Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: propane

46 Combustion Characteristic of Propane/Acetylene Fuel Blends Pool Fire

Authors: Yubo Bi, Xiao Chen, Shouxiang Lu


A kind of gas-fueled burner, named Burning Rate Emulator, was proposed for the purpose of the emulation of condensed fuel recently. The gaseous fuel can be pure combustible fuel gas or blends of gaseous fuel or inert gas. However, this concept was recently proposed without detailed study on the combustion characteristic of fuel blends. In this study, two kinds of common gaseous fuels were selected, propane and acetylene, to provide the combustion heat as well as a large amount of smoke, which widely exists in liquid and solid fuel burning process. A set of experiments were carried out using a gas-fueled burner with a diameter of 8 cm. The total volume flow rate of propane and acetylene was kept at 3 liters per minute. The volume fraction of propane varied from 0% to 100% at interval of 10%. It is found that the flame height increases with propane volume fraction, which may be caused by the increase of heat release rate, as the energy density of propane is larger than that of acetylene. The dimensionless flame height is correlated against dimensionless heat release rate, which shows a power function relationship. The radiation fraction of the flame does not show a monotonic relationship with propane volume fraction. With the increase of propane volume fraction from 0% to 100%, the value of radiation fraction increases first and reach a maximum value around 0.46 at a propane volume fraction of 10%, and then decreases continuously to a value of 0.25 at the propane volume fraction of 100%. The flame radiation is related to the soot in the flame. The trend of the radiation fraction reflects that there may be a synergistic effect of soot formation between propane and acetylene which can be guessed from the significantly high radiation fraction at a propane volume fraction of 10%. This work provides data for combustion of gaseous fuel blends pool fire and also give reference on the design of Burning Rate Emulator.

Keywords: Burning Rate Emulator, fuel blends pool fire, flame height, radiation fraction

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45 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn


The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: absorption, distillation, heat pump, Unisim design

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
44 Mordenite as Catalyst Support for Complete Volatile Organic Compounds Oxidation

Authors: Yuri A. Kalvachev, Totka D. Todorova


Zeolite mordenite has been investigated as a transition metal support for the preparation of efficient catalysts in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The highly crystalline mordenite samples were treated with hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride to get hierarchical material with secondary porosity. The obtained supports by this method have a high active surface area, good diffusion properties and prevent the extraction of metal components during catalytic reactions. The active metal phases platinum and copper were loaded by impregnation on both mordenite materials (parent and acid treated counterparts). Monometalic Pt and Cu, and bimetallic Pt/Cu catalysts were obtained. The metal phases were fine dispersed as nanoparticles on the functional porous materials. The catalysts synthesized in this way were investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of propane and benzene. Platinum, copper and platinum/copper were loaded and there catalytic activity was investigated and compared. All samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron measurements (XPS) and temperature programed reduction (TPR). The catalytic activity of the samples obtained is investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of propane and benzene by using of Gas Chromatography (GC). The oxidation of three organic molecules was investigated—methane, propane and benzene. The activity of metal loaded mordenite catalysts for methane oxidation is almost the same for parent and treated mordenite as a support. For bigger molecules as propane and benzene, the activity of catalysts based on treated mordenite is higher than those based on parent zeolite.

Keywords: metal loaded catalysts, mordenite, VOCs oxidation, zeolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
43 Modelling and Simulation of the Freezing Systems and Heat Pumps Using Unisim® Design

Authors: C. Patrascioiu


The paper describes the modeling and simulation of the heat pumps domain processes. The main objective of the study is the use of the heat pump in propene–propane distillation processes. The modeling and simulation instrument is the Unisim® Design simulator. The paper is structured in three parts: An overview of the compressing gases, the modeling and simulation of the freezing systems, and the modeling and simulation of the heat pumps. For each of these systems, there are presented the Unisim® Design simulation diagrams, the input–output system structure and the numerical results. Future studies will consider modeling and simulation of the propene–propane distillation process with heat pump.

