Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3905

Search results for: laminar flow

3905 Numerical Study of Pressure Losses of Turbulence Drilling Fluid Flow in the Oil Wellbore

Authors: Alireza Mehdizadeh, Ghanbarali Sheikhzadeh


In this paper the pressure loss of drilling fluid flow in the annulus is investigated. On this purpose the domains between two concentric and two eccentric cylinders are considered as computational domains. In this research foam is used as drilling fluid. Firstly simulation results for laminar flow and non Newtonian fluid and different density like 100, 200, 300 kg/m3 and different inner cylinder rotational velocity like 100, 200, 300 RPM is presented. These results are compared and matched with references results. The power law and Herschel Bulkly methods are used for non Newtonian fluid modeling. After that computations are repeated with turbulence flow considering. K- Model is used for turbulence modeling. Results show that in laminar flow Herschel bulkly model has best result in comparison with power law model. And pressure loss in turbulence flow is higher than laminar flow.

Keywords: simulation, concentric cylinders, drilling, non Newtonian

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
3904 PIV Measurements of the Instantaneous Velocities for Single and Two-Phase Flows in an Annular Duct

Authors: Marlon M. Hernández Cely, Victor E. C. Baptistella, Oscar M. H. Rodríguez


Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique in the field of fluid flow measurement and provides instantaneous velocity fields over global domains. It has been applied to external and internal flows and in single and two-phase flows. Regarding internal flow, works about the application of PIV in annular ducts are scanty. An experimental work is presented, where flow of water is studied in an annular duct of inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 155 mm and 10.5-m length, with the goal of obtaining detailed velocity measurements. Depending on the flow rates of water, it can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. In this study, the water flow rate was kept at three different values for the annular duct, allowing the analysis of one laminar and two turbulent flows. Velocity fields and statistic quantities of the turbulent flow were calculated.

Keywords: PIV, annular duct, laminar, turbulence, velocity profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
3903 Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin


Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: laminar forced convection, curve pipe, return bend, nanufluid, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
3902 Numerical Study of Laminar Natural Flow Transitions in Rectangular Cavity

Authors: Sabrina Nouri, Abderahmane Ghezal, Said Abboudi, Pierre Spiteri


This paper deals with the numerical study of heat and mass transfer of laminar flow transition at low Prandtl numbers. The model includes the two-directional momentum, the energy and mass transfer equations. These equations are discretized by the finite volume method and solved by a self-made simpler like Fortran code. The effect of governing parameters, namely the Lewis and Prandtl numbers, on the transition of the flow and solute distribution is studied for positive and negative thermal and solutal buoyancy forces ratio. Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are derived for of Prandtl [10⁻²-10¹] and Lewis numbers [1-10⁴]. The results show unicell and multi-cell flow. Solute and flow boundary layers appear for low Prandtl number.

Keywords: natural convection, low Prandtl number, heat and mass transfer, finite volume method

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3901 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Laminar Flow over a Backward Facing Step with and without Obstacle

Authors: Hussein Togun, Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, M. K. A. Ariffin, M. N. M. Zubir


Heat transfer and laminar fluid flow over backward facing step with and without obstacle numerically studied in this paper. The finite volume method adopted to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations in two dimensions. Backward facing step without obstacle and with different dimension of obstacle were presented. The step height and expansion ratio of channel were 4.8mm and 2 respectively, the range of Reynolds number varied from 75 to 225, constant heat flux subjected on downstream of wall was 2000W/m2, and length of obstacle was 1.5, 3, and 4.5mm with width 1.5mm. The separation length noticed increase with increase Reynolds number and height of obstacle. The result shows increase of heat transfer coefficient for backward facing step with obstacle in compared to those without obstacle. The maximum enhancement of heat transfer observed at 4.5mm of height obstacle due to increase recirculation flow after the obstacle in addition that at backward. Streamline of velocity showing the increase of recirculation region with used obstacle in compared without obstacle and highest recirculation region observed at obstacle height 4.5mm. The amount of enhancement heat transfer was varied between 3-5% compared to backward without obstacle.

