Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1340

Search results for: nano fluids

1340 Oxygen Absorption Enhancement during Sulfite Forced Oxidation in the Presence of Nano-Particles

Authors: Zhao Bo

Abstract:

The TiO2-Na2SO3 and SiO2-Na2SO3 nano-fluids were prepared using ultrasonic dispertion method without any surfactant addition to study the influence of nano-fluids on the mass transfer during forced sulfite oxidation in a thermostatic stirred tank, and the kinetic viscosity of nano-fluids was measured. The influence of temperature (30 ℃ ~ 50 ℃), solid loading of fine particle (0 Kg/m³~1.0 Kg/m³), stirring speed (50 r/min ~ 400 r/min), and particle size (10 nm~100 nm) on the average oxygen absorption rate were investigated in detail. Both TiO2 nano-particles and SiO2 nano-particles could remarkably improve the gas-liquid mass transfer. Oxygen absorption enhancement factor increases with the increase of solid loading of nano-particles to a critical value and then decreases with further increase of solid loading under 30℃. Oxygen absorption rate together with absorption enhancement factor increases with stirring speed. However, oxygen absorption enhancement factor decreases with the increase of temperature due to aggregation of nano-particles. Further inherent relationship between particle size, loading, surface area, viscosity, stirring speed, temperature, adsorption, desorption, and mass transfer was discussed in depth by analyzing the interaction mechanism.

Keywords: fine particles, nano-fluid, mass transfer enhancement, solid loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1339 A Study of Laminar Natural Convection in Annular Spaces between Differentially Heated Horizontal Circular Cylinders Filled with Non-Newtonian Nano Fluids

Authors: Behzad Ahdiharab, Senol Baskaya, Tamer Calisir

Abstract:

Heat exchangers are one of the most widely used systems in factories, refineries etc. In this study, natural convection heat transfer using nano-fluids in between two cylinders is numerically investigated. The inner and outer cylinders are kept at constant temperatures. One of the most important assumptions in the project is that the working fluid is non-Newtonian. In recent years, the use of nano-fluids in industrial applications has increased profoundly. In this study, nano-Newtonian fluids containing metal particles with high heat transfer coefficients have been used. All fluid properties such as homogeneity has been calculated. In the present study, solutions have been obtained under unsteady conditions, base fluid was water, and effects of various parameters on heat transfer have been investigated. These parameters are Rayleigh number (103 < Ra < 106), power-law index (0.6 < n < 1.4), aspect ratio (0 < AR < 0.8), nano-particle composition, horizontal and vertical displacement of the inner cylinder, rotation of the inner cylinder, and volume fraction of nanoparticles. Results such as the internal cylinder average and local Nusselt number variations, contours of temperature, flow lines are presented. The results are also discussed in detail. From the validation study performed it was found that a very good agreement exists between the present results and those from the open literature. It was found out that the heat transfer is always affected by the investigated parameters. However, the degree to which the heat transfer is affected does change in a wide range.

Keywords: heat transfer, circular space, non-Newtonian, nano fluid, computational fluid dynamics.

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
1338 Enhancement of Solar Energy Storage by Nanofluid-Glass Impurities Mixture

Authors: Farhan Lafta Rashid, Khudhair Abass Dawood, Ahmed Hashim

Abstract:

Recent advancements in nanotechnology have originated the new emerging heat transfer fluids called nanofluids. Nanofluids are prepared by dispersing and stably suspending nanometer sized solid particles in conventional heat transfer fluids. Past researches have shown that a very small amount of suspending nano-particles have the potential to enhance the thermo physical, transport, and radiative properties of the base fluid. At this research adding very small quantities of nano particle (TiO2) to pure water with different weights percent ranged 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 wt.%, we found that the best weight percent is 0.2 that gave more heat absorbed. Then adding glass impurities ranged 10, 20, and 30 wt. Percentage to the nano-fluid in order to enhance the absorbed heat so energy storage. The best glass weights percent is 0.3.