Keywords: distillation, heat pump, simulation, unisim design

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
42 Flame Propagation Velocity of Selected Gas Mixtures Depending on the Temperature

Authors: Kaczmarzyk Piotr, Anna Dziechciarz, Wojciech Klapsa


The purpose of this paper is demonstration the test results of research influence of temperature on the velocity of flame propagation using gas and air mixtures for selected gas mixtures. The research was conducted on the test apparatus in the form of duct 2 m long. The test apparatus was funded from the project: “Development of methods to neutralize threats of explosion for determined tanks contained technical gases, including alternative sources of supply in the fire environment, taking into account needs of rescuers” number: DOB-BIO6/02/50/2014. The Project is funded by The National Centre for Research and Development. This paper presents the results of measurement of rate of pressure rise and rate in flame propagation, using test apparatus for mixtures air and methane or air and propane. This paper presents the results performed using the test apparatus in the form of duct measuring the rate of flame and overpressure wave. Studies were performed using three gas mixtures with different concentrations: Methane (3% to 8% vol), Propane (3% to 6% vol). As regard to the above concentrations, tests were carried out at temperatures 20 and 30 ̊C. The gas mixture was supplied to the inside of the duct by the partial pressure molecules. Data acquisition was made using 5 dynamic pressure transducers and 5 ionization probes, arranged along of the duct. Temperature conditions changes were performed using heater which was mounted on the duct’s bottom. During the tests, following parameters were recorded: maximum explosion pressure, maximum pressure recorded by sensors and voltage recorded by ionization probes. Performed tests, for flammable gas and air mixtures, indicate that temperature changes have an influence on overpressure velocity. It should be noted, that temperature changes do not have a major impact on the flame front velocity. In the case of propane and air mixtures (temperature 30 ̊C) was observed DDT (Deflagration to Detonation) phenomena. The velocity increased from 2 to 20 m/s. This kind of explosion could turn into a detonation, but the duct length is too short (2 m).

Keywords: flame propagation, flame propagation velocity, explosion, propane, methane

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41 Energy Loss Reduction in Oil Refineries through Flare Gas Recovery Approaches

Authors: Majid Amidpour, Parisa Karimi, Marzieh Joda


For the last few years, release of burned undesirable by-products has become a challenging issue in oil industries. Flaring, as one of the main sources of air contamination, involves detrimental and long-lasting effects on human health and is considered a substantial reason for energy losses worldwide. This research involves studying the implications of two main flare gas recovery methods at three oil refineries, all in Iran as the case I, case II, and case III in which the production capacities are increasing respectively. In the proposed methods, flare gases are converted into more valuable products, before combustion by the flare networks. The first approach involves collecting, compressing and converting the flare gas to smokeless fuel which can be used in the fuel gas system of the refineries. The other scenario includes utilizing the flare gas as a feed into liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) production unit already established in the refineries. The processes of these scenarios are simulated, and the capital investment is calculated for each procedure. The cumulative profits of the scenarios are evaluated using Net Present Value method. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis based on total propane and butane mole fraction is carried out to make a rational comparison for LPG production approach, and the results are illustrated for different mole fractions of propane and butane. As the mole fraction of propane and butane contained in LPG differs in summer and winter seasons, the results corresponding to LPG scenario are demonstrated for each season. The results of the simulations show that cumulative profit in fuel gas production scenario and LPG production rate increase with the capacity of the refineries. Moreover, the investment return time in LPG production method experiences a decline, followed by a rising trend with an increase in C3 and C4 content. The minimum value of time return occurs at propane and butane sum concentration values of 0.7, 0.6, and 0.7 in case I, II, and III, respectively. Based on comparison of the time of investment return and cumulative profit, fuel gas production is the superior scenario for three case studies.

Keywords: flare gas reduction, liquefied petroleum gas, fuel gas, net present value method, sensitivity analysis

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40 Nanoparticle Emission Characteristics during Methane Pyrolysis in a Laminar Premixed Flame

Authors: Mohammad Javad Afroughi, Farjad Falahati, Larry W. Kostiuk, Jason S. Olfert