Keywords: separation flow, backward facing step, heat transfer, laminar flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
3900 Unconfined Laminar Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer around a Square Cylinder with an Angle of Incidence

Authors: Rafik Bouakkaz


A finite-volume method simulation is used to investigate two dimensional unsteady flow of nanofluids and heat transfer characteristics past a square cylinder inclined with respect to the main flow in the laminar regime. The computations are carried out of nanoparticle volume fractions varying from 0 ≤ ∅ ≤ 5% for an inclination angle in the range 0° ≤ δ ≤ 45° at a Reynolds number of 100. The variation of stream line and isotherm patterns are presented for the above range of conditions. Also, it is noticed that the addition of nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer. Hence, the local Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing value of the concentration of nanoparticles for the fixed value of the inclination angle.

Keywords: copper nanoparticles, heat transfer, square cylinder, inclination angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
3899 Analyzing the Effect of Design of Pipe in Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger by Measuring Its Heat Transfer Rate by Computation Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Approach

Authors: Dhawal Ladani


Shell and tube type heat exchangers are predominantly used in heat exchange between two fluids and other applications. This paper projects the optimal design of the pipe used in the heat exchanger in such a way to minimize the vibration occurring in the pipe. Paper also consists of the comparison of the different design of the pipe to get the maximize the heat transfer rate by converting laminar flow into the turbulent flow. By the updated design the vibration in the pipe due to the flow is also decreased. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Heat Transfer analysis are done to justifying the result. Currently, the straight pipe is used in the shell and tube type of heat exchanger where as per the paper the pipe consists of the curvature along with the pipe. Hence, the heat transfer area is also increased and result in the increasing in heat transfer rate. Curvature type design is useful to create turbulence and minimizing the vibration, also. The result will give the output comparison of the effect of laminar flow and the turbulent flow in the heat exchange mechanism, as well as, inverse effect of the boundary layer in heat exchanger is also justified.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, laminar and turbulent effect, shell and tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3898 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi


Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.

Keywords: laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3897 Laminar Periodic Vortex Shedding over a Square Cylinder in Pseudoplastic Fluid Flow

Authors: Shubham Kumar, Chaitanya Goswami, Sudipto Sarkar


Pseudoplastic (n < 1, n being the power index) fluid flow can be found in food, pharmaceutical and process industries and has very complex flow nature. To our knowledge, inadequate research work has been done in this kind of flow even at very low Reynolds numbers. Here, in the present computation, we have considered unsteady laminar flow over a square cylinder in pseudoplastic flow environment. For Newtonian fluid flow, this laminar vortex shedding range lies between Re = 47-180. In this problem, we consider Re = 100 (Re = U∞ a/ ν, U∞ is the free stream velocity of the flow, a is the side of the cylinder and ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid). The pseudoplastic fluid range has been chosen from close to the Newtonian fluid (n = 0.8) to very high pseudoplasticity (n = 0.1). The flow domain is constituted using Gambit 2.2.30 and this software is also used to generate mesh and to impose the boundary conditions. For all places, the domain size is considered as 36a × 16a with 280 ×192 grid point in the streamwise and flow normal directions respectively. The domain and the grid points are selected after a thorough grid independent study at n = 1.0. Fine and equal grid spacing is used close to the square cylinder to capture the upper and lower shear layers shed from the cylinder. Away from the cylinder the grid is unequal in size and stretched out in all direction. Velocity inlet (u = U∞), pressure outlet (Neumann condition), symmetry (free-slip boundary condition du/dy = 0, v = 0) at upper and lower domain boundary conditions are used for this simulation. Wall boundary (u = v = 0) is considered on the square cylinder surface. Fully conservative 2-D unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are discretized and then solved by Ansys Fluent 14.5 to understand the flow nature. SIMPLE algorithm written in finite volume method is selected for this purpose which is the default solver in scripted in Fluent. The result obtained for Newtonian fluid flow agrees well with previous work supporting Fluent’s usefulness in academic research. A minute analysis of instantaneous and time averaged flow field is obtained both for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluid flow. It has been observed that drag coefficient increases continuously with the reduced value of n. Also, the vortex shedding phenomenon changes at n = 0.4 due to flow instability. These are some of the remarkable findings for laminar periodic vortex shedding regime in pseudoplastic flow environment.

