poor patient care and antimicrobial resistance and therefore it is important to address this. It is also important to address the appropriateness of antibiotics as inappropriate antibiotic prescription can lead to failure of treatment as well as antimicrobial resistance. The good points from the audit was that all patients had clear documentation of dose, route and frequency which is extremely important in the administration of antibiotics. Recommendations from this audit included to emphasize good antimicrobial prescribing at induction (twice yearly), an antimicrobial handbook for junior doctors, and re-audit in 6 months time.

Keywords: prescribing, antimicrobial, indication, duration

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2503 Study of the Genes Involved in the Resistance of Nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Fluoroquinolone

Authors: Rosetta Moshirian Farahi, Ahya Abdi Ali, Sara Gharavi

Abstract:

The major mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to fluoroquinolones is the alteration of target enzymes, type II and IV topoisomerases due to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the gyrA and parC genes coding A subunits of these enzymes. 37 isolates from patients with burn wounds and 20 isolates from blood, urine and sputum specimen were selected to evaluate mutations involved in antibiotic resistance and were subsequently verified for their resistance to ciprofloxacin. QRDRs regions of gyrA and parC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were subsequently sequenced. 90% of isolates with MIC≥8 µg/ml to ciprofloxacin had a mutation in gyrA gene in which threonine at position 83 changed to isoleucine. 87.5% of isolates had mutation in parC, Serine 87 changed. 75% had Ser87Leu and 12.5% possessed Serin87Trp. Various silent mutations were also detected such as Val103Val, Ala118Ala, Ala136Ala, His132His in gyrA and Ala115Ala in parC. The data indicates that the common mutation in gyrA is Thr83Ile and in parC is Ser87Leu/Trp. No individual parC mutation was observed while mutations in gyrA and parC occurred simultaneously and appears to be the main reason of high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in patients with burn wounds and urine infection. The vast majority of P.aeruginosa isolates had mutation in parC which can play a crucial role in increased resistance of these isolates. This is a report of parC mutations from resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from Iran, Tehran.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, fluoroquinolones, gyrA, parC, antibiotic resistance

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2502 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles with E Test Methods of Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Various Clinical Specimen

Authors: Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık

Abstract:

Objective: This study was carried out with the purpose of defining by using the E test method and determining the antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and referred to Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Application and Research Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and seventy eight clinical specimens were examined for isolation of the anaerobic bacteria in Medical Microbiology Laboratory between the 1st November 2014 and 30th October 2015. Specimens were cultivated by using Scheadler agar that 5% defibrinated sheep blood added, and Scheadler broth. The isolated anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were identified conventional methods and Vitek 2 (ANC ID Card, bioMerieux, France) cards. Antibiotic resistance rates against to penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem were determined with E-test method for each isolate. Results: Of the isolated twenty-eight anaerobic gram negative bacilli fourteen were identified as the B. fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella group, and 5 were Fusobacterium group. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. Against to the; metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem, no resistance was found. Conclusion: Since high rate resistance has been detected against to penicillin in the study penicillin should not be preferred in empirical treatment. Cefoxitin can be preferred in empirical treatment; however, carrying out the antibiotic sensitivity testing will be more proper and beneficial. No resistance was observed against carbapenem group antibiotics and metronidazole; so that reason, these antibiotics should be reserved for treatment of infectious caused by resistant strains in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, anaerobe, antibiotics and resistance profiles, e-test method

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2501 Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococci Isolated from Raw Cow Milk

Authors: Margita Čanigová, Jana Račková, Miroslav Kročko, Viera Ducková, Vladimíra Kňazovická

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to test the milk samples in terms of enterococci presence and their counts. Tested samples were as follows: raw cow milk, raw cow milk stored at 10°C for 16 hours and milk pasteurised at 72°C for 15 seconds. The typical colonies were isolated randomly and identified by classical biochemical test - EN-COCCUS test (Lachema, CR) and by PCR. Isolated strains were tested in terms of antibiotic resistance by well diffusion method. Examined antibiotics were: vancomycin (30 μg/disc), gentamicin (120 μg/disc), erythromycin (15 μg/disc), teicoplanine (30 μg/disc), ampicillin (10 μg/disc) and tetracycline (30 μg/disc). Average value of enterococci counts in raw milk cistern samples (n=30) was 8.25 ± 1.37 ×103 CFU/cm3. Storage tank milk samples (n=30) showed an increase (P > 0.05) and average value was 9.16 ± 1.49 × 103 CFU/cm3. Occurrence of enterococci in pasteurized milk (n=30) was sporadic and their counts were mostly below 10 CFU/cm3. Overall, 96 enterococci strains were isolated. In samples of raw cow milk and stored raw cow milk, Enterococcus faecalis was a dominant species (58.1% and 71.7%, respectively), followed by E. faecium (16.3% and 0%, respectively). Enterococcus mundtii, E. casseliflavus, E. durans and E. gallinarum were isolated, too. Resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin were found in 7.29%, 3.13%, 4.00%, 13.54% and 10.42% of isolated enterococci strains, respectively. Resistance to teicoplanine was not found in any isolated strain. All Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) belonged to E. faecalis. Obtained results confirmed that raw milk is a potential risk of enterococci resistant to antibiotics transmission into the food chain.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, enterococci, milk, biosystems engineering

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2500 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan

Abstract:

This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

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2499 Dual Mode Mobile Based Detection of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide for Determination of Live and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Shashank Gahlaut, Chandrashekhar Sharan, J. P. Singh

Abstract:

Increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a big concern for the treatment of pathogenic diseases. The effect of treatment of patients with antibiotics often leads to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the pathogens. The detection of antibiotic or antimicrobial resistant bacteria (microbes) is quite essential as it is becoming one of the big threats globally. Here we propose a novel technique to tackle this problem. We are taking a step forward to prevent the infections and diseases due to drug resistant microbes. This detection is based on some unique features of silver (a noble metal) nanorods (AgNRs) which are fabricated by a physical deposition method called thermal glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Silver nanorods are found to be highly sensitive and selective for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. Color and water wetting (contact angle) of AgNRs are two parameters what are effected in the presence of this gas. H₂S is one of the major gaseous products evolved in the bacterial metabolic process. It is also known as gasotransmitter that transmits some biological singles in living systems. Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon mono oxide (CO) are two another members of this family. Orlowski (1895) observed the emission of H₂S by the bacteria for the first time. Most of the microorganism produce these gases. Here we are focusing on H₂S gas evolution to determine live/dead and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. AgNRs array has been used for the detection of H₂S from micro-organisms. A mobile app is also developed to make it easy, portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, hydrogen sulfide, live and dead bacteria, mobile app

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