This study investigates the physical characteristics of nanoparticles generated during pyrolysis of methane in hot products of a premixed propane-air flame. An inverted burner is designed to provide a laminar premixed propane-air flame (35 SLPM) then introduce methane co-flow to be pyrolyzed within a closed cylindrical chamber (20 cm in diameter and 68 cm in length). The formed products are discharged through an exhaust with a sampling branch to measure emission characteristics. Carbon particles are sampled with a preheated nitrogen dilution system, and the size distribution of particles formed by pyrolysis is measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Dilution ratio is calculated using simultaneously measured CO2 concentrations in the exhaust products and diluted samples. Results show that particle size distribution (PSD) is strongly affected by dilution ratio and preheating temperature. PSD becomes unstable at high dilution ratios (typically above 700 times) and/or low preheating temperatures (below 40° C). At a suitable dilution ratio of 55 and preheating temperature up to 70° C, the median diameter of PSD increases from 20 to 220 nm following the introduction of 0.5 SLPM of methane to the propane-air premixed flame. Furthermore, with pyrolysis of methane, total particle number concentration and estimated total mass concentration of particles in the size range of 14 to 700 nm, increase from 1.12 to 3.90 *107 cm-3 and from 0.11 to 154 µg L-1, respectively.

Keywords: laminar premixed flame, methane pyrolysis, nanoparticle physical characteristics, particle mass concentration, particle number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD)

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39 Performance Study of Cascade Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Vaibhav Jain, S. S. Kachhwaha


Cascade refrigeration systems employ series of single stage vapor compression units which are thermally coupled with evaporator/condenser cascades. Different refrigerants are used in each of the circuit depending on the optimum characteristics shown by the refrigerant for a particular application. In the present research study, a steady state thermodynamic model is developed which simulates the working of an actual cascade system. The model provides COP and all other system parameters like total compressor work, temperature, pressure, enthalpy and entropy at different state points. The working fluid in Low Temperature Circuit (LTC) is CO2 (R744) while ammonia (R717), propane (R290), propylene (R1270), R404A and R12 are the refrigerants in High Temperature Circuit (HTC). The performance curves of ammonia, propane, propylene, and R404A are compared with R12 to find its nearest substitute. Results show that ammonia is the best substitute of R12.

Keywords: cascade system, refrigerants, thermodynamic model, production engineering

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38 A Cost-Effective Evaluation of Proper Control Process of Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger

Authors: Ali Ghobadi, Eisa Bakhoda, Hamid R. Javdan


One of the key factors in air cooled heat exchangers operation is the proper control of process stream outlet temperature. In this study, performances of two different air cooled heat exchangers have been considered, one of them condenses Propane and the other one cools LPG streams. In order to predict operation of these air coolers at different operating conditions. The results of simulations were applied for both economical evaluations and operational considerations for using convenient air cooler control system. In this paper, using On-Off fans method and installing variable speed drivers have been studied. Finally, the appropriate methods for controlling outlet temperature of process fluid streams as well as saving energy consumption were proposed. Using On-Off method for controlling studied Propane condenser by multiple fans is proper; while controlling LPG air cooler with lesser fans by means of two variable speed drivers is economically convenient.

Keywords: air cooled heat exchanger, simulation, economical evaluation, energy, process control

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37 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

Authors: Napat Hataivichian


The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500˚C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, CO-chemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Keywords: alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal

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36 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh


This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

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35 Extraction of M. paradisiaca L. Inflorescences Using Compressed Propane

Authors: Michele C. Mesomo, Madeline de Souza Correa, Roberta L. Kruger, Luis R. S. Kanda, Marcos L. Corazza


Natural extracts of plants have been used for many years for different purposes and recently they have been screened for their potential use as alternative remedies and food preservatives. Inflorescences of M. paradisiaca L., also known as the heart of the banana, have great economic interest due to its fruit. All parts of the banana are used for many different purposes, including use in folk medicine. The use of extraction via supercritical technology has grown in recent years, though it is still necessary to obtain experimental information for the construction of industrial plants. This work reports the extraction of Musa paradisiaca L. using compressed propane as solvent. The effects of the supercritical extraction conditions, pressure and temperature on the yield were evaluated. The raw material, inflorescences banana, was dried at 313.15 K and milled. The particle size used for the packaging of the extraction cell was 12 mesh (23.5%), 16 mesh (23.5%), 32 mesh (34.5%), 48 mesh (18.5%). The extractions were performed in a laboratory scale unit at pressures of 3.0 MPa, 6.5 MPa and 10.0 MPa and at 308.15 K, 323.15 K and 338.15 K. The operating conditions tested achieved a maximum yield of 2.94 wt% for the CO2 extraction at 10.0 MPa and 338.15 K, higher pressure and temperature. The lower yield, 2.29 wt%, was obtained in the condition of lower pressure and higher temperature. Temperature presented significant and positive effect on the extraction yield with supercritical CO2, while pressure had no effect on the yield. The overall extraction curves showed typical behavior obtained for the supercritical extraction procedure and and reached a constant extraction rate of about 80 to 100 min. The largest amount of extract was obtained at the beginning of the process, within 10 to 60 min.