Keywords: Ansys Fluent, CFD, periodic vortex shedding, pseudoplastic fluid flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
3896 Numerical Study of Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid in a Concentric Annular Tube Using Two-Phase Mixture Model

Authors: Roghayyeh Motallebzadeh, Shahin Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza Ghasemi


Laminar mixed convection heat transfer of a nanofluid with prescribed constant heat flux on the inner wall of horizontal annular tube has been studied numerically based on two-phase mixture model in different Rayleigh numbers and Azimuth angles. Effects of applying of different volume fractions of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water as a base fluid on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviours of the fluid flow such as axial velocity, secondary flow, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient at the inner and outer wall region, has been investigated. Conservation equations in elliptical form has been utilized and solved in three dimensions for a steady flow. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between results in this work and previously published experimental and numerical works on mixed convection in horizontal annulus. These particles cause to increase convection heat transfer coefficient of the fluid, meanwhile there is no considerable effect on friction coefficient.

Keywords: buoyancy force, laminar mixed convection, mixture model, nano-fluid, two-phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
3895 Simulations of Laminar Liquid Flows through Superhydrophobic Micro-Pipes

Authors: Mohamed E. Eleshaky


This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of laminar water flows inside superhydrophobic micro-pipes patterned with square micro-posts features under different operating conditions. It also investigates the effects of air fraction and Reynolds number on the frictional performance of these pipes. Rather than modeling the air-water interfaces of superhydrophobic as a flat inflexible surface, a transient, incompressible, three-dimensional, volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology has been employed to continuously track the air–water interface shape inside micro-pipes. Also, the entrance effects on the flow field have been taken into consideration. The results revealed the strong dependency of the frictional performance on the air fractions and Reynolds number. The frictional resistance reduction becomes increasingly more significant at large air fractions and low Reynolds numbers. Increasing Reynolds number has an adverse effect on the frictional resistance reduction.

Keywords: drag reduction, laminar flow in micropipes, numerical simulation, superhyrophobic surfaces, microposts

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
3894 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry

Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar


The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.

Keywords: complex geometry, heat transfer, laminar flow, mixed convection, Nusselt number

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
3893 Numerical Investigation of Flow Behaviour Across a Trapezoidal Bluff Body at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Zaaraoui Abdelkader, Kerfah Rabeh, Noura Belkheir, Matene Elhacene


The trapezoidal bluff body is a typical configuration of vortex shedding bodies. The aim of this work is to study flow behaviour over a trapezoidal cylinder at low Reynolds number. The geometry was constructed from a prototype device for measuring the volumetric flow-rate by counting vortices. Simulations were run for this geometry under steady and unsteady flow conditions using finite volume discretization. Laminar flow was investigated in this model with rigid walls and homogeneous incompressible Newtonian fluid. Calculations were performed for Reynolds number range 5 ≤ Re ≤ 180 and several flow parameters were documented. The present computations are in good agreement with the experimental observations and the numerical calculations by several investigators.

Keywords: bluff body, confined flow, numerical calculations, steady and unsteady flow, vortex shedding flow meter

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
3892 Control of a Plane Jet Spread by Tabs at the Nozzle Exit

Authors: Makito Sakai, Takahiro Kiwata, Takumi Awa, Hiroshi Teramoto, Takaaki Kono, Kuniaki Toyoda


Using experimental and numerical results, this paper describes the effects of tabs on the flow characteristics of a plane jet at comparatively low Reynolds numbers while focusing on the velocity field and the vortical structure. The flow visualization and velocity measurements were respectively carried out using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). In addition, three-dimensional (3D) plane jet numerical simulations were performed using ANSYS Fluent, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software application. We found that the spreads of jets perturbed by large delta tabs and round tabs were larger than those produced by the other tabs tested. Additionally, it was determined that a plane jet with square tabs had the smallest jet spread downstream, and the jet’s centerline velocity was larger than those of jets perturbed by the other tabs tested. It was also observed that the spanwise vortical structure of a plane jet with tabs disappeared completely. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical simulation velocity profiles in the area near the nozzle exit when the laminar flow model was used. However, we also found that large eddy simulation (LES) is better at predicting the developing flow field of a plane jet than the laminar and the standard k-ε turbulent models.