Keywords: energy storage, enhancement absorbed heat, glass impurities, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1337 Effect of Vegetable Oil Based Nanofluids on Machining Performance: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao Gurram, R. Padmini, P. Vamsi Krishna

Abstract:

As a part of extensive research for ecologically safe and operator friendly cutting fluids, this paper presents the experimental investigations on the performance of eco-friendly vegetable oil based nanofluids in turning operation. In order to assess the quality of nano cutting fluids used during machining, cutting temperatures, cutting forces and surface roughness under constant cutting conditions are measured. The influence of two types of nanofluids prepared from nano boric acid and CNT particles mixed separately with coconut oil, on machining performance during turning operation is examined. Comparative analysis of the results obtained is done under dry and lubricant environments. Results obtained using cutting fluids prepared from vegetable oil based nanofluids are encouraging and more pronouncing by the application of CCCNT at machining zone. The extent of improvement in reduction of cutting temperatures, main cutting force, tool wear and surface roughness is tracked to be 13%, 37.5%, 44% and 40% respectively by the application of CCCNT compared to dry machining.

Keywords: nanoparticles, vegetable oil, machining, MQL, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1336 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer of Flow around a Radial Heat Sink

Authors: Benkherbache Souad

Abstract:

This work presents the numerical results of the mixed convective heat transfer of a three-dimensional flow around a radial heat sink composed of horizontal circular base fitted with rectangular fins. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy equation are solved by the finite volume method using the commercially available CFD software Fluent 6.3.26. The circular base of the heat sink is subjected to uniform heat generation; the flow enters through the sides of the heat sink around the fins then the heat is transmitted from the base to the fins afterwards the fluid. In this study two fluids are utilized, in the first case, the air for the following Reynolds numbers Re=600,900,1200 and a Grashof number Gr=3.7x10⁶, in the second case a water based nano fluid for which two types of nano particles (Cu and Al₂O₃) are carried out for Re=25 and a Richardson number Ri=2.7(Ri=Gr/Re²). The effect of the number of the fins of the heat sink as well as the type and the volume fraction of nano particles of the nano fluid were investigated. Results have been presented for N=15 and N=20 fins. The effect of the nano particles concentrations and the number of fins on the temperature in the heat sink and the Nusselt number has been studied.

Keywords: heat sink, mixed convection, nano fluid, volumetric heat generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
1335 Effect of Nano-CaCO₃ Addition on the Nano-Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Muzeyyen Balcikanli, Selma Ozaslan, Osman Sahin, Burak Uzal, Erdogan Ozbay

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of nano-CaCO3 replacement with cement on the nano-mechanical properties of cement paste was investigated. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics Two types of nano CaCO3 were replaced with Portland cement at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Water to (cement+nano-CaCO3) ratio was kept constant at 0.5 for all mixtures. 36 indentations were applied on each cement paste, and the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus of cement pastes were determined from the indentation depth-load graphs. Then, by getting the average of them, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were identified for each mixture. Test results illustrate that replacement of hydrophilic n-CaCO3 with cement lead to a significant increase in nano-mechanical properties, however, replacement of hydrophobic n-CaCO3 with cement worsened the nano-mechanical properties considerably.

Keywords: nanoindenter, CaCO3, nano-hardness, nano-mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1334 Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Using Cu-Nano-Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Jitae Kim

Abstract:

In this study synthesized Cu-nano-zeolite was evaluated for its potential use in CO2 capture. The specific surface area of Cu-nano zeolite was measured as 869.32 m2/g with a pore size of 3.86 nm. The adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was decreased with increasing temperature. The identified adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was 7.16 mmol/g at a temperature of 20 oC and at pressure of 1 atm. The adoption selectivity of CO2 over N2 strongly depend on the temperature and the highest selectivity by Cu-nano zeolite was 50.71 at 20 oC. From analysis of regeneration characteristics of CO2 loaded adsorbent, the percentage removal of CO2 was maintained at more than 78.2 % even after 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption. Based on these result, the Cu-nano zeolite can be used as an effective and economical adsorbent for CO2 capture.

