Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6155

Search results for: steady state

6155 Steady State Modeling and Simulation of an Industrial Steam Boiler

Authors: Amina Lyria Deghal Cheridi, Abla Chaker, Ahcene Loubar


Relap5 system code is one among powerful tools, which is used in the area of design and safety evaluation. This work aims to simulate the behavior of a radiant steam boiler at the steady-state conditions using Relap5 code system. To perform this study, a detailed Relap5 model is built including all the parts of the steam boiler. The control and regulation systems are also considered. To reproduce the most important parameters and phenomena with an acceptable accuracy and fidelity, a strong qualification work is undertaken concerning the facility nodalization. It consists of making a comparison between the code results and the plant available data in steady-state operation mode. Therefore, the model qualification results at the steady-state are in good agreement with the steam boiler experimental data. The steam boiler Relap5 model has proved satisfactory; and the model was capable of predicting the main thermal-hydraulic steady-state conditions of the steam boiler.

Keywords: industrial steam boiler, model qualification, natural circulation, relap5/mod3.2, steady state simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6154 Steady-State Behavior of a Multi-Phase M/M/1 Queue in Random Evolution Subject to Catastrophe Failure

Authors: Reni M. Sagayaraj, Anand Gnana S. Selvam, Reynald R. Susainathan


In this paper, we consider stochastic queueing models for Steady-state behavior of a multi-phase M/M/1 queue in random evolution subject to catastrophe failure. The arrival flow of customers is described by a marked Markovian arrival process. The service times of different type customers have a phase-type distribution with different parameters. To facilitate the investigation of the system we use a generalized phase-type service time distribution. This model contains a repair state, when a catastrophe occurs the system is transferred to the failure state. The paper focuses on the steady-state equation, and observes that, the steady-state behavior of the underlying queueing model along with the average queue size is analyzed.

Keywords: M/G/1 queuing system, multi-phase, random evolution, steady-state equation, catastrophe failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
6153 Application of the MOOD Technique to the Steady-State Euler Equations

Authors: Gaspar J. Machado, Stéphane Clain, Raphael Loubère


The goal of the present work is to numerically study steady-state nonlinear hyperbolic equations in the context of the finite volume framework. We will consider the unidimensional Burgers' equation as the reference case for the scalar situation and the unidimensional Euler equations for the vectorial situation. We consider two approaches to solve the nonlinear equations: a time marching algorithm and a direct steady-state approach. We first develop the necessary and sufficient conditions to obtain the existence and unicity of the solution. We treat regular examples and solutions with a steady shock and to provide very-high-order finite volume approximations we implement a method based on the MOOD technology (Multi-dimensional Optimal Order Detection). The main ingredient consists in using an 'a posteriori' limiting strategy to eliminate non physical oscillations deriving from the Gibbs phenomenon while keeping a high accuracy for the smooth part.

Keywords: Euler equations, finite volume, MOOD, steady-state

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
6152 On a Single Server Queue with Arrivals in Batches of Variable Size, Generalized Coxian-2 Service and Compulsory Server Vacations

Authors: Kailash C. Madan


We study the steady state behaviour of a batch arrival single server queue in which the first service with general service times is compulsory and the second service with general service times is optional. We term such a two phase service as generalized Coxian-2 service. Just after completion of a service the server must take a vacation of random length of time with general vacation times. We obtain steady state probability generating functions for the queue size as well as the steady state mean queue size at a random epoch of time in explicit and closed forms. Some particular cases of interest including some known results have been derived.

Keywords: batch arrivals, compound Poisson process, generalized Coxian-2 service, steady state

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
6151 The Evaluation of Shear Modulus (Go) Consistency State of Consolidation Cohesive Soils and Seismic Reflection Survey Using Degree of Soil Consolidation

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff


The geological formation at Limau Manis Besar area, are consist of low grade metamorphic rock and undulating mountaineers, rugged terrain and the quite steeply 45 degree slope gradient. The objectives of this paper are present the methods and devices used in measurement of P-wave velocity to estimate the initial Shear Modulus (Go) in steady state and critical state soil consolidation. The relationship between SPT-N values and the Shear Modulus (Go) at very small strain is widely considered to be evaluated. Based on the seismic reflection survey, the constant (K) poroelastic theory, mean effectives stress and primer wave velocity (Vs) increase as the soil depth increase. The steady state and critical state, Degree of Soil Consolidation(U) concept is used to interpret the behavior of Shear Modulus (Go). The relationship between Consolidation Test and Seismic Reflection Survey is also discussed.