Keywords: plane jet, flow control, tab, flow measurement, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
3891 Vortices Structure in Internal Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Authors: Farid Gaci, Zoubir Nemouchi


A numerical study of laminar and turbulent fluid flows in 90° bend of square section was carried out. Three-dimensional meshes, based on hexahedral cells, were generated. The QUICK scheme was employed to discretize the convective term in the transport equations. The SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to treat the velocity-pressure coupling. The flow structure obtained showed interesting features such as recirculation zones and counter-rotating pairs of vortices. The performance of three different turbulence models was evaluated: the standard k- ω model, the SST k-ω model and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). Overall, it was found that, the multi-equation model performed better than the two equation models. In fact, the existence of four pairs of counter rotating cells, in the straight duct upstream of the bend, were predicted by the RSM closure but not by the standard eddy viscosity model nor the SST k-ω model. The analysis of the results led to a better understanding of the induced three dimensional secondary flows and the behavior of the local pressure coefficient and the friction coefficient.

Keywords: curved duct, counter-rotating cells, secondary flow, laminar, turbulent

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
3890 Computational Study of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of an Incompressible Fluid in a Channel Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Imdat Taymaz, Erman Aslan, Kemal Cakir


The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is performed to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a 2D channel with a built-in triangular prism. Both momentum and energy transport is modelled by the LBM. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. Interpolation methods are applied for obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is researched on for different Reynolds number, while Prandtl number is keeping constant as a 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an evaluation of the accuracy of the developed LBM code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial CFD code. It is observed that the present LBM code produces results that have similar accuracy with the well-established CFD code, as an additionally, LBM needs much smaller CPU time for the prediction of the unsteady phonema.

Keywords: laminar forced convection, lbm, triangular prism

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3889 Numerical Study of Flow around Flat Tube between Parallel Walls

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi


Flow around a flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube and it is varied in range of 100 to 300. Equations are solved by using finite volume method and results are presented in form of drag and lift coefficient. Results show that drag coefficient of flat tube is up to 66% lower than circular tube with equivalent diameter. In addition, by increasing l/D from 1 to 2, the drag coefficient of flat tube is decreased about 14-27%.

Keywords: laminar flow, flat-tube, drag coefficient, cross-flow, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
3888 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in THTL Test Loop Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: M. Moody, R. Mahmoodi, A. R. Zolfaghari, A. Aminottojari


In this study, flow inside the shell side of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is simulated numerically for laminar and turbulent flows in both steady state and transient mode. Governing equations of fluid flow are discrete using finite volume method and central difference scheme and solved with simple algorithm which is staggered grid by using MATLAB programming language. The heat transfer coefficient is obtained using velocity field from equation Dittus-Bolter. In comparison with, heat exchanger is simulated with ANSYS CFX software and experimental data measured in the THTL test loop. Numerical results obtained from the study show good agreement with experimental data and ANSYS CFX results. In addition, by deliberation the effect of the baffle spacing and the baffle cut on the heat transfer rate for turbulent flow, it is illustrated that the heat transfer rate depends on the baffle spacing and the baffle cut directly. In other word in spied of large turbulence, if these two parameters are not selected properly in the heat exchanger, the heat transfer rate can reduce.