Keywords: banana, natural products, supercritical extraction, temperature

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34 Combustion Characteristics of Ionized Fuels for Battery System Safety

Authors: Hyeuk Ju Ko, Eui Ju Lee


Many electronic devices are powered by various rechargeable batteries such as lithium-ion today, but occasionally the batteries undergo thermal runaway and cause fire, explosion, and other hazards. If a battery fire should occur in an electronic device of vehicle and aircraft cabin, it is important to quickly extinguish the fire and cool the batteries to minimize safety risks. Attempts to minimize these risks have been carried out by many researchers but the number of study on the successful extinguishment is limited. Because most rechargeable batteries are operated on the ion state with electron during charge and discharge of electricity, and the reaction of this electrolyte has a big difference with normal combustion. Here, we focused on the effect of ions on reaction stability and pollutant emissions during combustion process. The other importance for understanding ionized fuel combustion could be found in high efficient and environment-friendly combustion technologies, which are used to be operated an extreme condition and hence results in unintended flame instability such as extinction and oscillation. The use of electromagnetic energy and non-equilibrium plasma is one of the way to solve the problems, but the application has been still limited because of lack of excited ion effects in the combustion process. Therefore, the understanding of ion role during combustion might be promised to the energy safety society including the battery safety. In this study, the effects of an ionized fuel on the flame stability and pollutant emissions were experimentally investigated in the hydrocarbon jet diffusion flames. The burner used in this experiment consisted of 7.5 mm diameter tube for fuel and the gaseous fuels were ionized with the ionizer (SUNJE, SPN-11). Methane (99.9% purity) and propane (commercial grade) were used as a fuel and open ambient air was used as an oxidizer. As the performance of ionizer used in the experiment was evaluated at first, ion densities of both propane and methane increased linearly with volume flow rate but the ion density of propane is slightly higher than that of methane. The results show that the overall flame stability and shape such as flame length has no significant difference even in the higher ion concentration. However, the fuel ionization affects to the pollutant emissions such as NOx and soot. NOx and CO emissions measured in post flame region decreased with increasing fuel ionization, especially at high fuel velocity, i.e. high ion density. TGA analysis and morphology of soot by TEM indicates that the fuel ionization makes soot to be matured.

Keywords: battery fires, ionization, jet flames, stability, NOx and soot

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33 Molecular-Dynamics Study of H₂-C₃H₈-Hydrate Dissociation: Non-Equilibrium Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghaani, Niall English


Hydrogen is looked upon as the next-generation clean-energy carrier; the search for an efficient material and method for storing hydrogen has been, and is, pursued relentlessly. Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds wherein guest gas molecules like hydrogen are trapped in a host water-lattice framework. These types of materials can be categorised as potentially attractive hosting environments for physical hydrogen storage (i.e., no chemical reaction upon storage). Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of propane-hydrate interfaces with liquid water at 270-300 K, with the propane hydrate containing either one or no hydrogen molecule in each of its small cavities. In addition, two types of hydrate-surface water-lattice molecular termination were adopted, at the hydrate edge with water: a 001-direct surface cleavage and one with completed cages. The geometric hydrate-ice-liquid distinction criteria of Báez and Clancy were employed to distinguish between the hydrate, ice lattices, and liquid-phase. Consequently, the melting temperatures of interface were estimated, and dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher dissociation rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. The different hydrate-edge terminations for the hydrate-water interface led to statistically-significant differences in the observed melting point and dissociation profile: it was found that the clathrate with the planar interface melts at around 280 K, whilst the melting temperature of the cage-completed interface was determined to be circa 270 K.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, clathrate hydrate, molecular dynamics, thermal dissociation

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
32 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS) Destruction by Catalytic Oxidation for Environmental Applications

Authors: Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Edward Gobina


Pt/γ-Al2O3 membrane catalysts were prepared via an evaporative-crystallization deposition method. The obtained Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst activity was tested after characterization (SEM-EDAX observation, BET measurement, permeability assessment) in the catalytic oxidation of selected volatile organic compound (VOC) i.e. propane, fed in mixture of oxygen. The VOC conversion (nearly 90%) obtained by varying the operating temperature showed that flow-through membrane reactor might do better in the abatement of VOCs.