Keywords: geological setting, shear modulus, poroelastic theory, steady state and none steady state degree of soil consolidation, consolidation test

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
6150 Evaluation of Critical State Behavior of Granular Soil in Confined Compression Tests

Authors: Rabia Chaudhry, Andrew Dawson


Identification of steady/critical state of coarse granular soil is challenging at conventional pressures. This study examines the drained and undrained triaxial tests for large strains on loose to dense, uniformly graded, Leighton Buzzard Fraction A sand. The triaxial tests are conducted under controlled test conditions. The comparison of soil behavior on shear strength characteristics at different effective stresses has been studied at the medium to large strains levels and the uniqueness of the critical state was discussed. The test results showed that there were two steady/critical state lines for drained and undrained conditions at confining pressures less than 1000 kPa. A critical state friction angle is not constant and the overall scatter in the steady/critical state line for the tested sand is ±0.01 in terms of void ratio at stress levels less than 1000 kPa.

Keywords: critical state, stress strain behavior, fabric/structure, triaxial tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
6149 Resistance to Chloride Penetration of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes: Pumice and Zeolite Effect

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Siham Kamali-Bernard, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi


This paper aims to contribute to the characterization and the understanding of fresh state, compressive strength and chloride penetration tendency of high strength self-compacting concretes (HSSCCs) where Portland cement type II is partially substituted by 10% and 15% of natural pumice and zeolite. First, five concrete mixtures with a control mixture without any pozzolan are prepared and tested in both fresh and hardened states. Then, resistance to chloride penetration for all formulation is investigated in non-steady state and steady state by measurement of chloride penetration and diffusion coefficient. In non-steady state, the correlation between initial current and chloride penetration with diffusion coefficient is studied. Moreover, the relationship between diffusion coefficient in non-steady state and electrical resistivity is determined. The concentration of free chloride ions is also measured in steady state. Finally, chloride penetration for all formulation is studied in immersion and tidal condition. The result shows that, the resistance to chloride penetration for HSSCC in immersion and tidal condition increases by incorporating pumice and zeolite. However, concrete with zeolite displays a better resistance. This paper shows that the HSSCC with 15% pumice and 10% zeolite is suitable in fresh, hardened, and durability characteristics.

Keywords: Chloride penetration, immersion, pumice, HSSCC, tidal, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
6148 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi


Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: Fourier number, Nusselt number, Rayleigh number, steady state, transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
6147 Unsteady and Steady State in Natural Convection

Authors: Syukri Himran, Erwin Eka Putra, Nanang Roni


This study explains the natural convection of viscous fluid flowing on semi-infinite vertical plate. A set of the governing equations describing the continuity, momentum and energy, have been reduced to dimensionless forms by introducing the references variables. To solve the problems, the equations are formulated by explicit finite-difference in time dependent form and computations are performed by Fortran program. The results describe velocity, temperature profiles both in transient and steady state conditions. An approximate value of heat transfer coefficient and the effects of Pr on convection flow are also presented.

Keywords: natural convection, vertical plate, velocity and temperature profiles, steady and unsteady

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
6146 A Steady State Characteristics of Four-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Couple Stress Fluids in Turbulent Flow Regime

Authors: Boualem Chetti, Samir Zahaf


This paper presents the steady-state performance analysis of a four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids operating in the turbulent regime, following Constantinescu’s turbulent lubrication theory. The modified Reynolds equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method taking into consideration the effects of the turbulence and the couple stress. In this analysis, the steady-state parameters in terms of the attitude angle, load carrying capacity, side leakage and friction coefficient are determined at various values of eccentricities ratio. The computed results show that the turbulence increases the load carrying capacity, the attitude angle and the friction coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a Newtonian or a couple stress fluids. It is found that the turbulence has strongly influence on the steady-state performances of the four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with Newtonian fluids or a couple stress fluids.