Keywords: shell-and-tube heat exchanger, flow and heat transfer, laminar and turbulence flow, turbulence model, baffle spacing, baffle cut

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
3887 Flow-Control Effectiveness of Convergent Surface Indentations on an Aerofoil at Low Reynolds Numbers

Authors: Neel K. Shah


Passive flow control on aerofoils has largely been achieved through the use of protrusions such as vane-type vortex generators. Consequently, innovative flow-control concepts should be explored in an effort to improve current component performance. Therefore, experimental research has been performed at The University of Manchester to evaluate the flow-control effectiveness of a vortex generator made in the form of a surface indentation. The surface indentation has a trapezoidal planform. A spanwise array of indentations has been applied in a convergent orientation around the maximum-thickness location of the upper surface of a NACA-0015 aerofoil. The aerofoil has been tested in a two-dimensional set-up in a low-speed wind tunnel at an angle of attack (AoA) of 3° and a chord-based Reynolds number (Re) of ~2.7 x 105. The baseline model has been found to suffer from a laminar separation bubble at low AoA. The application of the indentations at 3° AoA has considerably shortened the separation bubble. The indentations achieve this by shedding up-flow pairs of streamwise vortices. Despite the considerable reduction in bubble length, the increase in leading-edge suction due to the shorter bubble is limited by the removal of surface curvature and blockage (increase in surface pressure) caused locally by the convergent indentations. Furthermore, the up-flow region of the vortices, which locally weakens the pressure recovery around the trailing edge of the aerofoil by thickening the boundary layer, also contributes to this limitation. Due to the conflicting effects of the indentations, the changes in the pressure-lift and pressure-drag coefficients, i.e., cl,p and cd,p, are small. Nevertheless, the indentations have improved cl,p and cd,p beyond the uncertainty range, i.e., by ~1.30% and ~0.30%, respectively, at 3° AoA. The wake measurements show that turbulence intensity and Reynolds stresses have considerably increased in the indented case, thus implying that the indentations increase the viscous drag on the model. In summary, the convergent indentations are able to reduce the size of the laminar separation bubble, but conversely, they are not highly effective in reducing cd,p at the tested Reynolds number.

Keywords: aerofoil flow control, laminar separation bubbles, low Reynolds-number flows, surface indentations

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
3886 Combined Effect of Roughness and Suction on Heat Transfer in a Laminar Channel Flow

Authors: Marzieh Khezerloo, Lyazid Djenidi


Owing to wide range of the micro-device applications, the problems of mixing at small scales is of significant interest. Also, because most of the processes produce heat, it is needed to develop and implement strategies for heat removal in these devices. There are many studies which focus on the effect of roughness or suction on heat transfer performance, separately, although it would be useful to take advantage of these two methods to improve heat transfer performance. Unfortunately, there is a gap in this area. The present numerical study is carried to investigate the combined effects of roughness and wall suction on heat transfer performance of a laminar channel flow; suction is applied on the top and back faces of the roughness element, respectively. The study is carried out for different Reynolds numbers, different suction rates, and various locations of suction area on the roughness. The flow is assumed two dimensional, incompressible, laminar, and steady state. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are solved using ANSYS-Fluent 18.2 software. The present results are tested against previous theoretical results. The results show that by adding suction, the local Nusselt number is enhanced in the channel. In addition, it is shown that by applying suction on the bottom section of the roughness back face, one can reduce the thickness of thermal boundary layer, which leads to an increase in local Nusselt number. This indicates that suction is an effective means for improving the heat transfer rate (suction by controls the thickness of thermal boundary layer). It is also shown that the size and intensity of vortical motion behind the roughness element, decreased with an increasing suction rate, which leads to higher local Nusselt number. So, it can be concluded that by using suction, strategically located on the roughness element, one can control both the recirculation region and the heat transfer rate. Further results will be presented at the conference for coefficient of drag and the effect of adding more roughness elements.