Keywords: CO2 capture, selectivity, Cu-nano zeolite, regeneration.

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1333 Tuneability Sub-10-nm WO3 Nano-Flakes and Their Electrical Properties

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, E. Kats

Abstract:

Electrical properties and morphology of orthorhombic β–WO3 nano-flakes with thickness of ~7-9 nm were investigated at the nano scale using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and current sensing force spectroscopy atomic force microscopy (CSFS-AFM, or PeakForce TUNATM). CSFS-AFM analysis established good correlation between the topography of the developed nano-structures and various features of WO3 nano-flakes synthesized via a two-step sol-gel-exfoliation method. It was determined that β–WO3 nano-flakes annealed at 550ºC possess distinguished and exceptional thickness-dependent properties in comparison with the bulk, micro- and nano-structured WO3 synthesized at alternative temperatures.

Keywords: electrical properties, layered semiconductors, nano-flake, sol-gel, exfoliation WO3

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1332 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh

Abstract:

A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1331 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony

Abstract:

Purpose: to evaluate the spectral specification(IR-XRD and SEM) of nano ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and it,s characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation: to enhance the antibacterial property of nano ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin.IR spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin was sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano ciprofloxacin showes the diameter of particles equal to 90.9 nm (on the basis of scherrer equation). SEM image showes the global shape for nano ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

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1330 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano-Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy, and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the spectral specification (IR-XRD and SEM) of nano-ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and its characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation enhances the antibacterial property of nano-ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin. IR spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin were sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano-ciprofloxacin shows the diameter of particles equal to 90.9nm. (on the basis of Scherer Equation). SEM image shows the global shape for nano-ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
1329 Theoretical Investigation of Thermal Properties of Nanofluids with Application to Solar Collector

Authors: Reema Jain

Abstract:

Nanofluids are emergent fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids that show significant enhancement of their properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. Solar collectors are commonly used in areas such as industries, heating, and cooling for domestic purpose, thermal power plants, solar cooker, automobiles, etc. Performance and efficiency of solar collectors depend upon various factors like collector & receiver material, solar radiation intensity, nature of working fluid, etc. The properties of working fluid which flow through the collectors greatly affects its performance. In this research work, a theoretical effort has been made to enhance the efficiency and improve the performance of solar collector by using Nano fluids instead of conventional fluid like water as working fluid.

Keywords: nanofluids, nanoparticles, heat transfer, solar collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
1328 Aqueous Hydrogen Sulphide in Slit-Shaped Silica Nano-Pores: Confinement Effects on Solubility, Structural and Dynamical Properties

Authors: Sakiru Badmos, David R. Cole, Alberto Striolo

Abstract:

It is known that confinement in nm-size pores affects many structural and transport properties of water and co-existing volatile species. Of particular interest for fluids in sub-surface systems, in catalysis, and in separations are reports that confinement can enhance the solubility of gases in water. Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed for aqueous H₂S confined in slit-shaped silica pores at 313K. The effect of pore width on the H₂S solubility in water was investigated. Other properties of interest include the molecular distribution of the various fluid molecules within the pores, the hydration structure for solvated H₂S molecules, and the dynamical properties of the confined fluids. The simulation results demonstrate that confinement reduces the H₂S solubility in water and that the solubility increases with pore size. Analysis of spatial distribution functions suggests that these results are due to perturbations on the coordination of water molecules around H₂S due to confinement. Confinement is found to dampen the dynamical properties of aqueous H₂S as well. Comparing the results obtained for aqueous H₂S to those reported elsewhere for aqueous CH₄, it can be concluded that H₂S permeates hydrated slit-shaped silica nano-pores faster than CH₄. In addition to contributing to better understanding the behavior of fluids in subsurface formations, these observations could also have important implications for developing new natural gas sweetening technologies.