Keywords: Four-lobe journal bearings, static characteristics, couple-stress fluids, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
6145 Study of Performance Based Parameters on Sprint Interval Training and Steady State Run: Trained Young Female

Authors: Abdul Latif Shaikh, Osama Kattos


Purpose: The study compared the effects of intra and inter group short duration intensity training and long duration steady state-run training on the cardiovascular performance on female athletes. Method: Twenty trained young female athletes age between 17 to 20 years were randomly selected to participate in the test. The sprint interval training (n-10) program consisted of 5 min sprints and steady state run (n-10) conducted for 30 min. Both groups completed eight sessions of training within four weeks. Result: In intragroup distribution of mean % change in all the variables from week 4 to week 1 did not differ significantly (p-value > 0.05). The inter-group means value of post resting heart rate, max oxygen consumption (VO2max), and calorie expenditure in sprint interval training was higher with compared with steady state run. Conclusion: The comparative mean value of the intergroups program concludes that the SIT program is superior to SSR in performance-based variables in trained young females. The SIT program can be applied as a time-efficient program for improving performance.

Keywords: calorie expenditure, maximum rate of oxygen consumption, post recovery HR (1-4-7 min), time domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
6144 Steady State and Accelerated Decay Rate Evaluations of Membrane Electrode Assembly of PEM Fuel Cells

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Lung-Yu Sung, Huan-Jyun Ciou


Durability of Membrane Electrode Assembly for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells was evaluated in both steady state and accelerated decay modes. Steady state mode was carried out at constant current of 800mA / cm2 for 2500 hours using air as cathode feed and pure hydrogen as anode feed. The degradation of the cell voltage was 0.015V after such 2500 hrs operation. The degradation rate was therefore calculated to be 6uV / hr. Accelerated mode was carried out by switching the voltage of the single cell between OCV and 0.2V. The durations held at OCV and 0.2V were 20 and 40 seconds, respectively, meaning one minute per cycle. No obvious change in performance of the MEA was observed after 10000 cycles of such operation.

Keywords: durability, lifetime, membrane electrode assembly, proton exchange membrane fuel cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
6143 Analyzing Current Transformer’s Transient and Steady State Behavior for Different Burden’s Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, D. Sharma


Current transformers (CTs) are used to transform large primary currents to a small secondary current. Since most standard equipment’s are not designed to handle large primary currents the CTs have an important part in any electrical system for the purpose of Metering and Protection both of which are integral in Power system. Now a days due to advancement in solid state technology, the operation times of the protective relays have come to a few cycles from few seconds. Thus, in such a scenario it becomes important to study the transient response of the current transformers as it will play a vital role in the operating of the protective devices. This paper shows the steady state and transient behavior of current transformers and how it changes with change in connected burden. The transient and steady state response will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy, accuracy limiting factor, burden, current transformer, instrument security factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
6142 On Four Models of a Three Server Queue with Optional Server Vacations

Authors: Kailash C. Madan


We study four models of a three server queueing system with Bernoulli schedule optional server vacations. Customers arriving at the system one by one in a Poisson process are provided identical exponential service by three parallel servers according to a first-come, first served queue discipline. In model A, all three servers may be allowed a vacation at one time, in Model B at the most two of the three servers may be allowed a vacation at one time, in model C at the most one server is allowed a vacation, and in model D no server is allowed a vacation. We study steady the state behavior of the four models and obtain steady state probability generating functions for the queue size at a random point of time for all states of the system. In model D, a known result for a three server queueing system without server vacations is derived.

Keywords: a three server queue, Bernoulli schedule server vacations, queue size distribution at a random epoch, steady state

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
6141 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

Authors: K. Benhabib, X. Pierens, V-D Nguyen, G. Mimanne


The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

Keywords: pesticide, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods, steady state, analytical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
6140 Transient/Steady Natural Convective Flow of Reactive Viscous Fluid in Vertical Porous Pipe

Authors: Ahmad K. Samaila, Basant K. Jha


This paper presents the effects of suction/injection of transient/steady natural convection flow of reactive viscous fluid in a vertical porous pipe. The mathematical model capturing the time dependent flow of viscous reactive fluid is solved using implicit finite difference method while the corresponding steady state model is solved using regular perturbation technique. Results of analytical and numerical solutions are reported for various parametric conditions to illustrate special features of the solutions. The coefficient of skin friction and rate of heat transfer are obtained and illustrated graphically. The numerical solution is shown to be in excellent agreement with the closed form analytical solution. It is interesting to note that time required to reach steady state is higher in case of injection in comparison to suction.