Keywords: VOC combustion, flow-through membrane reactor, platinum supported alumina catalysts

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31 Discerning of Antimicrobial Potential of Phenylpropanoic Acid Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Amit Singh


2-Phenyl propionic acid and oxadiazoles possess antimicrobial potential. 2-Phenyl propane hydrazide (1), on cyclization with aromatic acids offered 2-aryl-5-(1-phenylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (1A-E). The PPA derived oxadiazoles were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds were screened for antimicrobial potential. The compound 1D bearing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to a certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the PPA derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antimicrobial, imines, oxadiazoles, PPA

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
30 Evaluation of Advanced Architectures for Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

Authors: Fabrizio Codella, Chris Parker, Samer Saab


The Kigali Amendment is driving the adoption of low Global Warming Potential refrigerants in commercial refrigeration systems in over a hundred countries. Several refrigeration systems for the small and large retail stores at mild and hot ambient temperature climates have been compared for hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), hydrofluoroolefins (HFO), transcritical CO₂ and propane, in typical and advanced system architectures. The results of system performance, emissions and lifetime cost have been compared. The greatest benefits were found to be obtained by low global warming potential HFO advanced systems.

Keywords: commercial refrigeration, CO₂, emissions, HFO, lifetime cost, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
29 Optimization of Hydrogel Conductive Nanocomposite as Solar Cell

Authors: Shimaa M. Elsaeed, Reem K. Farag, Ibrahim M. Nassar


Hydrogel conductive polymer nanocomposite fabricated via in-situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) inside thermosensitive hydrogels based on hydroxy ethyl meth acrylate (HEMA) copolymer with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS). SEM micrographs show the nanometric size of the conductive material (polyaniline, PANI) dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The swelling parameters of hydrogel are measured. The incorporation of PANI improves the mechanical properties and swelling up to 30,000% without breaking. X-ray diffraction shows that typical polyaniline crystallization is formed in composite, which is advantageous to increase the electrical conductivity of the composite hydrogel. Open-circuit voltage (I-V) curve fill factor of the highest photo-conversion efficiency and enhanced to use in solar cell.

Keywords: hydrogel, solar cell, conductive polymer, nanocomposite

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28 Effect of Different Contaminants on Mineral Insulating Oil Characteristics

Authors: H. M. Wilhelm, P. O. Fernandes, L. P. Dill, C. Steffens, K. G. Moscon, S. M. Peres, V. Bender, T. Marchesan, J. B. Ferreira Neto


Deterioration of insulating oil is a natural process that occurs during transformers operation. However, this process can be accelerated by some factors, such as oxygen, high temperatures, metals and, moisture, which rapidly reduce oil insulating capacity and favor transformer faults. Parts of building materials of a transformer can be degraded and yield soluble compounds and insoluble particles that shorten the equipment life. Physicochemical tests, dissolved gas analysis (including propane, propylene and, butane), volatile and furanic compounds determination, besides quantitative and morphological analyses of particulate are proposed in this study in order to correlate transformers building materials degradation with insulating oil characteristics. The present investigation involves tests of medium temperature overheating simulation by means of an electric resistance wrapped with the following materials immersed in mineral insulating oil: test I) copper, tin, lead and, paper (heated at 350-400 °C for 8 h); test II) only copper (at 250 °C for 11 h); and test III) only paper (at 250 °C for 8 h and at 350 °C for 8 h). A different experiment is the simulation of electric arc involving copper, using an electric welding machine at two distinct energy sets (low and high). Analysis results showed that dielectric loss was higher in the sample of test I, higher neutralization index and higher values of hydrogen and hydrocarbons, including propane and butane, were also observed. Test III oil presented higher particle count, in addition, ferrographic analysis revealed contamination with fibers and carbonized paper. However, these particles had little influence on the oil physicochemical parameters (dielectric loss and neutralization index) and on the gas production, which was very low. Test II oil showed high levels of methane, ethane, and propylene, indicating the effect of metal on oil degradation. CO2 and CO gases were formed in the highest concentration in test III, as expected. Regarding volatile compounds, in test I acetone, benzene and toluene were detected, which are oil oxidation products. Regarding test III, methanol was identified due to cellulose degradation, as expected. Electric arc simulation test showed the highest oil oxidation in presence of copper and at high temperature, since these samples had huge concentration of hydrogen, ethylene, and acetylene. Particle count was also very high, showing the highest release of copper in such conditions. When comparing high and low energy, the first presented more hydrogen, ethylene, and acetylene. This sample had more similar results to test I, pointing out that the generation of different particles can be the cause for faults such as electric arc. Ferrography showed more evident copper and exfoliation particles than in other samples. Therefore, in this study, by using different combined analytical techniques, it was possible to correlate insulating oil characteristics with possible contaminants, which can lead to transformers failure.