Keywords: confinement, interfacial properties, molecular dynamic simulation, sub-surface formations

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
1327 Study of the ZnO Effect on the Properties of HDPE/ ZnO Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Z. Benabid, F. Zouai, N. Kharchi, D. Benachour

Abstract:

A HDPE/ZnO nano composites have been successfully performed using the co-mixing. The ZnO was first co-mixed with the stearic acid then added to the polymer in the plastograph. The nano composites prepared with the co-mixed ZnO were compared to those prepared with the neat TiO2. The nano composites were characterized by different techniques as the wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nano structure/properties relationships were investigated. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: exfoliation, ZnO, nano composites, HDPE, co-mixing

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1326 Nafion Multiwalled Carbon Nano Tubes Composite Film Modified Glassy Carbon Sensor for the Voltammetric Estimation of Dianabol Steroid in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids

Authors: Nouf M. Al-Ourfi, A. S. Bashammakh, M. S. El-Shahawi

Abstract:

The redox behavior of dianabol steroid (DS) on Nafion Multiwalled Carbon nano -tubes (MWCNT) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in various buffer solutions was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) and successfully compared with the results at non modified bare GCE. The Nafion-MWCNT composite film modified GCE exhibited the best electrochemical response among the two electrodes for the electro reduction of DS that was inferred from the EIS, CV and DP-CSV. The modified sensor showed a sensitive, stable and linear response in the concentration range of 5 – 100 nM with a detection limit of 0.08 nM. The selectivity of the proposed sensor was assessed in the presence of high concentration of major interfering species. The analytical application of the sensor for the quantification of DS in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids (urine) was determined and the results demonstrated acceptable recovery and RSD of 5%. Statistical treatment of the results of the proposed method revealed no significant differences in the accuracy and precision. The relative standard deviations for five measurements of 50 and 300 ng mL−1 of DS were 3.9 % and 1.0 %, respectively.

Keywords: dianabol steroid, determination, modified GCE, urine

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1325 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim

Abstract:

This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1324 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nano Fiber and Nano Fiber/Nano Particle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon

Abstract:

Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. They can be produced by interfacial polymerization, electrospinning and electrostatic spinning. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nano fiber (ACNF), carbon nano-fiber (CNF), Polyacrylonitrile/carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), Polyvinyl alcohol/nano silver (PVA/Ag) in PEM fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. When the performances of these cells are compared to each other at 5x5 cm2 cell, it is found that the PVA/Ag exhibits the best performance among all. In this work, nano fiber and nano fiber/nano particles electrical conductivities have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag. The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nano fiber, activate carbon nano-fiber, PVA fiber, PAN fiber, carbon nanotube, nano particle nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1323 Effect on the Performance of the Nano-Particulate Graphite Lubricant in the Turning of AISI 1040 Steel under Variable Machining Conditions

Authors: S. Srikiran, Dharmala Venkata Padmaja, P. N. L. Pavani, R. Pola Rao, K. Ramji

Abstract:

Technological advancements in the development of cutting tools and coolant/lubricant chemistry have enhanced the machining capabilities of hard materials under higher machining conditions. Generation of high temperatures at the cutting zone during machining is one of the most important and pertinent problems which adversely affect the tool life and surface finish of the machined components. Generally, cutting fluids and solid lubricants are used to overcome the problem of heat generation, which is not effectively addressing the problems. With technological advancements in the field of tribology, nano-level particulate solid lubricants are being used nowadays in machining operations, especially in the areas of turning and grinding. The present investigation analyses the effect of using nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant in the turning of AISI 1040 steel under variable machining conditions and to study its effect on cutting forces, tool temperature and surface roughness of the machined component. Experiments revealed that the increase in cutting forces and tool temperature resulting in the decrease of surface quality with the decrease in the size of nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant.