Keywords: porous pipe, reactive viscous fluid, transient natural-convective flow, analytical solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
6139 Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc

Authors: Minto Rattan, Tania Bose, Neeraj Chamoli


The present paper investigates the effect of linear thermal gradient on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate has been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for discs rotating at linear thermal gradation using von Mises’ yield criterion. The material parameters have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said temperature profile with the disc operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: creep, isotropic, steady-state, thermal gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
6138 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

Authors: Zakir Husain, Neem Sagar, Neeraj Gupta


Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution network, radial network, wind turbine generating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
6137 On the PTC Thermistor Model with a Hyperbolic Tangent Electrical Conductivity

Authors: M. O. Durojaye, J. T. Agee


This paper is on the one-dimensional, positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor model with a hyperbolic tangent function approximation for the electrical conductivity. The method of asymptotic expansion was adopted to obtain the steady state solution and the unsteady-state response was obtained using the method of lines (MOL) which is a well-established numerical technique. The approach is to reduce the partial differential equation to a vector system of ordinary differential equations and solve numerically. Our analysis shows that the hyperbolic tangent approximation introduced is well suitable for the electrical conductivity. Numerical solutions obtained also exhibit correct physical characteristics of the thermistor and are in good agreement with the exact steady state solutions.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, hyperbolic tangent function, PTC thermistor, method of lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
6136 Effects of Initial State on Opinion Formation in Complex Social Networks with Noises

Authors: Yi Yu, Vu Xuan Nguyen, Gaoxi Xiao


Opinion formation in complex social networks may exhibit complex system dynamics even when based on some simplest system evolution models. An interesting and important issue is the effects of the initial state on the final steady-state opinion distribution. By carrying out extensive simulations and providing necessary discussions, we show that, while different initial opinion distributions certainly make differences to opinion evolution in social systems without noises, in systems with noises, given enough time, different initial states basically do not contribute to making any significant differences in the final steady state. Instead, it is the basal distribution of the preferred opinions that contributes to deciding the final state of the systems. We briefly explain the reasons leading to the observed conclusions. Such an observation contradicts with a long-term belief on the roles of system initial state in opinion formation, demonstrating the dominating role that opinion mutation can play in opinion formation given enough time. The observation may help to better understand certain observations of opinion evolution dynamics in real-life social networks.

Keywords: opinion formation, Deffuant model, opinion mutation, consensus making

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
6135 Power System Modeling for Calculations in Frequency and Steady State Domain

Authors: G. Levacic, A. Zupan


Application of new technological solutions and installation of new elements into the network requires special attention when investigating its interaction with the existing power system. Special attention needs to be devoted to the occurrence of harmonic resonance. Sources of increasing harmonic penetration could be wind power plants, Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices, underground and submarine cable installations etc. Calculation in frequency domain with various software, for example, the software for power systems transients EMTP-RV presents one of the most common ways to obtain the harmonic impedance of the system. Along calculations in frequency domain, such software allows performing of different type of calculations as well as steady-state domain. This paper describes a power system modeling with software EMTP-RV based on data from SCADA/EMS system. The power flow results on 220 kV and 400 kV voltage levels retrieved from EMTP-RV are verified by comparing with power flow results from power transmissions system planning software PSS/E. The determination of the harmonic impedance for the case of remote power plant connection with cable up to 2500 Hz is presented as an example of calculations in frequency domain.

Keywords: power system modeling, frequency domain, steady state, EMTP-RV, PSS/E

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
6134 Output Voltage Analysis of CMOS Colpitts Oscillator with Short Channel Device

Authors: Maryam Ebrahimpour, Amir Ebrahimi


This paper presents the steady-state amplitude analysis of MOS Colpitts oscillator with short channel device. The proposed method is based on a large signal analysis and the nonlinear differential equations that govern the oscillator circuit behaviour. Also, the short channel effects are considered in the proposed analysis and analytical equations for finding the steady-state oscillation amplitude are derived. The output voltage calculated from this analysis is in excellent agreement with simulations for a wide range of circuit parameters.