Keywords: Ferrography, gas analysis, insulating mineral oil, particle contamination, transformer failures

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27 A Proposal for a Combustion Model Considering the Lewis Number and Its Evaluation

Authors: Fujio Akagi, Hiroaki Ito, Shin-Ichi Inage


The aim of this study is to develop a combustion model that can be applied uniformly to laminar and turbulent premixed flames while considering the effect of the Lewis number (Le). The model considers the effect of Le on the transport equations of the reaction progress, which varies with the chemical species and temperature. The distribution of the reaction progress variable is approximated by a hyperbolic tangent function, while the other distribution of the reaction progress variable is estimated using the approximated distribution and transport equation of the reaction progress variable considering the Le. The validity of the model was evaluated under the conditions of propane with Le > 1 and methane with Le = 1 (equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1). The estimated results were found to be in good agreement with those of previous studies under all conditions. A method of introducing a turbulence model into this model is also described. It was confirmed that conventional turbulence models can be expressed as an approximate theory of this model in a unified manner.

Keywords: combustion model, laminar flame, Lewis number, turbulent flame

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26 Excel-VBA as Modelling Platform for Thermodynamic Optimisation of an R290/R600a Cascade Refrigeration System

Authors: M. M. El-Awad


The availability of computers and educational software nowadays helps engineering students acquire better understanding of engineering principles and their applications. With these facilities, students can perform sensitivity and optimisation analyses which were not possible in the past by using slide-rules and hand calculators. Standard textbooks in engineering thermodynamics also use software such as Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and Interactive Thermodynamics (IT) for solving calculation-intensive and design problems. Unfortunately, engineering students in most developing countries do not have access to such applications which are protected by intellectual-property rights. This paper shows how Microsoft ExcelTM and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications), which are normally distributed with personal computers and laptops, can be used as an alternative modelling platform for thermodynamic analyses and optimisation. The paper describes the VBA user-defined-functions developed for determining the refrigerants properties with Excel. For illustration, the combination is used to model and optimise the intermediate temperature for a propane/iso-butane cascade refrigeration system.

Keywords: thermodynamic optimisation, engineering education, excel, VBA, cascade refrigeration system

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25 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng


This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery, recycle and reuse

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24 Development of Polymeric Fluorescence Sensor for the Determination of Bisphenol-A

Authors: Neşe Taşci, Soner Çubuk, Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, M. Vezir Kahraman


Bisphenol-A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenly)propane, is one of the highest usage volume chemicals in the world. Studies showed that BPA maybe has negative effects on the central nervous system, immune and endocrine systems. Several of analytical methods for the analysis of BPA have been reported including electrochemical processes, chemical oxidation, ozonization, spectrophotometric, chromatographic techniques. Compared with other conventional analytical techniques, optic sensors are reliable, providing quick results, low cost, easy to use, stands out as a much more advantageous method because of the high precision and sensitivity. In this work, a new photocured polymeric fluorescence sensor was prepared and characterized for Bisphenol-A (BPA) analysis. Characterization of the membrane was carried out by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. The response characteristics of the sensor including dynamic range, pH effect and response time were systematically investigated. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant 115Y469.