Keywords: solid lubricant, graphite, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), nano–particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1322 Bond Strength of Nano Silica Concrete Subjected to Corrosive Environments

Authors: Muhammad S. El-Feky, Mohamed I. Serag, Ahmed M. Yasien, Hala Elkady

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete requires steel bars in order to provide the tensile strength that is needed in structural concrete. However, when steel bars corrode, a loss in bond between the concrete and the steel bars occurs due to the formation of rust on the bars surface. Permeability of concrete is a fundamental property in perspective of the durability of concrete as it represents the ease with which water or other fluids can move through concrete, subsequently transporting corrosive agents. Nanotechnology is a standout amongst active research zones that envelops varies disciplines including construction materials. The application of nanotechnology in the corrosion protection of metal has lately gained momentum as nano scale particles have ultimate physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, which may enhance the corrosion protection in comparison to large size materials. The presented research aims to study the bond performance of concrete containing relatively high volume nano silica (up to 4.5%) exposed to corrosive conditions. This was extensively studied through tensile, bond strengths as well as the permeability of nano silica concrete. In addition micro-structural analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of nano silica on the properties of concrete at both; the micro and nano levels. The results revealed that by the addition of nano silica, the permeability of concrete mixes decreased significantly to reach about 50% of the control mix by the addition of 4.5% nano silica. As for the corrosion resistance, the nano silica concrete is comparatively higher resistance than ordinary concrete. Increasing Nano Silica percentage increased significantly the critical time corresponding to a metal loss (equal to 50 ϻm) which usually corresponding to the first concrete cracking due to the corrosion of reinforcement to reach about 49 years instead of 40 years as for the normal concrete. Finally, increasing nano Silica percentage increased significantly the residual bond strength of concrete after being subjected to corrosive environment. After being subjected to corrosive environment, the pullout behavior was observed for the bars embedded in all of the mixes instead of the splitting behavior that was observed before being corroded. Adding 4.5% nano silica in concrete increased the residual bond strength to reach 79% instead of 27% only as compared to control mix (0%W) before the subjection of the corrosive environment. From the conducted study we can conclude that the Nano silica proved to be a significant pore blocker material.

Keywords: bond strength, concrete, corrosion resistance, nano silica, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1321 The Role of Nano Glass Flakes on Morphology, Dynamic-Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Behavior of Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate)

Authors: Fatemeh Alsadat Miri, Morteza Ehsani, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, Behjat Kavyani

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of nano glass flakes on morphology, dynamic-mechanical properties, and crystallization behavior of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The concentration of nano glass flakes was varied from 0.5, 1, 2, and 3% wt of the total formulation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed the poor distribution of nano-glass flake particles in PET, as well as low adhesion of particles to the polymer matrix. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the crystallization rate and crystallization temperature of PET were increased by the addition of nano glass flakes. The crystallization rate of PET was increased from 31.41% to 34.25% by the incorporation of 1%wt of nano glass flakes. Based on the results of the dynamic-mechanical analysis, the storage modulus of PET gets increased by adding nano glass flakes, especially below glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass transition of PET did not change remarkably with the addition of nano glass flakes. Moreover, the use of nano glass flakes reduced the impact strength of PET.

Keywords: PET, nano glass flakes, morphology, crystallization

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1320 Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture

Authors: Mohamed Amine Zenasni, Bahia Meroufel, André Merlin, Said Benfarhi, Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George

Abstract:

The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biodegradable, polycaprolactone, maghnite, melt mixture, APTES, CTAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1319 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan

Abstract:

Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution has been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate has been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), tensile tester, differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM, respectively. Also, antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: composite polyacrylonitrile nanofiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical properties, thermal properties, silver nanoparticles

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1318 MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe

Authors: Ziya Uddin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical investigation of magneto-hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a nano fluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling of electronic components and different type of machines. To incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nano thermal layer formed around the nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nano particles etc., appropriate models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of nano fluids. To model the rotation of nano particles inside the base fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz. nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and wedge angle etc. It is found that the wedge angle, presence of magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc. have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the considered configuration.