Keywords: colpitts oscillator, CMOS, electronics, circuits

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
6133 Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency

Authors: Md Monir Hossain, Anne Staples, Kuya Takami, Tomonari Furukawa


Tire noise has a significant impact on ride quality and vehicle interior comfort, even at low frequency. Reduction of tire noise is especially important due to strict state and federal environmental regulations. The primary sources of tire noise are the low frequency structure-borne noise and the noise that originates from the release of trapped air between the tire tread and road surface during each revolution of the tire. The frequency response of the tire changes at low and high frequency. At low frequency, the tension and bending moment become dominant, while the internal structure and local deformation become dominant at higher frequencies. Here, we analyze tire response in terms of deformation and rolling velocity at low revolution frequency. An Abaqus FEA finite element model is used to calculate the static and dynamic response of a rolling tire under different rolling conditions. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed tire are calculated with the FEA package where the subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis calculates dynamic response of tire subjected to harmonic excitation. The analysis was conducted on the dynamic response at the road (contact point of tire and road surface) and side nodes of a static and rolling tire when the tire was excited with 200 N vertical load for a frequency ranging from 20 to 200 Hz. The results show that frequency has little effect on tire deformation up to 80 Hz. But between 80 and 200 Hz, the radial and lateral components of displacement of the road and side nodes exhibited significant oscillation. For the static analysis, the fluctuation was sharp and frequent and decreased with frequency. In contrast, the fluctuation was periodic in nature for the dynamic response of the rolling tire. In addition to the dynamic analysis, a steady state rolling analysis was also performed on the tire traveling at ground velocity with a constant angular motion. The purpose of the computation was to demonstrate the effect of rotating motion on deformation and rolling velocity with respect to a fixed Newtonian reference point. The analysis showed a significant variation in deformation and rolling velocity due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration with respect to a fixed Newtonian point on ground.

Keywords: natural frequency, rotational motion, steady state rolling, subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
6132 Investigating Undrained Behavior of Noor Sand Using Triaxial Compression Test

Authors: Hossein Motaghedi, Siavash Salamatpoor, Abbas Mokhtari


Noor costal city which is located in Mazandaran province, Iran, regularly visited by many tourists. Accordingly, many tall building and heavy structures are going to be constructed over this coastal area. This region is overlaid by poorly graded clean sand and because of high water level, is susceptible to liquefaction. In this study, undrained triaxial tests under isotropic consolidation were conducted on the reconstituted samples of Noor sand, which underlies a densely populated, seismic region of southern bank of Caspian Sea. When the strain level is large enough, soil samples under shearing tend to be in a state of continuous deformation under constant shear and normal stresses. There exists a correlation between the void ratio and mean effective principal stress, which is referred to as the ultimate steady state line (USSL). Soil behavior can be achieved by expressing the state of effective confining stress and defining the location of this point relative to the steady state line. Therefore, one can say that sand behavior not only is dependent to relative density but also a description of stress state has to be defined. The current study tries to investigate behavior of this sand under different conditions such as confining effective stress and relative density using undrained monotonic triaxial compression tests. As expected, the analyzed results show that the sand behavior varies from dilative to contractive state while initial isotropic effective stress increases. Therefore, confining effective stress level will directly affect the overall behavior of sand. The observed behavior obtained from the conducted tests is then compared with some previously tested sands including Yamuna, Ganga, and Toyoura.

Keywords: noor sand, liquefaction, undrained test, steady state

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
6131 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn


The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: absorption, distillation, heat pump, Unisim design

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
6130 Optimizing the Performance of Thermoelectric for Cooling Computer Chips Using Different Types of Electrical Pulses

Authors: Saleh Alshehri


Thermoelectric technology is currently being used in many industrial applications for cooling, heating and generating electricity. This research mainly focuses on using thermoelectric to cool down high-speed computer chips at different operating conditions. A previously developed and validated three-dimensional model for optimizing and assessing the performance of cascaded thermoelectric and non-cascaded thermoelectric is used in this study to investigate the possibility of decreasing the hotspot temperature of computer chip. Additionally, a test assembly is built and tested at steady-state and transient conditions. The obtained optimum thermoelectric current at steady-state condition is used to conduct a number of pulsed tests (i.e. transient tests) with different shapes to cool the computer chips hotspots. The results of the steady-state tests showed that at hotspot heat rate of 15.58 W (5.97 W/cm2), using thermoelectric current of 4.5 A has resulted in decreasing the hotspot temperature at open circuit condition (89.3 °C) by 50.1 °C. Maximum and minimum hotspot temperatures have been affected by ON and OFF duration of the electrical current pulse. Maximum hotspot temperature was resulted by longer OFF pulse period. In addition, longer ON pulse period has generated the minimum hotspot temperature.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, TEG, thermoelectric cooler, TEC, chip hotspots, electronic cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
6129 Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Transpiration on Transient/Steady Natural Convection Flow of Reactive Viscous Fluid in a Vertical Channel Formed by Two Vertical Porous Plates