Keywords: bisphenol-a, fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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23 Electron Beam Processing of Ethylene-Propylene-Terpolymer-Based Rubber Mixtures

Authors: M. D. Stelescu, E. Manaila, G. Craciun, D. Ighigeanu


The goal of the paper is to present the results regarding the influence of the irradiation dose and amount of multifunctional monomer trimethylol-propane trimethacrylate (TMPT) on ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM) mixtures irradiated in electron beam. Blends, molded on an electrically heated laboratory roller mill and compressed in an electrically heated hydraulic press, were irradiated using the ALID 7 of 5.5 MeV linear accelerator in the dose range of 22.6 kGy to 56.5 kGy in atmospheric conditions and at room temperature of 25 °C. The share of cross-linking and degradation reactions was evaluated by means of sol-gel analysis, cross-linking density measurements, FTIR studies and Charlesby-Pinner parameter (p0/q0) calculations. The blends containing different concentrations of TMPT (3 phr and 9 phr) and irradiated with doses in the mentioned range have present the increasing of gel content and cross-linking density. Modified and new bands in FTIR spectra have appeared, because of both cross-linking and chain scission reactions.

Keywords: electron beam irradiation, EPDM rubber, crosslinking density, gel fraction

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22 Simulation Study of Multiple-Thick Gas Electron Multiplier-Based Microdosimeters for Fast Neutron Measurements

Authors: Amir Moslehi, Gholamreza Raisali


Microdosimetric detectors based on multiple-thick gas electron multiplier (multiple-THGEM) configurations are being used in various fields of radiation protection and dosimetry. In the present work, microdosimetric response of these detectors to fast neutrons has been investigated by Monte Carlo method. Three similar microdosimeters made of A-150 and rexolite as the wall materials are designed; the first based on single-THGEM, the second based on double-THGEM and the third is based on triple-THGEM. Sensitive volume of the three microdosimeters is a right cylinder of 5 mm height and diameter which is filled with the propane-based tissue-equivalent (TE) gas. The TE gas with 0.11 atm pressure at the room temperature simulates 1 µm of tissue. Lineal energy distributions for several neutron energies from 10 keV to 14 MeV including 241Am-Be neutrons are calculated by the Geant4 simulation toolkit. Also, mean quality factor and dose-equivalent value for any neutron energy has been determined by these distributions. Obtained data derived from the three microdosimeters are in agreement. Therefore, we conclude that the multiple-THGEM structures present similar microdosimetric responses to fast neutrons.

Keywords: fast neutrons, geant4, multiple-thick gas electron multiplier, microdosimeter

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21 Experimental Study of Mixture of R290/R600 to Replace R134a in a Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: T. O. Babarinde, B. O. Bolaji, S. O. Ismaila


Interest in natural refrigerants, such as hydrocarbons has been renewed in recent years because of the environmental problems associated with synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. Due to the depletion of ozone-layer and global warming effects, synthetic refrigerants are being gradually phased out in accordance with the international protocols that aim to protect the environment. In this work, a refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) which consists of commercial propane and butane in a single evaporator domestic refrigerator with a total volume of 62 litres. In this experiment, type K thermocouples with their probes were used to measure the temperatures of four major components (evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device) of the refrigeration system. Also the system was instrumented with two pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor for measuring the suction and discharged pressures. The experiments were carried out using 40, 60, 80,100g charges and the charges were measured with a digital charging scale. Thermodynamic properties of the LPG refrigerant were determined. The results obtained showed that using LPG charge of 60g. The system COP increased with 14.6% and the power consumption reduced with 9.8% when compared with R134a. Therefore, LPG can replace R134a in domestic refrigerator.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, LPG, R134a

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20 Prediction of Binding Free Energies for Dyes Removal Using Computational Chemistry

Authors: R. Chanajaree, D. Luanwiset, K. Pongpratea


Dye removal is an environmental concern because the textile industries have been increasing by world population and industrialization. Adsorption is the technique to find adsorbents to remove dyes from wastewater. This method is low-cost and effective for dye removal. This work tries to develop effective adsorbents using the computational approach because it will be able to predict the possibility of the adsorbents for specific dyes in terms of binding free energies. The computational approach is faster and cheaper than the experimental approach in case of finding the best adsorbents. All starting structures of dyes and adsorbents are optimized by quantum calculation. The complexes between dyes and adsorbents are generated by the docking method. The obtained binding free energies from docking are compared to binding free energies from the experimental data. The calculated energies can be ranked as same as the experimental results. In addition, this work also shows the possible orientation of the complexes. This work used two experimental groups of the complexes of the dyes and adsorbents. In the first group, there are chitosan (adsorbent) and two dyes (reactive red (RR) and direct sun yellow (DY)). In the second group, there are poly(1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxy) propane (PEPP), which is the adsorbent, and 2 dyes of bromocresol green (BCG) and alizarin yellow (AY).