Keywords: nanofluids, wedge shaped wick, heat pipe, numerical modeling, particle swarm optimization, nanofluid applications, Heat transfer

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1317 The Physical Impact of Nano-Layer Due to Dispersions of Carbon Nano-Tubes through an Absorbent Channel: A Numerical Nano-Fluid Flow Model

Authors: Muhammad Zubair Akbar Qureshi, Abdul Bari Farooq

Abstract:

The intention of the current study to analyze the significance of nano-layer in incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Newtonian nano-fluid consisting of carbon nano-materials has been considered through an absorbent channel with moving porous walls. Using applicable similarity transforms, the governing equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are solved by using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta technique together with shooting methodology. The phenomena of nano-layer have also been modeled mathematically. The inspiration behind this segment is to reveal the behavior of involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles. A detailed table is presented in which the effects of involved parameters on shear stress and heat transfer rate are discussed. Specially presented the impact of the thickness of the nano-layer and radius of the particle on the temperature profile. We observed that due to an increase in the thickness of the nano-layer, the heat transfer rate increases rapidly. The consequences of this research may be advantageous to the applications of biotechnology and industrial motive.

Keywords: carbon nano-tubes, magneto-hydrodynamics, nano-layer, thermal conductivity

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1316 Nano and Micro Silica Cooperating Effect on Ferrocement Mortar

Authors: Aziz Ibrahim Abdulla, Omar Mohanad Mahdi

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to explore the effect of incorporating Nano-Silica with Silica-fume in ferrocement mortar to enhancing mechanical properties of it. One type of Nano silica with average diameter size 23nm and silica fume have been used with two percentage (1%, 2% Nano silica and 5%, 10% silica fume per weight of cement) and w/c with / without superplasticizer was been calculated by flow test method. Also three sand: cement ratios have been used (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) with max. Aggregate size 0.6mm in this study for reference and other mixtures. Results reveal adding Nano silica with silica fume to ferrocement mortar enhances its physical and mechanical properties such as compressive strength and flexural strength. The SEM pictures and density with absorption ratio demonstrate that Nano silica with silica fume contributes to enhancement of mortar through yielding denser, more compact and uniform mixtures.

Keywords: nano silica, ferrocement mortar, compresion strength, flexural strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1315 Investigation Edge Coverage of Automotive Electrocoats Filled by Nano Silica Particles

Authors: Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh, Mahla Zabet

Abstract:

Attempts have been carried out to enhance the anticorrosion properties as well as edge coverage of an automotive electrocoating using the nano silica particles. To this end, the automotive electrocoating was reinforced with the nano silica particles at various weight fractions. The electrocoats were applied on the surface of punched edge followed by curing at 160⁰C for 20 min. The effects of nano silica particles on the rheological properties, influencing edge coverage were studied by a RMS (Rheometric Mechanical Spectrometer) technique. The anticorrosion properties were studied by a salt-spray test. The results obtained revealed that nano silica particles can significantly enhance the edge coverage by increasing minimum melt viscosity of electrocoats. It was shown that using 4 wt% nano silica particles, both anticorrosion properties and edge coverage of the electrocoats were significantly improved.

Keywords: nano silica, electrocoat, edge coverage, anticorrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1314 The Effect of Nanoclay on Long Term Performance of Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: A. Khodadadi, Hasani, Salehi

Abstract:

The advantages of using modified asphalt binders are widely recognized—primarily, improved rutting resistance, reduced fatigue cracking and less cold-temperature cracking. Nanoclays are known to enhance the properties of many polymers. Nanoclays are used to improve modulus and tensile strength, flame resistance and thermal and structural properties of many materials. This paper intends to investigate the application and development of nano-technological concepts for bituminous materials and asphalt pavements. The application of nano clay on the fatigue life of asphalt pavement have not been yet thoroughly understood. In this research, two type of highway asphalt materials, dense Marshall specimens, with 2% nano clay and without nano clay, were employed for the fatigue behavior of the asphalt pavement.The effect of nano additive on the performance of flexible pavements has been investigated through the indirect tensile test for the samples prepared with 2% nano clay and without nano clay in four stress levels from 200–500 kPa. The primary results indicated samples with 2% nano clay have almost double or even more fatigue life in most of stress levels.