Keywords: heat transfer, laminar flow, numerical simulation, roughness, suction

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3885 Unsteady Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid from Circular Tube in Cross-Flow

Authors: H. Bayat, M. Majidi, M. Bolhasani, A. Karbalaie Alilou, A. Mirabdolah Lavasani


Unsteady flow and heat transfer from a circular cylinder in cross-flow is studied numerically. The governing equations are solved by using finite volume method. Reynolds number varies in range of 50 to 200, in this range flow is considered to be laminar and unsteady. Al2O3 nanoparticle with volume fraction in range of 5% to 20% is added to pure water. Effects of adding nanoparticle to pure water on lift and drag coefficient and Nusselt number is presented. Addition of Al2O3 has inconsiderable effect on the value of drags and lift coefficient. However, it has significant effect on heat transfer; results show that heat transfer of Al2O3 nanofluid is about 9% to 36% higher than pure water.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer, unsteady flow, forced convection, cross-flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3884 Numerical Investigation of Hybrid Ferrofluid Unsteady Flow through Porous Channel

Authors: Wajahat Hussain Khan, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi


The viscous, two-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar time-dependent heat transfer flow through a ferromagnetic fluid is considered in this paper. Flow takes place in a channel between two porous walls under the influence of the magnetic field located beyond the channel. It is assumed that there are no electric field effects and the variation in the magnetic field vector that could occur within the F

Keywords: hybrid ferrofluid, heat transfer, magnetic field, porous channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
3883 Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube

Authors: F. Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, B. Sajadi


In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer oil, mixed convection, inclined tube, laminar flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
3882 Hydrodynamic Study of Laminar Flow in Agitated Vessel by a Curved Blade Agitator

Authors: A. Benmoussa, M. Bouanini, M. Rebhi


The mixing and agitation of fluid in stirred tank is one of the most important unit operations for many industries such as chemical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, cosmetic, and food processing. Therefore, determining the level of mixing and overall behaviour and performance of the mixing tanks are crucial from the product quality and process economics point of views. The most fundamental needs for the analysis of these processes from both a theoretical and industrial perspective is the knowledge of the hydrodynamic behaviour and the flow structure in such tanks. Depending on the purpose of the operation carried out in mixer, the best choice for geometry of the tank and agitator type can vary widely. Initially, a local and global study namely the velocity and power number on a typical agitation system agitated by a mobile-type two-blade straight (d/D=0.5) allowed us to test the reliability of the CFD, the result were compared with those of experimental literature, a very good concordance was observed. The stream function, the velocity profile, the velocity fields and power number are analyzed. It was shown that the hydrodynamics is modified by the curvature of the mobile which plays a key role.

Keywords: agitated tanks, curved blade agitator, laminar flow, CFD modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
3881 Triggering Supersonic Boundary-Layer Instability by Small-Scale Vortex Shedding

Authors: Guohua Tu, Zhi Fu, Zhiwei Hu, Neil D Sandham, Jianqiang Chen


Tripping of boundary-layers from laminar to turbulent flow, which may be necessary in specific practical applications, requires high amplitude disturbances to be introduced into the boundary layers without large drag penalties. As a possible improvement on fixed trip devices, a technique based on vortex shedding for enhancing supersonic flow transition is demonstrated in the present paper for a Mach 1.5 boundary layer. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-order (fifth-order in space and third-order in time) finite difference method for small-scale cylinders suspended transversely near the wall. For cylinders with proper diameter and mount location, asymmetry vortices shed within the boundary layer are capable of tripping laminar-turbulent transition. Full three-dimensional simulations showed that transition was enhanced. A parametric study of the size and mounting location of the cylinder is carried out to identify the most effective setup. It is also found that the vortex shedding can be suppressed by some factors such as wall effect.

Keywords: boundary layer instability, boundary layer transition, vortex shedding, supersonic flows, flow control

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3880 Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies

Authors: Chinsuk Hong


This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.

Keywords: wall pressure fluctuation, boundary layer flow, transition, turbulent flow, axisymmetric body, flow noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
3879 Characterization of Laminar Flow and Power Consumption in Agitated Vessel with Curved Blade Agitator

Authors: Amine Benmoussa, Mohamed Bouanini, Mebrouk Rebhi


Stirring is one of the unifying processes which form part of the mechanical unit operations in process technology such chemical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, cosmetic, and food processing. Therefore determining the level of mixing and overall behavior and performance of the mixing tanks are crucial from the product quality and process economics point of views. The most fundamental needs for the analysis of these processes from both a theoretical and industrial perspective are the knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior and the flow structure in such tanks. Depending on the purpose of the operation carried out in mixer, the best choice for geometry of the tank and agitator type can vary widely. Initially, a local and global study namely the velocity and power number on a typical agitation system agitated by a mobile-type two-blade straight (d/D=0.5) allowed us to test the reliability of the CFD, the result were compared with those of experimental literature, a very good concordance was observed. The stream function, the velocity profile, the velocity fields and power number are analyzed. It was shown that the hydrodynamics is modified by the curvature of the mobile which plays a key role.