Keywords: dyes removal, binding free energies, quantum calculation, docking

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19 A Simulation Study for Potential Natural Gas Liquids Recovery Processes under Various Upstream Conditions

Authors: Mesfin Getu Woldetensay


Representatives and commercially viable natural gas liquids (NGLs) recovery processes were studied under various feed conditions that are classified as lean and rich. The conventional turbo- expander process scheme (ISS) was taken as a base case. The performance of this scheme was compared against with the gas sub-cooled process (GSP), cold residue-gas (CRR) and recycle split-vapor (RSV), enhanced NGL recovery process (IPSI-1) and enhanced NGL recovery process with internal refrigeration (IPSI-2). The development made for the GSP, CRR and RSV are at the top section of the demethanizer column whereas the IPSI-1 and IPSI-2 improvement focus in the lower section. HYSYS process flowsheet was initially developed for all the processes including the ISS under a common criteria that could help to demonstrate the performance comparison. Accordingly, a number of simulation runs were made for the selected eight types of feed. Results show that the reboiler duty requirement using rich feeds for GSP, CRR and RSV is quite high compared to IPSI-1 and IPSI-2. The latter shows relatively lower duty due to the presence of self-refrigeration system that allows the inlet feed to be used for achieving cooling without the need to use propane refrigerant. The energy consumption for lean feed is much lower than that of the rich feed in all process schemes.

Keywords: composition, lean, rich, duty

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18 Effect of Composition Fuel on Safety of Combustion Process

Authors: Lourdes I. Meriño, Viatcheslav Kafarov, Maria Gómez


Fuel gas used in the burner receives as contributors other gases from different processes and this result in variability in the composition, which may cause an incomplete combustion. The burners are designed to operate in a certain curve, the calorific power dependent on the pressure and gas burners. When deviation of propane and C5+ is huge, there is a large release of energy, which causes it to work out the curves of the burners, because less pressure is required to force curve into operation. That increases the risk of explosion in an oven, besides of a higher environmental impact. There should be flame detection systems, and instrumentation equipment, such as local pressure gauges located at the entrance of the gas burners, to permit verification by the operator. Additionally, distributed control systems must be configured with different combustion instruments associated with respective alarms, as well as its operational windows, and windows control guidelines of integrity, leaving the design information of this equipment. Therefore, it is desirable to analyze when a plant is taken out of service and make good operational analysis to determine the impact of changes in fuel gas streams contributors, by varying the calorific power. Hence, poor combustion is one of the cause instability in the flame of the burner and having a great impact on process safety, the integrity of individuals and teams and environment.

Keywords: combustion process, fuel composition, safety, fuel gas

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17 Reforming of CO₂-Containing Natural Gas by Using an AC Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma System

Authors: Krittiya Pornmai, Sumaeth Chavadej


The increasing in global energy demand has affected the climate change caused by the generation of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate a direct production of synthesis gas from a CO₂-containing natural gas by using gliding arc discharge plasma technology. In this research, the effects of steam reforming, combined steam reforming and partial oxidation, and using multistage gliding arc discharge system on the process performance have been discussed. The simulated natural gas used in this study contains 70% methane, 5% ethane, 5% propane, and 20% carbon dioxide. In comparison with different plasma reforming processes (under their optimum conditions), the steam reforming provides the highest H₂ selectivity resulting from the cracking reaction of steam. In addition, the combined steam reforming and partial oxidation process gives a very high CO production implying that the addition of both oxygen and steam can offer the acceptably highest synthesis gas production. The stage number of plasma reactor plays an important role in the improvement of CO₂ conversion. Moreover, 3 stage number of plasma reactor is considered as an optimum stage number for the reforming of CO₂-containing natural gas with steam and partial oxidation in term of providing low energy consumption as compared with other plasma reforming processes.

Keywords: natural gas, reforming process, gliding arc discharge, plasma technology

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