Keywords: Nano clay, Asphalt, fatigue life, pavement

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1313 Influence of Nano Copper Slag in Strength Behavior of Lime Stabilized Soil

Authors: V. K. Stalin, M. Kirithika, K. Shanmugam, K. Tharini

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has been widely used in many applications such as medical, electronics, robotics and also in geotechnical engineering area through stabilization of bore holes, grouting etc. In this paper, an attempt is made for understanding the influence of nano copper slag (1%, 2% & 3%) on the index, compaction and UCC strength properties of natural soil (CH type) with and without lime stabilization for immediate and 7 days curing period. Results indicated that upto 1% of Nano copper slag, there is an increment in UC strength of virgin soil and lime stabilised soil. Beyond 1% nano copper slag, there is a steep reduction in UC strength and increase of plasticity both in lime stabilised soil and virgin soil. The effect of lime is found to show more influence on large surface area of nano copper slag in natural soil. For both immediate and curing effect, with 1% of Nano copper slag, the maximum unconfined compressive strength was 38% and 106% higher than that of the virgin soil strength.

Keywords: lime, nano copper slag, SEM, XRD, stabilisation

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1312 Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation

Authors: Ju-Na Hwang, Min-Hae Park, Kee-Joe Lim

Abstract:

Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to Nano-Aluminum Trihydrate (ATH) was confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nano-filler dispersion state. The LSR nano-composite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The DC insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without filler.

Keywords: liquid silicone rubber, nano-composite, HVDC insulation, cable joints

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1311 The Transport of Coexisting Nanoscale Zinc Oxide Particles, Cu(Ⅱ) and Cr(Ⅵ) Ions in Simulated Landfill Leachate

Authors: Xiaoyu Li, Wenchuan Ding, Yujia Yia

Abstract:

As the nanoscale zinc oxide particles (nano-ZnO) accumulate in the landfill, nano-ZnO will enter the landfill leachate and come into contact with the heavy metal ions in leachate, which will change their transport process in the landfill and, furthermore, affect each other's environmental fate and toxicity. In this study, we explored the transport of co-existing nano-ZnO, Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions by column experiments under different stages of landfill leachate conditions (flow rate, pH, ionic strength, humic acid). The results show that Cu(II) inhibits the transport of nano-ZnO in the quartz sand column by increasing the surface potential of nano-ZnO, and nano-ZnO increases the retention of Cu(II) in the quartz sand column by adsorbing Cu(II) ions. Cr(VI) promotes the transport of nano-ZnO in the quartz sand column by neutralizing the surface potential of the nano-ZnO which reduces electrostatic attraction between nZnO and quartz sand, but the nano-ZnO has no effect on the transport of Cr(VI). The nature of landfill leachates such as flow rate, pH, ionic strength (IS) and humic acid (HA) has a certain effect on the transport of coexisting nano-ZnO and heavy metal ions. For leachate containing Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions, at the initial stage of landfilling, the pH of leachate is acidic, ionic strength value is high, the humic acid concentration is low, and the transportability of nano-ZnO is weak. As the landfill age increased, the pH value in the leachate gradually increases, when the ions are raised to alkaline, these ions are trending to precipitated or adsorbed to the solid wastes in landfill, which resulting in low IS value of leachate. At the same time, more refractory organic matter gradually increases such as HA, which provides repulsive steric effects, so the nano-ZnO is more likely to migrate. Overall, the Cr(VI) can promote the transport of nano-ZnO more than Cu(II).

Keywords: heavy metal ions, landfill leachate, nano-ZnO, transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 56