Keywords: agitated vessels, curved blade agitator, laminar flow, finite volume method

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
3878 Numerical Study for Examination of Flow Characteristics in Fractured Gas Reservoirs

Authors: M. K. Kim, C. H. Shin, W. G. Park


Recently, natural gas resources are issued due to alternative and eco-friendly energy policies, and development of even unconventional gas resources including tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas is being rapidly expanded from North America all over the world. For developing these gas reservoirs, it is necessary to investigate reservoir characteristics by using reservoir simulation. In reservoir simulation, calculation of permeability of fractured zone is very important to predict the gas production. However, it is difficult to accurately calculate the permeability by using conventional methods which use analytic solution for laminar flow. The flow in gas reservoirs exhibits complex flow behavior such as slip around the wall roughness effect and turbulence because the size of the apertures of fractures is ranged over various scales from nano-scale to centi-scale. Therefore, it is required to apply new reservoir flow analysis methods which can accurately consider complex gas flow owing to the geometric characteristics and distributions of various pores and flow paths within gas reservoirs. Hence, in this study, the flow characteristics and the relation between each characteristic variable was investigated and multi-effect was quantified when the fractures are compounded for devising a new calculation model of permeability of fractured zone in gas reservoirs by using CFD.

Keywords: fractured zone, gas reservoir, permeability, CFD

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3877 Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries: Analytical and Numerical Study

Authors: Shashi Sharma, Uaday Singh, V. K. Katiyar


Blood flow through a stenosed tube, which is of great interest to mechanical engineers as well as medical researchers. If stenosis exists in an artery, normal blood flow is disturbed. The deposition of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products in the inner lining of an artery results to plaque formation .The present study deals with a mathematical model for blood flow in constricted arteries. Blood is considered as a Newtonian, incompressible, unsteady and laminar fluid flowing in a cylindrical rigid tube along the axial direction. A time varying pressure gradient is applied in the axial direction. An analytical solution is obtained using the numerical inversion method for Laplace Transform for calculating the velocity profile of fluid as well as particles.

Keywords: blood flow, stenosis, Newtonian fluid, medical biology and genetics

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3876 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Reflux Condensation from Gas-Vapour Mixtures in Vertical Parallel Plate Channels

Authors: Foad Hassaninejadafarahani, Scott Ormiston


Reflux condensation occurs in a vertical channels and tubes when there is an upward core flow of vapor (or gas-vapor mixture) and a downward flow of the liquid film. The understanding of this condensation configuration is crucial in the design of reflux condensers, distillation columns, and in loss-of-coolant safety analyses in nuclear power plant steam generators. The unique feature of this flow is the upward flow of the vapor-gas mixture (or pure vapor) that retards the liquid flow via shear at the liquid-mixture interface. The present model solves the full, elliptic governing equations in both the film and the gas-vapor core flow. The computational mesh is non-orthogonal and adapts dynamically the phase interface, thus produces sharp and accurate interface. Shear forces and heat and mass transfer at the interface are accounted for fundamentally. This modeling is a big step ahead of current capabilities by removing the limitations of previous reflux condensation models which inherently cannot account for the detailed local balances of shear, mass, and heat transfer at the interface. Discretisation has been done based on a finite volume method and a co-located variable storage scheme. An in-house computer code was developed to implement the numerical solution scheme. Detailed results are presented for laminar reflux condensation from steam-air mixtures flowing in vertical parallel plate channels. The results include velocity and pressure profiles, as well as axial variations of film thickness, Nusselt number and interface gas mass fraction.

Keywords: Reflux, Condensation, CFD-Two Phase, Nusselt number

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