Authors: Ahmad K. Samaila, Basant K. Jha


This study is devoted to investigate the effect of transpiration on transient as well as steady-state natural convection flow of a reactive viscous fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite vertical parallel porous plates. The Boussinesq assumption is applied and the nonlinear governing equations of energy and momentum are developed. The problem is solved numerically using implicit finite difference method and analytically for steady-state case using perturbation method. Solutions are presented in graphical form for fluid temperature, velocity, and skin-friction and wall heat transfer rate for various parametric values. It is found that velocity, temperature, rate of heat transfer as well as skin-friction are strongly affected by mass leakage through the porous plates.

Keywords: transpiration, reactive viscous fluid, porous plates, natural convection, suction/injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
6128 Self-Tuning Dead-Beat PD Controller for Pitch Angle Control of a Bench-Top Helicopter

Authors: H. Mansor, S.B. Mohd-Noor, N. I. Othman, N. Tazali, R. I. Boby


This paper presents an improved robust Proportional Derivative controller for a 3-Degree-of-Freedom (3-DOF) bench-top helicopter by using adaptive methodology. Bench-top helicopter is a laboratory scale helicopter used for experimental purposes which is widely used in teaching laboratory and research. Proportional Derivative controller has been developed for a 3-DOF bench-top helicopter by Quanser. Experiments showed that the transient response of designed PD controller has very large steady state error i.e., 50%, which is very serious. The objective of this research is to improve the performance of existing pitch angle control of PD controller on the bench-top helicopter by integration of PD controller with adaptive controller. Usually standard adaptive controller will produce zero steady state error; however response time to reach desired set point is large. Therefore, this paper proposed an adaptive with deadbeat algorithm to overcome the limitations. The output response that is fast, robust and updated online is expected. Performance comparisons have been performed between the proposed self-tuning deadbeat PD controller and standard PD controller. The efficiency of the self-tuning dead beat controller has been proven from the tests results in terms of faster settling time, zero steady state error and capability of the controller to be updated online.

Keywords: adaptive control, deadbeat control, bench-top helicopter, self-tuning control

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
6127 Effect of Anisotropy on Steady Creep in a Whisker Reinforced Functionally Graded Composite Disc

Authors: V. K. Gupta, Tejeet Singh


In many whisker reinforced composites, anisotropy may result due to material flow during processing operations such as forging, extrusion etc. The consequence of anisotropy, introduced during processing of disc material, has been investigated on the steady state creep deformations of the rotating disc. The disc material is assumed to undergo plastic deformations according to Hill’s anisotropic criterion. Steady state creep has been analyzed in a constant thickness rotating disc made of functionally graded 6061Al-SiCw (where the subscript ‘w’ stands for whisker) using Hill’s The content of reinforcement (SiCw) in the disc is assumed to decrease linearly from the inner to outer radius. The stresses and strain rates in the disc are estimated by solving the force equilibrium equation along with the constitutive equations describing multi-axial creep. The results obtained for anisotropic FGM disc have been compared with those estimated for isotropic FGM disc having the same average whisker content. The anisotropic constants, appearing in Hill’s yield criterion, have been obtained from the available experimental results. The results show that the presence of anisotropy reduces the tangential stress in the middle of the disc but near the inner and outer radii the tangential stress is higher when compared to isotropic disc. On the other hand, the steady state creep rates in the anisotropic disc are reduced significantly over the entire disc radius, with the maximum reduction observed at the inner radius. Further, in the presence of anisotropy the distribution of strain rate becomes relatively uniform over the entire disc, which may be responsible for reducing the extent of distortion in the disc.

Keywords: anisotropy, creep, functionally graded composite, rotating disc

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
6126 Modeling the Effect of Thermal Gradation on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc Made of Functionally Graded Material

Authors: Tania Bose, Minto Rattan, Neeraj Chamoli


In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of thermal gradation on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc made of functionally graded material using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate have been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for the discs rotating at elevated temperatures having thermal gradation. The material parameters of creep vary radially and have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. Investigations for discs made up of linearly increasing particle content operating under linearly decreasing temperature from inner to outer radii have been done using von Mises’ yield criterion. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said disc profile with the disc made of particle reinforced composite operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: creep, isotropic, steady-state, thermal gradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 170